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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 26 — Dec. 22, 2008
  • pp: 21522–21528
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Reduction of patterning effects in SOA-based wavelength converters by combining cross-gain and cross-absorption modulation

Enbo Zhou, Filip Öhman, Cheng Cheng, Xinliang Zhang, Wei Hong, Jesper Mørk, and Dexiu Huang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 26, pp. 21522-21528 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.021522


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Abstract

A scheme for mitigating patterning effects in wavelength conversion by using a concatenated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is proposed. The optimization of the parameters of the semiconductor devices and receiver electronics is theoretically investigated. The bit error ratio (BER) of the output signals in both the co-propagating and the counter-propagating configurations is quantitatively evaluated. The simulation results indicate that the patterning effect in wavelength conversion due to the slow recovery of the carrier density in the SOA can be well compensated by a concatenated EAM. The simulation results are confirmed by preliminary pump-probe experiment using a 10Gb/s clock pulse train.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Semiconductor devices, due to their strong and controllable nonlinear characteristics and the potential for compact integrated devices, attract a lot of attention for use in optical signal processing. Among those, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) have been most widely investigated. The SOA and EAM have almost opposite optical modulation characteristics and have the potential to be combined to perform signal processing. K. Inoue [1

1. K. Inoue, “Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 376–378 (1998). [CrossRef]

] first reported that the waveform distortion can be well compensated by using a concatenated SOA and EAM. Experimental and theoretical investigation of 2R regeneration based on SOA and EAM chip was reported recently [2

2. T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, “10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE , 806–807 (2007).

4

4. F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 18, 1067C1069 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Also, pulse delay and speed-up have been experimentally observed recently in a cascaded quantum well gain and absorber media [5

5. P. L. Hansen, M. V. Poel, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Experimental Observation of Pulse Delay and Speed-up in Cascaded QuantumWell Gain and Absorber Media,” in Slow and Fast Light, (Optical Society of America, 2008), JMB11.

]. A monolithic chip consisting of periodic SOA and saturable absorber (SA) sections was theoretically and experimentally investigated very recently [6

6. M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, “Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910–922 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, “Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360–369 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It’s noted that the cascaded SOA and EAM have not been investigated for wavelength conversion. The so called “Turbo-switch” [8

8. R. J. Manning, X. Yang, R. P. Webb, R. Giller, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and A. D. Ellis, “The turbo-switch - a novel technique to increase the high-speed response of SOAs for wavelength conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, (2006).

], with two cascaded SOAs and an optical bandpass filter (OBF) between them to block the pump pulse, has been shown to mitigate patterning effects and achieves large signal gain at the same time. However, this scheme shows limited improvement of the modulation depth and accumulates large amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise at the output. In this letter, a scheme for mitigation of patterning effect in wavelength conversion by a cascaded SOA and EAM is proposed with preliminary experimental proof of concept by using a 10GHz clock pulse train. The optimization of the parameters of the semiconductor devices and the receiver electronics is theoretically investigated by numerical simulation. Co-propagating and counter-propagating configurations are quantitatively investigated with consideration of noise from both the optical devices and the receiver electronics.

Fig. 1. Illustration of (a) the gain of the probe light in the SOA in response of a short pump pulse, (b) the gain in the EAM and (c) the superposition of the combined output. (d) shows the normalized measured output power for a single SOA (red curve) and the SOA+EAM configuration (green curve). The pump signal is a 10GHz clock pulse train.

2. The principle and the experimental set-up

Figures 1(a)–1(c) schematically show the principle for mitigation of patterning effect by the cascaded SOA and EAM. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) illustrate the gain dynamics of the SOA and the EAM, respectively, after an ultrashort pump pulse. The gain recovery in the SOA includes an ultrafast part, due to spectral-hole burning (SHB) and carrier heating (CH) [9

9. A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, “Saturation induced by picosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 761 (1997). [CrossRef]

11

11. J. Mørk and J. Mark, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: experiments and modeling,” Proceedings of SPIE.Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III , Marek Osinski and Weng W. Chow, Editors 2399, 146–159 (1995).

], and a relatively slow part, due to carrier density relaxation, with response times of a picosecond or less and hundreds of picoseconds, respectively. The incident pump pulse launched into the EAM introduces a reduction in absorption, due to the saturation effect in the EAM, which just like the SOA has a slow relaxation time but has the opposite effect on the probe signal intensity and hence compensates the slow recovery part in the probe waveform. Figure 1(c) shows the superposition of the combined output in a well compensated situation. Figure 1(d) shows preliminary experimental results illustrating the basic principle. A 10GHz clock pulse train and a cascaded SOA and EAM operated in a counter-propagating configuration are used in the experiment, which will be introduced shortly. The red trace and the green trace display the normalized output from the SOA and the cascaded SOA and EAM, respectively. Comparing the two outputs, it is clear that the EAM compensates the slow recovery of the carrier density in the SOA. It’s worthy to note that improvement of extinction ratio (ER) can be expected in pass-through situation (just data, no probe) where the ER is greatly improved by adding an EAM to the SOA [2

2. T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, “10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE , 806–807 (2007).

, 4

4. F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 18, 1067C1069 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However, in our proposed scheme, the EAM concatenated after the SOA is used to extract the ultrafast duration due to the intraband dynamics of the SOA in the XGM. The results show that, there is no direct improvement on the ER of the SOA-EAM converter compared to a single SOA when the pump signal is modulated at a low bitrate. Because of the slow sampling rate of the oscilloscope used in the experiment, the shape of the observed dark pulse is broadened. It is expected to have the same width as the pump pulses for the present case of 2ps long pulses. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the experimental set-up for wavelength conversion using co-propagating and counter-propagating configurations, respectively. The ultrashort pump pulses are emitted from a mode locked laser (MLL) at 1550nm with a pulse width of 2ps and a repetition rate of 10GHz. In Fig.2(a) (co-propagating configuration) the pulse train is amplified by an EDFA and coupled into the cascaded SOA and EAM together with a CW probe beam at 1540nm having a power of 3dBm. The energy of the pump pulses is controlled by a variable attenuator. The pump beam is blocked by an OBF after the EAM. In Fig.2(b) (counter-propagating configuration), after amplification to 18dBm by an EDFA, the pump pulses are split into two beams. One beam is attenuated and launched into the SOA together with the CW probe light. The pump beam is then blocked by an OBF between the SOA and the EAM. The

other pump beam is also attenuated, delayed by a few picoseconds and launched into the rear facet of the EAM via an optical circulator. As a result, a counter-propagating configuration between the pump and probe beams is used in the EAM. In this case, the pulse incident on the rear facet of the EAM is delayed in order to coincide with the ultrafast recovery edge of the waveform of the probe light incident from the front facet of the EAM. By regulating the delay time, an even larger improvement on the quality of the output signal can be expected for the counter-propagating configuration, compared to the co-propagating one in which the delay time cannot be regulated. Eventually, in both cases, the probe light output from the EAM is detected by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and a communication spectrum analyzer (CSA).

Fig. 2. Experimental set-up for wavelength conversion using cascaded SOA and EAM in (a) co-propagating configuration and (b) counter-propagating configuration.

3. Numerical simulation

A phenomenological model including SHB and CH reported by Nielsen in [12

12. M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, R. Suzuki, J. Sakaguchi, and Y. Ueno, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of the impact of ultra-fast carrier dynamics on high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches,” Opt. Express 14, 331–347 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-331 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is used in this paper for the SOA. With a slight modification, the spontaneous emission noise originating from each section in the SOA is represented approximately by a CW beam propagating inside the amplifier and depleting carriers. As a result, there are three beams propagating in the SOA. The EAM is assumed to have the same structure as the SOA but with an applied reverse bias voltage. In our case, the EAM and the SOA are both bulk material devices. The EAM model is the same as for the SOA but with negative gain and an effective sweep-out time instead of the carrier life time. In this simplification, only band-filling effect contributes to the absorption of the device and the Franz-Keldysh effect is neglected in our calculation. This simplification tallies very well with the week field and relative long sweep-out time of the EAM that are needed for optimum device operation, as will be shown below. For these reasons, the ultrafast effects and the spontaneous emission are omitted in the EAM model. And this assumption is also experimentally and theoretically verified to be reasonable and valid in [13

13. Francis Romstad, “Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers,” PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark , 84–86 (2002).

15

15. S. Højfeldt, S. Bischoff, and J. Mørk, “All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1121–1127 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In the following simulations, the carrier lifetime of the SOA and length of the SOA are kept constant at 100ps and 1000µm, respectively. The current injection density is set to 50kA=cm 2, resulting in a steady state gain of 10.2dB and an ASE power within the considered bandwidth of approximate 0.1mW. The sweep-out time of the EAM is considered to depend exponentially on the applied inverse voltage [13

13. Francis Romstad, “Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers,” PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark , 84–86 (2002).

17

17. F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain,” Opt. Express 14, 9955–9962 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9955 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], reflecting the major contribution from field-induced carrier sweep-out to the recovery process. The pump signal consists of a 40Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with 27-1 bits. The individual pulse energy is 200fj and the pulse train has an infinite extinction ratio. The probe light is a CW beam with power of 0dBm. The pulse energy incident into the rear facet of the EAM is set to 400fj in the counter-propagating configuration to co-incide with the pump pulses transmitted through the SOA in co-propagating configuration. The output probe light is attenuated first, then detected and at last low-pass filtered by a fifth-order Bessel filter. The noise in the signal channel comes from the signal-dependent part, with contribution from the signal-ASE beat noise, and the signal-independent part, with contribution from the ASE-ASE beat noise and the noise from the electric circuit. The electrical noise is described by an additive equivalent noise current density of N0=12pAHz. Finally, the signal is sampled and applied to a threshold decision circuit. The bit error ratio (BER) is calculated utilizing the quasi-analytical method describled in [18

18. M. Pauer, P. J. Winter, and W. R. Leeb, “Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1255–1262 (2001). [CrossRef]

], where estimates do not rely on the occurrence of errors but rather on the calculation of error probabilities, given by

BER=12m1{j=12m112erfc[i1jith2σ1,j]+j=12m1112erfc[ithi0,j2σ0,j]}
(1)

where 2m-1 is the bit sequence length, in our case m=7. The value of the complementary error function (erfc) for each bit “1” and bit “0” is calculated using the photocurrent {i 1; j; i 0; j}, its variance {σ1; j0; j} and the decision threshold i th. The noise equivalent bandwidth of the receiver electronics as well as the decision threshold ith are optimized to achieve minimum BER for different propagating configurations, device lengths and values of sweep-out time of the EAM. The final results indicate that the optimized noise equivalent bandwidth of the receiver electronics is proportional to the bitrate of the transmitter simulated in the system.This conclusion is also validated in [18

18. M. Pauer, P. J. Winter, and W. R. Leeb, “Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1255–1262 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. As a result, the optimized value of the noise equivalent bandwidth of the receiver electronics increases with the increase of the bitrate of the system.

Fig. 3. (a)The power penalty estimated at the output attributed to a concatenated SOAEAM at a BER of 10-9 is compared to a single SOA and (b) the pulse gain response versus the sweep-out time of the EAM for different propagating configurations and lengths of the EAM. The SOA length is fixed at 1000µm and the bitrate is 40Gb/s. The inset in (b) shows how the normalized combined output varies with time in the counter-propagating configuration in a well compensated situation.

Figure 3(a) shows the power penalty attributed to a concatenated SOA-EAM versus the sweep-out time of the EAM for different EAM lengths at a BER of 10-9, comparing to the case of a single SOA. Because the delay time of the pump pulse incident from the rear facet of the EAM can be regulated to synchronize the recovery of the gain in the SOA, even larger eye opening of the output eye-diagram, resulting in larger improvement of the output signal quality is obtained in the counter-propagating configuration. On the other hand, it is much easier and more reliable in practice to monolithically integrate all the components for co-propagating configuration. As a result, the counter-propagating configuration manifests its strong potential by achieving the minimum power penalty of -5.1dB. The optimum sweep-out times for the 120µm and 160µm long EAMs are approximately three and five hundreds picoseconds, respectively. The reason for such two different values optimized sweep-out time can be explained by Fig.3(b) where the normalized pulse response of the cascaded structure is estimated. The normalized pulse response is defined as the normalized value of the maximum power of the recovered probe light with an incident pump pulse train normalized to the initial output probe power without an incident pump pulse. From the principle of compensation explained in connection with Figs.1(a-c), it is clear that a well compensated situation corresponds to the case where the combined output recovers to the initial power level after each incident pulse, i.e., when the pulse signal response is equal to one. Consequently, the local extreme of the data array plotted in Fig.3(a) reflect the situation alternating between undercompensation and overcompensation induced by the EAM in Fig.3(b). The best compensation is realized when the curve crosses amplitude equal to unity, where the situation changes from overcompensation to undercompensation by increasing the sweep-out time. At this point, due to the relatively moderate recovery of absorption in the EAM biased under week voltage, the tail of the combined output is relatively flat and the overshoot is also eliminated simultaneously. Furthermore, due to the week voltage applied to the EAM in the optimized situation, the final output optical power is still large enough, e.g. around 0dBm The bitrate limitation of the proposed scheme is also evaluated.

Fig. 4. The BER of the output probe light versus the bitrate for different configurations. The eye-diagrams are corresponding to the co-propagating configuration (co.), counter-propagating configuration (count.) and without EAM (W/O) at the bitrate of 10Gb/s, 80Gb/s and 160Gb/s, respectively.

Figure 4 shows the BER of the detected signal versus bit rate. The pump signal consists of the same data patterns and Gaussian pulses as previously. The optimized parameters of the devices calculated previously at 40Gb/s are used for all bitrates in the following simulation. The reason for this will be explained shortly. The crossed line in Fig.4 represents the BER of the detected signal after a 1000µm SOA. The squares and the circles in Fig.4 show the BER calculated for a concatenated 1000µm SOA and a 120µm EAM in co-propagating and counter-propagating configuration, respectively. The BER is calculated for -8dBm optical power after attenuation. It is shown in Fig.4 that for low bitrate the SOA achieves better BER performance than the cascaded devices. The reason is that the pulse period is much longer than the gain recovery time in the SOA. As a result, the signal suffers little patterning effect in the SOA at low repetition bitrates. However, with increasing bit rate the quality of the output signal will greatly decrease due to the slow recovery of the carrier density in the SOA. In comparison, the BER increases slower with the bit rate for our proposed scheme. The crossing of the curves, together with the eye diagrams in the insets of Fig.4, indicate that the additional EAM compensates the patterning of the SOA and allows higher bit rates. For perfect compensation of the patterning the limitation of the modulation speed of the cascaded SOA and EAM is only dependent on the ultrafast recovery of the gain in the SOA and the width of the pump pulses.

4. Conclusion

A simple but effective scheme for mitigation of patterning effects in wavelength conversion by using a concatenated SOA and EAM is proposed. The improvement of the quality of the signal detected by the receiver is estimated. Simulation results indicate that the sweep-out time of the EAM, as one of the key parameters, can be regulated to effectively mitigate the patterning effect caused by the SOA for different lengths of the concatenated EAM. A large improvement of the quality of the output signal can be achieved at high bit rates using this scheme. Furthermore, the modeling of the basic dynamics of the proposed scheme is confirmed by preliminary pump-probe measurements using a 10GHz clock pulse train.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2006AA03Z0414), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60877056 and No. 60707005) and the China Scholarship Council.

References and links

1.

K. Inoue, “Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 34, 376–378 (1998). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, “10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE , 806–807 (2007).

3.

F. Öhman and J. Mørk, “Modeling of bit error rate in cascaded 2R regenerators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1057–1063 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 18, 1067C1069 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

P. L. Hansen, M. V. Poel, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Experimental Observation of Pulse Delay and Speed-up in Cascaded QuantumWell Gain and Absorber Media,” in Slow and Fast Light, (Optical Society of America, 2008), JMB11.

6.

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, “Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910–922 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, “Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360–369 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

R. J. Manning, X. Yang, R. P. Webb, R. Giller, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and A. D. Ellis, “The turbo-switch - a novel technique to increase the high-speed response of SOAs for wavelength conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, (2006).

9.

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, “Saturation induced by picosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 761 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, “Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443–446 (1992). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Mørk and J. Mark, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: experiments and modeling,” Proceedings of SPIE.Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III , Marek Osinski and Weng W. Chow, Editors 2399, 146–159 (1995).

12.

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, R. Suzuki, J. Sakaguchi, and Y. Ueno, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of the impact of ultra-fast carrier dynamics on high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches,” Opt. Express 14, 331–347 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-331 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Francis Romstad, “Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers,” PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark , 84–86 (2002).

14.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676–678 (1994). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Højfeldt, S. Bischoff, and J. Mørk, “All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1121–1127 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, and K. Yvind, “Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 13, 8136–8145 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8136 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain,” Opt. Express 14, 9955–9962 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9955 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Pauer, P. J. Winter, and W. R. Leeb, “Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1255–1262 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers
(230.7405) Optical devices : Wavelength conversion devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: September 16, 2008
Revised Manuscript: November 11, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 19, 2008
Published: December 15, 2008

Citation
Enbo Zhou, Filip Öhman, Cheng Cheng, Xinliang Zhang, Wei Hong, Jesper Mørk, and Dexiu Huang, "Reduction of patterning effects in SOA-based wavelength converters by combining cross-gain and cross-absorption modulation," Opt. Express 16, 21522-21528 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21522


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References

  1. K. Inoue, "Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 34, 376-378 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, "10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, 806-807 (2007).
  3. F. Öhman and J. Mørk, "Modeling of bit error rate in cascaded 2R regenerators," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1057-1063 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Hansen, M. V. Poel, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Experimental Observation of Pulse Delay and Speed-up in Cascaded QuantumWell Gain and Absorber Media," in Slow and Fast Light, (Optical Society of America, 2008), JMB11.
  6. M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Manning, X. Yang, R. P. Webb, R. Giller, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and A. D. Ellis, "The turbo-switch -a novel technique to increase the high-speed response of SOAs for wavelength conversion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, (2006).
  9. A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, "Saturation induced by picosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers " J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 761 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Mørk and J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: experiments and modeling," Proceedings of SPIE.Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III, Marek Osinski, Weng W. Chow, Editors 2399, 146-159 (1995).
  12. M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, R. Suzuki, J. Sakaguchi, and Y. Ueno, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the impact of ultra-fast carrier dynamics on high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches," Opt. Express 14, 331-347 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-331 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Francis Romstad, "Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers," PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, 84-86 (2002).
  14. J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Højfeldt, S. Bischoff, and J. Mørk, "All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1121-1127 (2000). [CrossRef]
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