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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 7 — Mar. 31, 2008
  • pp: 4952–4959
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Mid-infrared Cr2+:ZnSe random powder lasers

C. Kim, D.V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 7, pp. 4952-4959 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.004952


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Abstract

We report simple methods of laser active Cr2+:ZnSe powder fabrication with average grain sizes of either ~10 or ~1 µm without crystal growth stage. Pure, uniformly mixed ZnSe and CrSe powders annealed at 1000 °C for 3 days in a sealed evacuated (~10-4 Torr) quartz ampoule exhibited middle-infrared laser action at room temperature under 1.56 µm excitation of D2 Raman shifted radiation of Nd:YAG laser. The output-input characteristic clearly demonstrated the threshold-like behavior of the output signal with the threshold energy level of 0.5 and 3 mJ in 2.9 mm spot for 10 and 1 µm grain sizes, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The Random laser is based on laser active scattering medium without any cavity as well as other optical elements. The localization arises due to interference of multiply scattered photons. The first detailed experimental study of random powder laser emission demonstrated by Markushev et al. was based on a Nd3+ doped (Na5La1-xNdx(MoO4)4 powder [1

1. V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. Since then a variety of random powder lasers have been developed, however most of them emitting in the visible to near - infrared wavelength range [2–5

2. D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “A temperature tunable random laser,” Nature 414, 708–709 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Middle-infrared (Mid-IR) lasers are of great interest for numerous scientific and technological applications such as molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, optical communication, infrared countermeasures, skin resurfacing and surgical scalpels [6

6. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4, 609 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. For example, the detection of atmospheric trace gases and pollutants is based on strong fundamental absorption bands –“molecular fingerprints”-located in the mid-IR spectral region (e.g. CH4:~3.3 µm; H2S:~2.7 µm; and NH3:2.3 µm).

Recent research advances in transition-metal (TM) doped chalcogenides have spurred considerable effort in the development of practical mid-IR sources. TM doped semiconductors have recently emerged as a new class of mid-IR gain materials for applications in solid-state lasers and optoelectronic devices. Effective room-temperature laser action has been reported for Cr2+:ZnS [8

8. S.B. Mirov, V.V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, V.V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, “Diode and fibre pumped Cr2+:ZnS mid-infrared external cavity and microchip lasers,” IEE Optoelectronics 150 (4), 340 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S.B. Mirov, V.V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. DiLieto, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave tunable Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 607–611 (2002). [CrossRef]

], Cr2+:ZnSe [10–12

10. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, “Erbium fiber laser-pumped continuous-wave microchip Cr2+:ZnS and Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27 (11), 909 (2002). [CrossRef]

], Cr2+:Cd1-xMnxTe [13

13. U. Hommerich, X. Wu, V. R. Davis, S. B. Trivedi, K. Grasza, R. J. Chen, and S. Kutcher, “Demonstration of room-temperature laser action at 2.5 mm from Cr2+:Cd0.85Mn0.15Te,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1180–1182 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Cr2+:CdSe [14

14. J. McKay, D. Kraus, and K.L. Schepler, “Optimization of Cr2+:CdSe for Efficient laser Operation,” in: H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall (Eds.), OSA Trends In Optics and Photonics, Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Washington, DC 2000, vol. 34, (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 219–224.

], and Fe2+:ZnSe [15

15. V.V. Fedorov, S.B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M.P. Frolov, Y.V. Korostelin, V.I. Kozlovsky, A.I. Landman, Y.P. Podmar’kov, V.A. Akimov, and A.A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05-µm Tunable Solid-State Lasers Based on Fe2+-Doped ZnSe Crystals Operating at Low and Room Temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 42, 907–917 (2006). [CrossRef]

,16

16. J. Kernal, V.V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S.B. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13, 10608–10615 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] crystals.

Due to the low cost of fabrication, mirror-less cavity, and small size, the random lasers are attractive for many important applications, such as low coherent laser sources, wavelength domain markers, biological sensors and etc. (see Ref [22

22. Mikhail. A. Noginov, “Solid-State Random Lasers” (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, New York, 2005), 105, 222–227.

] for details). Recently, Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS random lasers were demonstrated in [17–19

17. I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, G. Zhu, and M. A. Noginov, “Room-temperature lasing in nanocrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe random laser,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Advanced Solid-State Photonics 94, 376–380 (2004).

]. In these experiments Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS powders were made by a mechanical grinding of Cr doped single crystals grown by physical or chemical vapor transport. The powder grains were irregularly shaped and had an average size ranging from several hundreds of nm to tens of µm. In the gain-switched regime Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS random lasing with 0.2-0.3 mJ pump threshold was demonstrated.

Here we report a simple method of TM doped II-VI laser active powders fabrication with average grain sizes of either ~10 µm or ~1 µm, where the crystal growth stage in powder preparation is completely eliminated. The basic spectroscopic properties of the prepared Cr2+ doped ZnSe powders and output characteristics of random lasers on their basis are presented.

2. Sample Preparation

Among a large number of Cr2+ -doped media the Cr2+:ZnSe and Cr2+:ZnS powders feature the most favorable combination of physical and spectroscopic properties. There are many methods for doping of ZnSe and ZnS with Cr2+ ions. Thermally activated diffusion of chromium may prove to be an effective way of doping the powders if the process can be sufficiently controlled [20

20. J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Crystal Growth 240, 176 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The fabrication of Cr2+:ZnSe powder involved two simple stages. At the first stage pure ZnSe and CrSe (with a concentration of Cr2+ ion 2.42×10-19 cm-3) chemicals with an average grain size of 40 µm were uniformly mixed by mechanical shaker. At the second stage the obtained material was sealed into evacuated (10-4 Torr) quartz ampoule and annealed at 1000 °C for 3 days. Because of a very small CrSe concentration (~0.1w%) in the starting material and a lack of visible remains of not reacted CrSe powder after annealing, no additional separation of ZnSe and CrSe powders after annealing was performed. As shown in Fig. 1(A), this treatment resulted in formation of chromium doped ZnSe microcrystalline powder with ~10 µm average grain size. A subsequent mechanical grinding of this powder reduced the average grain size to ~1 µm (Fig. 1(B)). In the powder samples, 75% of the analyzed particles were within 1–3 µm range for a small size powder, and 83% of the analyzed particles were within 5–15 µm range for a big size powder.

Fig. 1. Microscopic images of the Cr2+:ZnSe powders with 10 µm (A) and 1 µm (B) average sizes.

3. Experimental Details

3.1 X-ray diffraction

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of fabricated 10 µm grain size Cr2+:ZnSe powder was performed using (θ-2θ) angle X-ray diffraction (Philips X-Pert MPD, The Netherlands) with a Cu K-alpha anode. A spectrum was taken from 20° to 90° (2θ) at the step size of 0.02 degrees. Initial powder Cr doped ZnSe sample had zinc-blend structure, as seen in Fig. 2. The most prominent ZnSe diffraction peaks located at 2θ=27.5, 45.5, 53.3, 65.9, 72.6, and 83.5° coincide with (111), (220), (311), (400), (331), and (422) planes reflection of cubic ZnSe.

Fig. 2. XRD diffraction pattern of Cr2+:ZnSe powder.

3.2 Optical characterization

The experimental setup for laser spectroscopic characterization of the fabricated Cr:ZnSe powders is depicted in Fig. 3. The mid-IR photoluminescence (PL) spectra, PL kinetics and lasing spectra were measured under 1560 nm D2-Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser excitation with the pulse duration of 5 ns. The PL or stimulated emission signal was collected with a 76 mm lens (CaF2) and detected by Acton Research Spectra-Pro 300i Spectrograph - liquid nitrogen cooled InSb detector (EGG Judson J10D-M204-R04M-60) combination with a time resolution of 0.5 µs. The PL lifetime was measured by a Tektronix TDS 5104 Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope and the PL intensity was processed through a boxcar averager. All the measurements were performed at room temperature.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup for kinetic and luminescence measurements. (1) Acton Research Spectra-Pro 300i Spectrograph, (2) Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope, (3) boxcar-averager, (4) computer, (5) InSb detector.

4. Results and discussions

PL and laser experiments were performed with Cr2+:ZnSe powder placed in a sealed from one side glass tube with the inner diameter of 5 mm. The pump beam diameter was 2.9 mm. Measured PL spectrum of the Cr:ZnSe powder was in a good agreement with a well documented 5E→5T2 chromium emission spectrum in the bulk ZnSe host. Three basic experiments on pump energy dependences of PL kinetics, output emission, and spectral linewidth (in glass tube and on a glass slide) of 10 and 1 µm powder samples prepared from the same Cr:ZnSe powder were performed for demonstration of the Cr2+:ZnSe powder lasing. The decay profiles of Cr2+:ZnSe 10 and 1 µm powders measured at 2350 nm at room temperature (RT) are shown in Fig. 4(A, B), respectively. In our experiments we kept pump energy density below optical damage threshold. Optical damage was monitored by the appearance of a broadband (including visible spectral range) fluorescence of the powder.

Fig. 4. Cr2+:ZnSe powder PL kinetics for different pump energies. (A) ~10 µm size (i) 0.3 mJ, (ii) 0.5 mJ, (iii) 0.7 mJ, (iv) 1.0 mJ, and (v) 1.2 mJ; (B) ~1 µm size (i) 2 mJ, (ii) 3 mJ, (iii) 5 mJ, (iv) 6 mJ, and (v) 7 mJ (excitation wavelength 1564 nm, pump spot diameter 2.9 mm). (C), (D) are logarithmic plots of ii and v kinetics of luminescence under 1564 nm excitation for 10 and 1 µm size powders, respectively.

The RT PL lifetime of 1µm size powders was 3.5 µs, which is slightly shorter than the ~5 µs lifetime typical for Cr2+ in the bulk crystals. However, the 10µm size powders’ lifetime was 5.3 µs at RT, which is close to that of the bulk samples. One of the reasons of the smaller size powder decay time shortening can be a more pronounced crystal defects and parasitic surface states resulting in a non-radiative quenching of the chromium excitation. The 10µm and 1µm size emission kinetics of the Cr2+:ZnSe powders were measured at (i) 0.3 mJ, (ii) 0.5 mJ, (iii) 0.7 mJ, and (iv) 1.2 mJ; (i) 2 mJ, (ii) 3 mJ, and (iii) 5 mJ 1560 nm pump energies, respectively. As one can see from the inserts (C, D) in Fig. 4, the emission kinetics demonstrate different behavior for pump energy below and above laser threshold. For low pump energy, one can see that kinetics demonstrate single exponential decay. For pump energy above laser threshold one can see multi exponential decay with a short laser spike. It results in a shortening of the signal decay time [19

19. E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, and I.T. Sorokina, “Ultrabroadband infrared solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 690–712 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Because the temporal response of our detector was about 0.5 µs we could not study the temporal dynamics of the lasing pulses.

Figure 5 shows the dependence of the averaged intensity of Cr2+:ZnSe powder emission at 2350 nm versus the pump energy. The output-input characteristics clearly demonstrate the threshold-like behavior of the output signal with the threshold energy level of 0.5 mJ (A) and 3 mJ (B) for 10 and 1 µm size powders, respectively. The threshold pump energy density of 10 µm size powder was as low as 7.4 mJ/cm2, which is a factor of more than 6 times smaller than that for the 1µm size Cr2+:ZnSe powder. In turn, the obtained threshold pump energy density for our small size powder was approximately the same with that reported in [18

18. I.T. Sorokina, “Cr2+ -doped II-IV materials for lasers and nonlinear optics,” Opt Materials 26, 395–412 (2004). [CrossRef]

] for powder prepared by grinding of bulk crystal. However, the laser threshold for our 10 µm size powder was ~7 times. The higher laser threshold for small size powder could be explained by non-radiative excitation quenching, which is confirmed by a shorter decay time of the small size powder. Also, in the case of a small size powder, the bigger surface area could contribute to additional non elastic scattering and pump radiation absorption.

Fig. 5. Output emission intensity versus pump energy for Cr2+:ZnSe (i) ~10 µm, (ii) ~1 µm powder at RT (excitation wavelength 1560 nm, pump spot diameter 2.9 mm).
Fig. 6. RT emission spectra of Cr2+:ZnSe powder for different pump energies (A) ~10 µm size powder, (i) 0.3 mJ, (ii) 0.5 mJ, and (iii) 1.2 mJ; (B) ~1 µm size powder, (i) 2 mJ, (ii) 3 mJ and (iii) 5 mJ. (C) Comparison of normalized RT emissions spectra of (i) 1 µm and (ii) 10 µm size Cr2+:ZnSe powders (excitation wavelength 1560 nm, pump spot diameter 2.9 mm).

Figure 6 demonstrates PL spectra of Cr2+:ZnSe 10 and 1µm powders in the glass tube measured for different pump energies. As one can see in the Fig. 6, at low pump energy the measured PL spectra (curve 0.3 mJ (A) or 2 mJ (B)) were typical for the 5E→5T2 chromium transition in the bulk ZnSe host. The dependence of PL spectrum profile on pump energy demonstrated a threshold behavior accompanied by the appearance of a stimulated emission band around 2350 nm as shown in Fig. 6 (curve ii 0.5 mJ (A) and curve ii 3 mJ (B)). The stimulated emission bands are shifted to the longer wavelength with respect to the spontaneous emission and correspond to the peak of the Cr2+:ZnSe gain spectrum. Further increase of the pump energy (Fig. 6 (curve 1.2 mJ (A), or 5 mJ (B)) results in an increase of the stimulated emission intensity, which becomes much stronger than the PL signal. In our experiments the lasing spectra were accumulated and averaged for several minutes and, as one see from the Fig. 6 we did not observe narrow spectral spikes demonstrated for random laser with a coherent feedback [23

23. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The emission spectra of 1 µm and 10 µm size powders obtained at the same experimental conditions are compared in Fig. 6(C).The emission bands of 1 µm size Cr-doped ZnSe powder is blue shifted with respect to the emission of 10 µm size powder sample. The blue shift of the Cr-doped ZnSe emission can be attributed to the following probable factors affecting the shape of Cr2+:ZnSe powder stimulated emission spectra. The shape of the stimulated emission spectrum can be perturbed by a strong surface absorption of OH group (~2.7 µm), which starts to be more prominent with the decrease of the average powder particle size [21

21. C. Kim, D.V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov “Mid-IR Luminescence of nanocrystalline II-VI semiconductors doped with transition metal ions,” J. Spectrosc. 22(9), 32–37 (2007).

]. In addition, the shape of stimulated emission spectrum depends on elastic scattering responsible for the oscillation feedback in the random lasers. Finally, the “blue shift” could be also due to a strong spectral dependence of the back scattering cross section in the Mie region (kr≈1..10, where k is a wave vector, and r is a radius of the scatter).

5. Conclusion

Fig. 7. RT emission spectra of 10 mg, 10 µm grain size Cr2+:ZnSe powder for different pump energies: (i) 0.7 mJ, (ii) 1 mJ and (iii) 2 mJ (excitation wavelength 1560 nm, pump spot diameter 2.9 mm, powder sample is placed on the surface of a microscopic glass).

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Grants No. ECS-0424310, EPS-0447675, and BES-0521036.

References and links

1.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986). [CrossRef]

2.

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “A temperature tunable random laser,” Nature 414, 708–709 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balanchandran, A. S. L. Gomez, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368, 436(1994). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Y. Feng, J.-F. Bisson, J. Lu, S. Huang, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, and K.-I. Ueda, “Thermal effects in quasi-continuous-wave Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 nanocrystalline-powder random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1040–1042 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4, 609 (1997). [CrossRef]

8.

S.B. Mirov, V.V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, V.V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, “Diode and fibre pumped Cr2+:ZnS mid-infrared external cavity and microchip lasers,” IEE Optoelectronics 150 (4), 340 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S.B. Mirov, V.V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. DiLieto, and M. Tonelli, “Continuous-wave tunable Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 607–611 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, “Erbium fiber laser-pumped continuous-wave microchip Cr2+:ZnS and Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27 (11), 909 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

C-H Su, S. Feth, M.P. Volz, R. Mathyi, M.A. George, K. Chattopadhyay, A. Burger, and S. L Lehoczky, “Vapor growth and characterization of Cr-doped ZnSe crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 207, 35–42 (1999) [CrossRef]

12.

A. Gallian, V.V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Badikov, S. N. Galkin, E. F. Voronkin, and A. I. Lalayants, “Hot-pressed ceramic Cr2+:ZnSe gain-switched laser,” Opt. Express 14, 11694–11701 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

U. Hommerich, X. Wu, V. R. Davis, S. B. Trivedi, K. Grasza, R. J. Chen, and S. Kutcher, “Demonstration of room-temperature laser action at 2.5 mm from Cr2+:Cd0.85Mn0.15Te,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1180–1182 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. McKay, D. Kraus, and K.L. Schepler, “Optimization of Cr2+:CdSe for Efficient laser Operation,” in: H. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall (Eds.), OSA Trends In Optics and Photonics, Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Washington, DC 2000, vol. 34, (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 219–224.

15.

V.V. Fedorov, S.B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M.P. Frolov, Y.V. Korostelin, V.I. Kozlovsky, A.I. Landman, Y.P. Podmar’kov, V.A. Akimov, and A.A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05-µm Tunable Solid-State Lasers Based on Fe2+-Doped ZnSe Crystals Operating at Low and Room Temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 42, 907–917 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Kernal, V.V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S.B. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13, 10608–10615 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

I.T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, G. Zhu, and M. A. Noginov, “Room-temperature lasing in nanocrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe random laser,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Advanced Solid-State Photonics 94, 376–380 (2004).

18.

I.T. Sorokina, “Cr2+ -doped II-IV materials for lasers and nonlinear optics,” Opt Materials 26, 395–412 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, and I.T. Sorokina, “Ultrabroadband infrared solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 690–712 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

J.-O. Ndap, K. Chattopadhyay, O. O. Adetunji, D. E. Zelmon, and A. Burger, “Thermal diffusion of Cr2+ in bulk ZnSe,” J. Crystal Growth 240, 176 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

C. Kim, D.V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov “Mid-IR Luminescence of nanocrystalline II-VI semiconductors doped with transition metal ions,” J. Spectrosc. 22(9), 32–37 (2007).

22.

Mikhail. A. Noginov, “Solid-State Random Lasers” (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, New York, 2005), 105, 222–227.

23.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 2, 2008
Revised Manuscript: March 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 22, 2008
Published: March 26, 2008

Citation
C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, "Mid-infrared Cr2+:ZnSe random powder lasers," Opt. Express 16, 4952-4959 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4952


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References

  1. V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, "Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium lanthanum molybdate powders," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281-283 (1986). [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, "A temperature tunable random laser," Nature 414, 708-709 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balanchandran, A. S. L. Gomez, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436(1994). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, "Amplified extended modes in random lasers," Phys Rev. Lett. 93, 053903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Feng, J.-F. Bisson, J. Lu, S. Huang, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, and K.-I. Ueda, "Thermal effects in quasi-continuous-wave Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 nanocrystalline-powder random laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1040-1042 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, "Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, "Cr2+-doped zinc chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4, 609 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, V. V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, Diode and fibre pumped Cr2+:ZnS mid-infrared external cavity and microchip lasers," IEE Optoelectronics 150, 340 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, A. DiLieto, and M. Tonelli, "Continuous-wave tunable Cr2+:ZnS laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 607-611 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, K. Graham, I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Badikov, and V. Panyutin, "Erbium fiber laser-pumped continuous-wave microchip Cr2+:ZnS and Cr2+:ZnSe lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 909 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. C.-H. Su, S. Feth, M. P. Volz, R. Mathyi, M. A. George, K. Chattopadhyay, A. Burger, and S. L. Lehoczky, "Vapor growth and characterization of Cr-doped ZnSe crystals," J. Crystal Growth 207, 35-42 (1999). [CrossRef]
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