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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 13 — Jun. 22, 2009
  • pp: 10748–10756
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Entanglement swapping using telecom-band photons generated in fibers

Hiroki Takesue and Benjamin Miquel  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 10748-10756 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.010748


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Abstract

We report the first entanglement swapping experiment using entangled photon-pair sources based on spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM). The 1.5-µm band entangled photon pairs generated by SFWM in two independent 500-m dispersion shifted fibers exhibited quantum interference, thanks to the negligible walk-off between the pump and photon pairs. The use of 500-MHz gated-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes based on the sine-wave gating technique increased the fourfold coincidence rate. As a result, the formation of an entanglement between photons from independent sources was successfully observed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Remarkable progress has been made on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems over optical fiber in recent years [1

1. N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nature Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The key distribution distance of a point-to-point QKD has now reached 200 km [2

2. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. It is believed that the most effective way of extending the key distribution distance further is to employ quantum repeaters [3

3. H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operation in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. Z. S. Yuan, Y. A. Chen, B. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Schmiedmayer, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node,” Nature 454, 1098–1101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, it is still difficult to construct practical quantum repeater systems with the currently available technologies. A simpler method for extending the key distribution distance to ~400 km of fiber is to use a quantum relay [5

5. E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. D. Collins, N. Gisin, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum relays for long distance quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 735–753 (2005). [CrossRef]

], which is a QKD using entanglement distributed via entanglement swapping [7

7. J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, J. W. Pan, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental nonlocality proof of quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017903 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. T. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Y. Chen, S. Lu, J. Yin, J. W. Pan, Z. Y. Wei, J. R. Tian, and J. Zhang, “Experimental Synchronization of Independent Entangled Photon Sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 110501 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To realize this, entanglement swapping in the 1.5-µm telecom band is an important first step. In addition, if we implement entanglement swapping with other sophisticated technologies such as a quantum memory [11

11. H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, M. U. Staudt, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “A solid-state light-matter interface at the single-photon level,” Nature 456, 773–777 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we can realize fully scalable quantum communication based on quantum repeaters.

Another component needed for entanglement swapping is a 1.5-µm entanglement source that generates indistinguishable photon pairs. Currently, the most widely used entanglement source for the 1.5-µm band is based on SPDC in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide [15

15. S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. DeMicheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D18, 155–160 (2002).

, 16

16. A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. H. Takesue, K. Inoue, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and M. Asobe, “Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled photon pairs in a 1.55-µm band with a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and an orthogonal polarization delay circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 293–295 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nature Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In the SPDC process in the PPLN waveguide, a large walk-off between a short wavelength pump pulse and a 1.5-µm photon pair causes the photon pair to exhibit timing jitter. As a result, it is generally difficult to obtain quantum interference using photons from independent sources based on PPLN waveguides.

Recently, a group from Geneva University reported the first entanglement swapping experiment to use 1.5-µm band energy-time entangled photon pairs [18

18. M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nature Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. They used SPDC in PPLN waveguides, together with very narrow filters and a low-jitter superconducting single photon detector, with which they managed to suppress the walk-off problem and successfully obtained indistinguishable photon pairs from independent sources.

Here, we report a 1.5-µm band entanglement swapping experiment based on a different scheme. Our scheme uses time-bin entangled photons, which are pulsed entangled states suitable for high-clock-rate systems, generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in dispersion shifted fibers (DSF) [19

19. M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14, 983–985 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical fiber-source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-µm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-µm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As previously demonstrated in the short wavelength band [24

24. J. Fulconis, Q. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres,” New J. Phys. 9, 276 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and the 1.5-µm band [25

25. H. Takesue, “1.5-µm band Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment using photon pairs generated in two independent dispersion shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 204101 (2007). [CrossRef]

], the fiber-based sources facilitated the generation of indistinguishable photon pairs. Also, the use of high-speed InGaAs APDs with a 500-MHz gate frequency, which were realized using the sine-wave gating technique [26

26. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14, 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], contributed significantly to the increase in the fourfold count rate. As a result, an entanglement was successfully formed between photons from independent fiber sources. The whole entanglement swapping setup was operated at a clock frequency as high as 500 MHz, which we believe paves the way for the realization of a quantum relay over optical fiber networks.

2. Setup

2.1. Time-bin entangled photon pair sources

Figure 1 shows the experimental setup for generating sequential time-bin entangled photon pairs [22

22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-µm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

]. A continuous light from an external cavity diode laser with a wavelength of 1551.1 nm was modulated into 19-ps pulses by utilizing the nonlinear attenuation characteristics of an electroabsorption (EA) modulator driven by a 10-GHz sinusoidal signal [29

29. M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, “Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468–473 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. The 10-GHz pulse train was amplified with an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and then the repetition frequency was reduced to 500 MHz using a lithium niobate (LN) modulator. The 500-MHz pulse train was again amplified with another EDFA, filtered to suppress amplified spontaneous emission noise, and then divided into two paths by an optical coupler. The pulse peak power in each path was approximately 0.5 W. The pulses in each path were transmitted through a variable delay line to adjust their temporal positions, and input into a 500-m DSF that was cooled by liquid nitrogen to suppress the noise photons caused by spontaneous Raman scattering. In this cooled DSF, the pulse train created sequential time-bin entangled photon pairs, whose state is approximately given by [28

28. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

] 1NΣk=1N|ks|ki. Here, |kx denotes a state in which there is a photon in a temporal position k and a mode x, and N is the number of pulses in which the phase coherence of the pump pulses is preserved. The photons from each DSF were transmitted through a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to suppress the pump, and launched into an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) followed by optical bandpass filters to separate the signal and idler photons. The signal and idler wavelengths were 1547.9 and 1554.3 nm, respectively. The total loss of the FBG, the AWG and the bandpass filter was approximately 6 dB for each channel.

Fig. 1. Experimental setup (I) time-bin entangled photon-pair sources.

The bandwidths of the filters were both 0.2 nm, implying that the coherence time of the photon pairs was approximately 18 ps. According to [30

30. P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light” ,J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595–604 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 31

31. H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

], photon pairs generated via a spontaneous parametric process become distinguishable when the pump pulse width is much larger than the coherence time of the photon pairs. With the present setup, in which the widths of the pump pulse and photon pair coherence time were almost the same, this timing jitter is well suppressed and so nearly indistinguishable photon pairs can be created. When indistinguishable photon pairs are generated, their number distribution typically becomes a thermal distribution, while distinguishable pairs have a Poissonian distribution [31

31. H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

]. To determine whether the photon pair was indistinguishable or not, we measured the second-order correlation function g (2)(0) of the idler photons using a Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup [32

32. R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956). [CrossRef]

]. The result is shown in Fig. 2 (a). Clear photon bunching with g (2)(0)=1.6 was observed, indicating that photons from two independent fiber sources could exhibit quantum interference.

We also undertook two-photon interference fringe measurements for fiber sources #1 and 2. When we set the average photon pair number per pulse at 0.04, the fringe visibilities were both ~70%.

Fig. 2. (a) Result of g 2(0) measurement. (b) Quantum efficiency and afterpulse probability as a function of dark count probability per gate. Squares and triangles: detector x, circles and crosses: detector y.

2.2. Coincidence measurement setup

Figure 3 shows the setup for entanglement swapping using fiber sources #1 and #2 described above. The signal photons from fiber sources #1 and #2 were sent to Alice and Bob, respectively, and the idler photons were sent to Charlie. The idler photons received by Charlie were input into a fiber beamsplitter (BS) whose output ports were connected to InGaAs/InP APDs for single photon counting. The two input and output ports of the BS are denoted as ports 1, 2, x and y, respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. The gate frequency of these APDs was as high as 500 MHz, which was made possible by using the sine-wave gating technique [26

26. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14, 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The quantum efficiencies and the afterpulsing probability as a function of dark count probability are shown in Fig. 2 (b). Thus, quantum efficiencies of better than 10% were obtained for both detectors with moderate dark count probabilities of ~2×10-5. In the following experiment, we set the quantum efficiencies and dark count probabilities per gate, respectively, at 11% and 1.8×10-5 for channel x, and 13% and 1.6×10-5 for channel y. The afterpulsing probability of the two detectors were both ~4%. A polarizer was placed in front of the detector for channel x. Then, the polarization states of the idler photons were adjusted to maximize the count rate of the detector, and so the polarization states of the two idler photons were set so that they were the same.

Here we describe the Bell state measurement of a sequential time-bin entangled state using a BS and threshold detectors. The quantum state of the total system is written as

S=1N(j=1Nj1sj1i)(k=1Nk2sk2i),
(1)

where the first subscript denotes the fiber source number (1 or 2). This state can be rewritten using the four Bell states formed by two idler photons, |Φ± k〉=(|k1i|k2i ±|k+1〉1i|k+1〉2i)/√2 and |Ψ± k〉=(|k1i|k+1〉2i±|k+1〉1i|k2i)/√2, as

S1N2{Σk=1Nk1sk2s(Φk++Φk)
+Σk=1N1(k1sk+12s+k+11sk2s)|Ψk+
+(k1sk+12s|k+11sk2s)Ψk}.
(2)

Here, the states that are not observed in our coincidence measurements using 1-bit delayed interferometers are omitted for simplicity. The Bell states |Φ± k〉 cannot be discriminated using a BS followed by threshold detectors, since the two input photons bunch in the same spatial and temporal mode at the BS output ports as a result of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect [33

33. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When |Ψ+ k〉 is input into the BS, the two photons are output in the same spatial mode but in different temporal modes. This means that in theory this state can be discriminated using threshold detectors. However, the discrimination of two consecutive photon pulses in the same spatial mode requires a detector deadtime of <2 ns, which is very difficult to achieve with current single photon counting technologies. When a Bell state |Ψ- k〉 is input into a BS, the output state is given by (|kx|k+1〉y-|k+1〉x|ky)/√2 (the subscripts denote the output ports), implying that only this state gives a coincidence count between detectors x and y, and thus can be discriminated from the other three states. Therefore, we adjusted the temporal position of the detector gates for channels x and y to detect photons in the (k+1)th and the kth time slots, respectively, by which we can implement a projection measurement on a portion of |Ψ- k〉(i.e.12|k+1x|ky). Then, Eq. (2) shows that the two signal photons form an entangled state (|k1s|k+1〉2s-|k+1〉1s|k2s)/√2.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup (II) fourfold coincidence measurement.

The signal photons sent to Alice and Bob were input into 1-bit delayed interferometers fabricated with planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology [22

22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-µm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

] followed by InGaAs/InP APDs operated in a conventional gated mode. The phase differences between the two arms of the interferometers were tuned by adjusting the temperature of the PLC substrates. The use of the PLC interferometers enabled the setup to operate stably over a long period. We confirmed that the phases of our PLC interferometers were stable within ±0.06π for at least 12 hours without any feedback control other than temperature control. In the future, we will also be able to use the PLC-based BS [34

34. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to realize a compact BSM. Alice’s and Bob’s APDs were gated using detection signals from detectors x and y, respectively, owned by Charlie. Then the detection signals from Alice’s and Bob’s APDs were used as start and stop pulses for a time interval analyzer (TIA). As a result, the coincidence events recorded by the TIA were conditioned by the Bell state measurement at Charlie.

3. Results

Fig. 4. (a) HOM measurement result. The vertical axis shows the fourfold coincidences obtained by the TIA for 1,000,000 start pulses. The detection signals from Alice’s and Bob’s detectors were used as the start and stop pulses for the TIA. Alice’s and Bob’s detectors were gated using the detection signal from the detectors owned by Charlie. (b) Two-photon interference fringe obtained using coincidence counts of two signal photons conditioned by Bell state measurement of idler photons. The vertical axis shows the coincidence rate per start pulse. Squares: TA=32.25°C, circles: TA=32.35°C. Statistical error bars are given only for the data with TA=32.25°C. Note that no accidental coincidences or noise counts have been subtracted from the data shown in (a) and (b).

4. Discussion

We can think of two main reasons for the relatively low visibility. The probable main source of the visibility degradation is accidental coincidences caused by multi-pair emission. In our experiment, spontaneous Raman scattering (SpRS) noise, which is not suppressed even at liquid nitrogen temperature, could increase the accidental coincidence rate. With the analysis described in [23

23. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-µm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we can estimate that the noise photons account for ~75% of the generated photons, and this could seriously degrade the visibility. When the average correlated photon number per pulse is µc and the total average photon number per pulse is µ, the theoretical visibility of a HOM dip that takes account of two-pair generation is given by

VHOM2=μc+8μ2μc+12μ2.
(3)

The above equation is obtained by using a similar procedure to that described in [24

24. J. Fulconis, Q. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres,” New J. Phys. 9, 276 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In the present experiment with µc≃0.01 and µ≃0.04, this degrades the HOM visibility to ~78%. Another possible reason is the relatively broad pump pulse, which may have led to temporal distinguishability. If the ratio between the pump pulse width and the photon pair coherence time is given by r, the expected visibility of a HOM dip obtained with SFWM-based sources is expressed as [24

24. J. Fulconis, Q. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres,” New J. Phys. 9, 276 (2007). [CrossRef]

]

VHOM1=1+r21+r22.
(4)

With the parameters used in this experiment, a broad pulse degrades the visibility to ~93%. Possible other sources of visibility degradation include a large statistical fluctuation because of the low fourfold coincidence rate and a polarization drift during the measurement. We believe that a combination of the above factors resulted in the HOM visibility of 63%.

In this experiment, we directly connected the nodes without using transmission fibers. The distance of the entanglement distribution in this scheme is in reality not limited by the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio but by the decrease in the coincidence rate. For example, if we assume that the minimum required coincidence rate is 0.01 Hz, the total length of fiber that we can insert between nodes is ~30 km with the current setup. Thus, it remains very important to increase the coincidence rate. The most straightforward way to increase the rate is to improve the single photon detectors. For example, the use of detectors with a 1.5-GHz gate frequency [36

36. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17, 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] will be effective in improving the rate. Thus, further improvement of the 1.5-µm band single photon detectors is required if the current scheme is to be deployed for entanglement distribution over optical fiber. In addition, we expect the SpRS noise to be better suppressed if we cool the DSF to a lower temperature [37

37. S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam,“High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source,” Opt. Express 16, 9966–9977 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or use SFWM in a silicon waveguide [38

38. H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007). [CrossRef]

], so that we can realize better visibility.

5. Conclusion

We have reported the first entanglement swapping experiment to use fiber-based entanglement sources. SFWM in 500-m DSFs pumped by a pulse train generated through the external modulation of continuous-wave laser light was used to obtain indistinguishable time-bin entangled photon pairs. The use of 500-MHz gated-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes based on the sine-wave gating technique reduced the measurement time significantly. The formation of an entanglement between photons from independent sources was successfully observed.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank S. Inoue and N. Namekata of Nihon University for fruitful discussions on high-speed single photon detectors.

References and links

1.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nature Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operation in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

Z. S. Yuan, Y. A. Chen, B. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Schmiedmayer, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node,” Nature 454, 1098–1101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Collins, N. Gisin, and H. de Riedmatten, “Quantum relays for long distance quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 735–753 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891–3894 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, J. W. Pan, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental nonlocality proof of quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017903 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Y. Chen, S. Lu, J. Yin, J. W. Pan, Z. Y. Wei, J. R. Tian, and J. Zhang, “Experimental Synchronization of Independent Entangled Photon Sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 110501 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, M. U. Staudt, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “A solid-state light-matter interface at the single-photon level,” Nature 456, 773–777 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs.” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, “Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R773–R776 (1999). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Ribordy, J-D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. de Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. DeMicheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D18, 155–160 (2002).

16.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

H. Takesue, K. Inoue, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and M. Asobe, “Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled photon pairs in a 1.55-µm band with a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and an orthogonal polarization delay circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 293–295 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nature Phys. 3, 692–695 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14, 983–985 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical fiber-source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-µm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-µm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. Fulconis, Q. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres,” New J. Phys. 9, 276 (2007). [CrossRef]

25.

H. Takesue, “1.5-µm band Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment using photon pairs generated in two independent dispersion shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 204101 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14, 10043–10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999). [CrossRef]

28.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

29.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, “Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468–473 (1993). [CrossRef]

30.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light” ,J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595–604 (1998). [CrossRef]

31.

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

32.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956). [CrossRef]

33.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

M. Halder, private communication.

36.

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17, 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam,“High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source,” Opt. Express 16, 9966–9977 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 21, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 7, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 9, 2009
Published: June 11, 2009

Citation
Hiroki Takesue and Benjamin Miquel, "Entanglement swapping using telecom-band photons generated in fibers," Opt. Express 17, 10748-10756 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10748


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References

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  19. M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in fiber loop," Phys. Rev. A  70, 031802(R) (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical fiber-source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "1.5-μm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7832-7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Fulconis, Q. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Quantum interference with photon pairs using two micro-structured fibres," New J. Phys. 9, 276 (2007). [CrossRef]
  25. H. Takesue, "1.5-μm band Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment using photon pairs generated in two independent dispersion shifted fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 204101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, "800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating," Opt. Express 14, 10043-10049 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594-2597 (1999). [CrossRef]
  28. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani,W . Tittel, H . Zbinden, and N . Gisin, "Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces," Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304(R) (2004). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993). [CrossRef]
  30. P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, "Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595-604 (1998). [CrossRef]
  31. H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin,W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637-1649 (2004).
  32. R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177, 27-29 (1956). [CrossRef]
  33. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference" Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits," Science 320, 646-649 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Halder, private communication.
  36. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, "1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode," Opt. Express 17, 6275-6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. D. Dyer,M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam,"High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source," Opt. Express 16, 9966-9977 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, "Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007). [CrossRef]

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