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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 13 — Jun. 22, 2009
  • pp: 11205–11216
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Computational investigation of nanohole array based SPR sensing using phase shift

T. Yang and H. P. Ho  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 11205-11216 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.011205


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Abstract

We present a new high spatial resolution sensor for monitoring refractive index variations caused by binding of organic and biological molecules to the metallic surface containing arrays of nanoholes. Signal transduction is provided through detecting the optical phase change in the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) effected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). These 2D nanoholes are well suited for the sensor chip format in which high dense integration is readily achievable. While the sensor operates at normal illumination, practical implementation of the sensor is much easier in comparison to the traditional Kretschmann arrangement for SPR sensing. Various design parameters of the device have been studied by simulation. Our results indicate that the scheme has a shot-noise limited sensitivity threshold of 4.37 × 10−9 refractive index units (RIU) and a dynamic range of 0.17 RIU, which compare favorably with typical SPR sensors, particularly in terms of achieving high resolution and wide dynamic range sensor attributes. The phase change is also quite linear over the entire refractive index detection range.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon resonance biosensors have become a central tool for characterizing and quantifying biomolecular interactions in both life sciences and pharmaceutical research in the past two decades [1

1. E. C. Nice and B. Catimel, “Instrumental biosensors: new perspectives for the analysis of biomolecular interactions,” Bioessays 21(4), 339–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The main reason for SPR biosensors to become a powerful tool for characterization of biomolecules interaction is their capability of real-time monitoring and label-free sensing with high detection sensitivity and wide dynamic range. Recently, research attention in SPR sensing has shifted to measuring the SPR phase shift [4

4. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. X. L. Yu, D. X. Wang, and Z. B. Yan, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 285–290 (2003). [CrossRef]

], as the resonant phase behavior offers the potential of achieving extremely high detection sensitivity. Traditional SPR phase sensors generally operate in total internal reflection mode using the Kretschmann (reflection) configuration [1

1. E. C. Nice and B. Catimel, “Instrumental biosensors: new perspectives for the analysis of biomolecular interactions,” Bioessays 21(4), 339–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, this configuration has difficulty in realizing large dynamic range, small probing area and high throughput sensing.

Recently, enhanced transmission through subwavelength hole arrays accompanied by strong field localization has applications in several fields such as quantum information processing [6

6. E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418(6895), 304–306 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], microscopic optical components [7

7. T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 234–236 (2003). [CrossRef]

], wavelength conversion [8

8. A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 423–425 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nanolithography [9

9. S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, “Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 836–838 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Such phenomena may also be exploited for biosensor applications due to their potential for decreasing the interrogation volumes while operating at normal illumination [10

10. A. Krishnan and T. Thio., “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 197, 217–233 (2001).

13

13. T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This leads to desirable attributes including high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and large number of parallel channels, while facilitating dense integration in a sensor chip. These advantages may enhance the preference of using such devices in a number of applications despite their low spectral resolution as reported in the literature [14

14. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Here we report a high sensitivity biosensor based on detecting the phase change of EOT light by using a heterodyne technique [15

15. X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, and H. Jiang., “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 199–202 (2001). [CrossRef]

18

18. S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Simulation results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the nanohole SPR configuration is capable of detecting surface binding of organic and biological molecules at a high sensitivity level with large dynamic range.

2. Structure of the phase sensor

The proposed sensor array device is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of nanohole array (a = hole size, d = hole period, h = hole depth).
. A section of the sensor is also highlighted in the enlarged figure. The device contains a top metal layer, typically made of gold or silver, in which the nanohole arrays are located, and a glass (silicon dioxide) substrate. The array periodicity is d and the width of the square holes is a. The thickness of the metal is h. These sub-wavelength holes can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB), electron beam lithography (EBL), or UV interference techniques. The metal film is hydrophobic, thus requiring the use of a linker layer to enable direct immobilization of target molecules onto the surface. More importantly, since immobilization of target molecules occurs only at the sensor surface region where the optical field has been enhanced due to the presence of surface plasmons, one can readily appreciate that only a small number of immobilized target molecules will trigger a sizeable phase change response. During real-time sensing operation, the nanohole device is immersed in an analyte solution. As the population of immobilized molecules on the surface increases, the effective refractive index of the thin surface layer increases accordingly. The change of refractive index will then result in a phase shift in the transmitted beam, thus leading to the possibility of quantitative detection of the amount of immobilized molecules in the far field without the use of any florescence tag.

As for the actual implementation, one can detect the phase change using a heterodyne interferometric system, which offers the benefits of detecting time-varying signals only and high noise rejection capability upon using long integration time [15

15. X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, and H. Jiang., “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 199–202 (2001). [CrossRef]

18

18. S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. A typical heterodyne interferometer uses an acousto-optic modulator to impose a frequency shift in the input laser beam. When the frequency-shifted reference beam interferes with the signal beam, the phase of the beat frequency, which may be readily measured by a lockin technique, will provide the phase reading introduced by the sensor device. In other words, when the target receptor molecules in the sample solution are immobilized on the nanohole sensor surface that has been functionalized by the conjugate ligands, the resultant refractive index change will shift the optical phase of the EOT accordingly. The heterodyne interferometer will then process the optical beams and produce the required phase reading as desired.

3. Operation principle of the nanohole sensor device

We also notice that this configuration is a multi-resonance system. Even the resonance in the steps (ii) and (iii) is somewhat broken due to the change of effective refractive index of the dielectric, the constructive interference condition in step (iv) is always satisfied. The detailed explanation is as follows. Assuming there is an incident light E a scattered at hole a, after passing through a distance of one hole period (d) and one hole depth (h), the generated surface plasmon at last re-emit as T a(1) from the adjacent hole b. The same process occurs for E b, which is scattered at hole b and re-emit as T b(1) from the adjacent hole c or a. The same process is for T c(1), T d(1) and so on. Because T a(1), T b(1), T c(1), … have the same phase, they form constructive interference. The surface plasmon generated at hole a can also re-emit from hole c as T a(2) after passing through two hole period (2d) and one hole depth (h). The same process is for T b(2), which comes from hole b and re-emit at hole d. Therefore, T a(2), T b(2), … also have the same phase, they form constructive interference too. From the above analysis, we conclude that the surface plasmon passing through m 0 hole periods with a distance m 0 * d and going back and forth n 0 times inside a hole with a distance (2 n 0-1) * h will always result in constructive interference and form a plane wave, so the electric field of the generated plane wave in the far field can be expressed as:
Eeiϕ=E0{T11ei[ωt(k1d+k2h)+ϕ0]+T21ei[ωt(2k1d+k2h)+ϕ0]+T31ei[ωt(3k1d+k2h)+ϕ0]++T12ei[ωt(k1d+3k2h)+ϕ0]+T22ei[ωt(2k1d+3k2h)+ϕ0]+T32ei[ωt(3k1d+3k2h)+ϕ0]++T13ei[ωt(k1d+5k2h)+ϕ0]+T23ei[ωt(2k1d+5k2h)+ϕ0]+T33ei[ωt(3k1d+5k2h)+ϕ0]+ +}
(1)
where E 0 and E are the amplitude of the incident plane wave and the transmitted plane wave respectively. φ is the phase of the transmission light in the far field.ω is the angle frequency of the incident light. Tm 0 n 0 is the amplitude transmission coefficient of corresponding mode.φ 0 is the phase item that includes the initial phase of the source, the phase change from source to the front surface of the device and the phase change from the device to the point in the far field. k 1 and k 2 is the propagation constants of the surface plasmon on the front surface of the metal film and in the hole respectively. We can just approximately calculate the k 1 and k 2 by assuming metal and aqueous medium are infinite, i.e.
k1k2Re[ωc(εmetalεeffεmetal+εeff)1/2]
(2)
where ε metal is the permittivity of the metal, and ε eff is the effective permittivity of the dielectric containing receptors, target molecules and water. Therefore, if we neglect high mode due to their week amplitudes, Eq. (1) can be simplified as:
EeiϕE0T11ei{ωtRe[ω(d+h)c(εmetalεeffεmetal+εeff)1/2]+ϕ0}
(3)
Therefore if the effective refractive index of the dielectric ε eff is changed, the phase of the transmitted light will also shift accordingly.

4.1 Simulation theory and parameter design

We have performed a series of simulation experiments by varying the hole period, hole shape, metal layer thickness and metal material respectively in order to find the optimized device parameters. Computational electromagnetism is implemented using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The aim is to solve the system’s Maxwell's equations in complex geometries. In particular, the equations for describing the fields in non-magnetic materials are:
Dt=×H
(4)
D(ω)=ε0εr*(ω)E(ω)
(5)
Ht=1μ0×E
(6)
where H, E, and D are the magnetic, electric, and displacement fields respectively, while εr*(ω) is the complex relative dielectric constant (εr*(ω) = n2, where n is the refractive index).

FDTD is a time domain technique, meaning that the electromagnetic fields are solved as a function of time. Within our simulation experiments, space is divided into a discrete mesh and then the fields are evolved in time using discrete time steps. As the mesh and the time steps are made to have smaller dimensions, the numerical model becomes a close approximation of the analytical equations. The most important merit of time-domain methods is their ability to obtain system responses (or eigenfrequencies) in the entire frequency spectrum within a single simulation through the use of Fourier-transformation on the response of a short pulse. Finite-element methods (FEM) can also be used for time-evolving fields, but they have a serious disadvantage in terms of stability: one typically needs to use some form of implicit time-stepping, in which one must invert a matrix (i.e. solve a linear equation system) at every time step.

FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Solutions, Inc) with minimum 1nm mesh size is used for studying the device structure in view of its advantages in nanoscale simulation. In order to shorten simulation time, an area with just one square hole is meshed and periodic boundary conditions are used around the hole. We use a plane wave with a wavelength of 632.8nm and the propagation direction is normal to the structure. Perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary conditions with 200 layers are used in the source directions. We assume the total thickness of receptor layer and immobilized molecules is 5nm, and the refractive index of the surrounding aqueous medium is taken as 1.33. If the effective refractive index of this composite layer is changed from 1.33 to 1.50, the phase variation of the transmission beam in the far field after passing through a hole array (typically 100 × 100) can be calculated accordingly. Because the hole period and the metal thickness are two main parameters affecting the resonances on the film surface and in the holes respectively, we can fix one parameter and change another to obtain the optimal values of these two parameters for the largest phase change when the effect refractive index is varied from 1.33 to 1.50. Therefore, in the present case, we first fix the metal thickness at 108nm and find the relationship between the hole period and the phase change as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Square hole period versus phase change (red line for gold and black line for silver).
. Here we can see from the sharp resonance peaks that the optimal values of hole period for gold and silver are 427.6nm and 446.0 nm respectively.

4.2 Square hole period simulation

As reported in the literature, maximum phase change in the SPR case occurs near the resonant region, and for normal incident of light the equation for resonance condition is given by [19

19. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22(5), 998–1002 (2005). [CrossRef]

]
(i2+j2)1/2λspp=dRe[(εmεdεm+εd)1/2]
(7)
where i and j are mode numbers in X and Y directions of Fig. 1, λ spp is the wavelength of the incident light, d is the periodicity of the array, ε m is the effective permittivity of the metal layer, and ε d is the effective permittivity of the dielectric layer containing receptors, target molecules and water. The effective permittivity of the dielectric can be estimated by performing a weighted averaging within the extension l of the evanescent surface plasmon mode into the dielectric (Z direction), according to Ref [20

20. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998). [CrossRef]

]

εd=2l0ε(z)exp(2zl)dz
(8)

As an example, for a device using a gold sensor layer, when λspp equals to 632.8nm, according to Eq. (7), resonant peak occurs when the hole period is 436.0nm when we assume εd equals to 1.33 and εm equals to −10.85 + 1.25i. One should note that the effective permittivity of the dielectric εd must be slightly larger than 1.33 due to the existence of receptors and target molecules. On the other hand, the absolute permittivity value of the gold sensor layer should be slightly smaller than that of pure gold due to the existence of the holes [21

21. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, the resonant period should be close to 436.0nm, and the result of 427.6nm as obtained from our simulation is reasonable. The same calculation procedures also reveal that the resonant period should be close to 451.3nm for silver (εm equals to −17.64 + 0.50i), and our simulation result of 446.0nm is in line with this expectation.

We should mention that the actual device fabrication using FIB or EBL may be difficult due to the stringent requirement on periodicity accuracy, as the two resonance peaks shown in Fig. 3 occur within a hole-period range of about 10nm. Nonetheless, we believe that advancement of instrumentation technology should soon overcome this problem. Moreover, the fact that we are dealing with periodic structures with periodicity in the region of 400-450nm may have alleviated the difficulty somewhat, as one might be able to fabricate the device using a UV interference process.

4.3 Metal layer thickness simulation

The metal thickness also plays an important role in the calculation of phase change. We first fix the period at the optimized value (i.e. 427.6nm for gold and 446.0 nm for silver), then we vary the metal layer thickness and monitor the phase change. Our results are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Metal layer thickness versus phase change (red line for gold and black line for silver).
. Here we can see that the largest phase change occurs at 108nm and 110nm for gold and silver respectively. The physical mechanism for such a resonant peak to occur at a certain thickness, for example 108nm for gold, is due to the fact that the surface plasmon trapped inside the hole goes back and forth several times, which leads to the building up of constructive interference [22

22. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. If we assume that the surface plasmon in the hole propagates along an interface between an infinite insulator and a metal despite that it is in fact a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) heterostructure, then the propagation length of a surface plasmon with 2π phase change is calculated as 436nm. Since fourfold of 108nm is 432nm which is very close to 436nm, we can conclude that the plasmon in the hole should experience constructive interference if the metal thickness is 108nm. This also means that when constructive interference is disrupted due to the change of refractive index in the surrounding medium, the phase changes rapidly.

4.4 Square hole width simulation

We also explore the effect of varying the width of the holes, which has the obvious effect of changing the effective permittivity of the MIM heterostructure. The phase change in the range of refractive index between 1.33 and 1.50 is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Square hole width versus phase change (red line for gold and black line for silver)
. In addition, one may readily expect that square holes may have more localized electric field than circular holes because of their sharp corners [23

23. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmissionthrough subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

,24

24. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Influence of hole shape on phase change (sensor layer material: gold)
, square holes indeed provide a more pronounced phase change peak than circular holes when we vary the hole width or diameter. In order for us to investigate this aspect of the holes, we have chosen to adopt a 3D simulation model rather than the 2D version.

4.5 Predicted sensitivity and dynamic range

In Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Refractive index versus phase change with all parameters optimized. (red line for gold and black line for silver)
, we show the calculated phase change versus refractive index in the range of 1.33 and 1.50 when all the device parameters are optimized. For a gold sensor device with square holes, we use 142nm for the hole width, 428nm for the hole period and 108nm for the film thickness. For a maximum refractive index shift of 0.17, the phase change of 51.8°.

For the case of using silver for the sensor layer, we use a hole width of 153nm, hole period of 446nm, film thickness of 110nm, and the maximum phase change is 75.1°. The phase change from silver device is higher than gold device in light of its higher free electron density. An attribute as revealed from Fig. 7 is that the phase change is quite linear over the entire refractive index range of 0.17, whereas the lack of phase linearly and measurement dynamic range are known problems for the common Kretschmann configuration. Such drawbacks are resulted from the fact that the surface plasmon waves excited in an inverted prism containing a single metal layer has only one resonance peak, where all the phase change happens very abruptly within a small refractive index range. On the other hand, the nanohole device that we are proposing here is a complex multi-resonance system, as explained in Section 3. A continuous change of the phase over a wide range of refractive index values may become possible.

As for the actual phase detection implementation using a heterodyne technique, assuming that the interferometer is operating at its most sensitive point (which corresponds to zero output for the balanced detector arrangements) the photon noise equivalent displacement δxN can be calculated by the following formula [25

25. C. B. Scruby, and L. E. Drain, Laser ultrasonics techniques and applications (LOP Publishing Ltd, 1990), Chap. 3.

]
δxN=λ4π(hυΔfηWs)2
(9)
where we assume the wavelength λ is 632.8nm, the quantum efficiency η is 70℅. For a signal power Ws of 2.5 μW and a band width Δf of 1Hz, we findδxN = 0.0213pm. Therefore, the detection resolution is 1.93 × 10−6 degree. The predicted sensitivity limit of an optimal gold device and an optimal silver device are 6.33 × 10−9 RIU and 4.37 × 10−9 RIU respectively. As shown in Table 1

Table 1. Comparison between Kretschmann and nanohole array configurations.

table-icon
View This Table
, this value is comparable to those calculated for other SPR sensor schemes using the Kretschmann configuration [26

26. R. L. Rich and D. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2004 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recognit. 18, 457–478 (2005).

28

28. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although the phase interrogation SPR sensor using the Kretschmann configuration can also offer similar sensitivity limits, its refractive index detection range is much narrower in comparison to the present nanohole scheme. Furthermore, one major difference between our design and the traditional Kretschmann configuration is that the former detects the phase shift from the transmitted beam while the latter does this from the reflected beam. Our design therefore makes setting up of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer much easier. In light of the fact that the present scheme may offer advancement on important attributes including dynamic range, sensitivity threshold, data linearity and ease of practical implementation, there should be a good chance that this scheme will lead to practical SPR sensors, particularly for the multiple analyte biochip format.

5. Other design considerations

5.1 Curved corners at hole edges

It is likely that the actual device fabrication process would produce curved edges as shown in Fig. 8(a)
Fig. 8 Effect of curved corners at hole edges. (a) Schematic of curved corners. (b) Radius of curvature versus phase change.
. Here we assume that the edge of the hole is round and the radius of curvature of the round edge is R. Figure 8(b) reveals that curved edges will lead to smaller phase change. This is consistent with our expectation because of the fact that as the edges are less abrupt it is less likely for reflection of the surface plasmon to take place at the top and bottom of the nanohole. The resonant behavior of the nanohole will become less prominent. The estimated sensitivity limit of using round cornered square holes having a 5nm radius of curvature is 5.03 × 10−9 RIU.

5.2 Surface roughness of glass substrate

If one uses a focused ion beam to fabricate the nanohole array, it is inevitable that the surface of the glass substrate at the bottom of the hole becomes rough as depicted in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Surface roughness on glass substrate.
. Here we assume that the average amplitude of the roughness is 1nm, the corresponding phase change for the case of shifting the refractive index from 1.33 to 1.50 in a device using silver as the sensor layer is 73.0°. The phase change is 75.1° if the substrate is perfectly smooth. This means that surface roughness can degrade device performance, but the effect is not too significant.

5.3 Chemical sensing

6. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated that nanoholes fabricated in a metal film may lead to quite sizeable phase changes because of plasmonic effects, hence indicating the possibility of biosensing devices. The predicted sensitivity threshold of this planner device is comparable to established surface plasmon schemes and the dynamic range is much improved. Curved hole edges and substrate roughness due to fabrication limitations have been quantitatively discussed. Application of the proposed device for chemical sensing is also demonstrated.

The array of sub-wavelength holes investigated here are only a few micrometers in length, and the detection is performed in the transmission mode at normal incident angle. These features render that the device substrate is ideal for miniaturization as well as integration with lab-on-chip platforms. With the holes in sub-wavelength scales, there exists an inherent advantage of high packing density, thus leading to the implementation of 2-D biosensor arrays. While the optical geometry of this system is collinear, its operation in a transmission mode as opposed to the traditional Kretschmann (reflection) configuration will greatly reduce the beam alignment complexity for setting the phase interrogation Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The proposed nanohole sensor chip therefore offers a practical solution for a range of potential SPR applications in biological and chemical sensing.

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to acknowledge the funding support from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under CERG project # 411907. The research studentship provide for T. Yang by the Chinese University of Hong Kong is also much appreciated.

References and links

1.

E. C. Nice and B. Catimel, “Instrumental biosensors: new perspectives for the analysis of biomolecular interactions,” Bioessays 21(4), 339–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

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3.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

X. L. Yu, D. X. Wang, and Z. B. Yan, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 91(1-3), 285–290 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418(6895), 304–306 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Vallius, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, P. Vahimaa, and Y. Svirko, “Optical activity in subwavelength-period arrays of chiral metallic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 234–236 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 423–425 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, “Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 836–838 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Krishnan and T. Thio., “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 197, 217–233 (2001).

11.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, “Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 24(4), 256–258 (1999). [CrossRef]

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13.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, D. S. Sutherland, and M. Käll, “Plasmonic sensing characteristics of single nanometric holes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2335–2339 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, and H. Jiang., “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 199–202 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 167–172 (2002). [CrossRef]

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C. M. Wua, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joec, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 133–136 (2003). [CrossRef]

18.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22(5), 998–1002 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998). [CrossRef]

21.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmissionthrough subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

C. B. Scruby, and L. E. Drain, Laser ultrasonics techniques and applications (LOP Publishing Ltd, 1990), Chap. 3.

26.

R. L. Rich and D. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2004 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recognit. 18, 457–478 (2005).

27.

D. K. Kambhampati and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon optical techniques, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface,” Science 4, 273–280 (1999).

28.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(040.2840) Detectors : Heterodyne
(050.5080) Diffraction and gratings : Phase shift
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing and Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: April 21, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 18, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: May 18, 2009
Published: June 19, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
T. Yang and H. P. Ho, "Computational investigation of nanohole array based SPR sensing using phase shift," Opt. Express 17, 11205-11216 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-11205


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References

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  14. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. L. Yu, L. Q. Zhao, H. Jiang, and ., “Immunosensor based on optical heterodyne phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 199–202 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Chen, C. C. Hsu, and D. C. Su, “Measurement of wavelength shift by using surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 167–172 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. C. M. Wua, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joec, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 133–136 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22(5), 998–1002 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmissionthrough subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. B. Scruby, and L. E. Drain, Laser ultrasonics techniques and applications (LOP Publishing Ltd, 1990), Chap. 3.
  26. R. L. Rich and D. Myszka, “Survey of the year 2004 commercial optical biosensor literature,” J. Mol. Recognit. 18, 457–478 (2005).
  27. D. K. Kambhampati and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon optical techniques, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface,” Science 4, 273–280 (1999).
  28. J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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