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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 14 — Jul. 6, 2009
  • pp: 11850–11859
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Acceleration of electrons by a tightly focused intense laser beam

Jian-Xing Li, Wei-Ping Zang, Ya-Dong Li, and Jian-Guo Tian  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 14, pp. 11850-11859 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.011850


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Abstract

The recent proposal to use Weinger transformation field (WTF) [Opt. Express 17, 4959-4969 (2009)] for describing tightly focused laser beams is investigated here in detail. In order to validate the accuracy of WTF, we derive the numerical field (NF) from the plane wave spectrum method. WTF is compared with NF and Lax series field (LSF). Results show that LSF is accurate close to the beam axis and divergent far from the beam axis, and WTF is always accurate. Moreover, electron dynamics in a tightly focused intense laser beam are simulated by LSF, WTF and NF, respectively. The results obtained by WTF are shown to be accurate.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Invention of the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique [1

1. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985). [CrossRef]

] continues to motivate research efforts into the issue of electron acceleration by a laser, which has been investigated theoretically [2

2. N. Cao, Y. K. Ho, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, X. Q. Yuan, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, and H. Ito, “Accurate description of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 204(1–6), 7–15 (2002). [CrossRef]

4

4. Y. I. Salamin, G. R. Mocken, and C. H. Keitel, “Electron scattering and acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5(10), 101301 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The primary problem in the theoretical simulation of electron dynamics is to obtain the accurate field representation of intense laser beam. It is well known that the field components of a laser beam must satisfy Maxwell’s equations. When focused by a lens or by a reflecting mirror, a laser beam is well described by a Gaussian profile function in focus region when the beam waist w 0 is much larger than the laser wavelength λ. If a laser beam is focused down to the order of the laser wavelength, a Gaussian beam description becomes insufficient. In 1975, Lax et al. [5

5. M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, “From Maxwell to paraxial wave optics,” Phys. Rev. A 11(4), 1365–1370 (1975). [CrossRef]

] proposed a perturbative approach to derive the solution of the free space propagation of a monochromatic electromagnetic beam, starting from knowledge of the paraxial solution in whole space. For highly non-paraxial beams, Lax series appears to be divergent, but Weniger transformation can eliminate that divergence [6

6. R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Summing Lax series for nonparaxial beam propagation,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 774–776 (2003). [CrossRef]

,7

7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4959–4969 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, the numerical field (NF) of a tightly focused beam is derived by the plane wave spectrum method [8

8. A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, “Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 136(1–2), 114–124 (1997). [CrossRef]

,9

9. P. Varga and P. Török, “The Gaussian wave solution of Maxwell’s equations and the validity of scalar wave approximation,” Opt. Commun. 152(1–3), 108–118 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Comparing Lax series field (LSF) and Weniger transformation field (WTF) with NF, we illustrate that LSF is accurate close to the beam axis and divergent far from beam axis, respectively. However, Weniger transformation is an effective method to eliminate the divergence of LSF, and WTF always keep convergent. We adopt NF to simulate electron acceleration by a tightly focused intense laser beam, and compare the results with those simulated by LSF and WTF. Results show electron dynamics simulated by WTF are accurate.

In the second section, we review the representations of LSF and WTF, and derive those of NF using the plane wave spectrum method. To ensure the accuracy of NF, we employ the accurate boundary field. In the third section, firstly, LSF and WTF are compared with NF. Secondly, the electron dynamics in an intense laser beam are simulated by LSF, WTF and NF. The simulated results of WTF are shown to be accurate. The conclusion is given in the last section.

2. Electromagnetic field of tightly focused laser beams

2.1 Lax series approach and Weniger transformation

The laser beam adopted here polarizes along the x direction and propagates along the z axis. The electromagnetic field can be described in form of the vector potential A=x̂A 0 ψ(r)exp(), where A 0 is a constant amplitude, and η=ωt-kz. The vector potential satisfies the following wave equation:

2A1c22At2=0.
(1)

Direct substitution leads to

2Ψ2ikΨz=0.
(2)

We can define x=ξw 0, y=υw 0, zzr, where w 0 and zr=kw 2 0/2 are the beam radius and Rayleigh length, respectively. Equation (2) can be rewritten as

2Ψ4iΨζ+ε22Ψζ2=0,
(3)

where ∇2 = 2/∂ξ 2+ 2/∂υ 2 and the diffraction angle ε=w o/zr. Since ε 2 is small, one can expand ψ as a sum of even power of ε [5

5. M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, “From Maxwell to paraxial wave optics,” Phys. Rev. A 11(4), 1365–1370 (1975). [CrossRef]

],

ψ=Σn=0ε2nψ2n.
(4)

By substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (3), one can obtain

2Ψ04iΨ0ζ=0,
(5)
2Ψ2n+24iΨ2n+2ζ+2Ψ2nζ2=0.n0
(6)

Equation (5) has an exact paraxial approximation solution:

Ψ0=fefρ2,f=i(ζ+i),ρ2=ξ2+υ2.
(7)

To obtain the high order functions ψ2n and the purpose of gaining physical insight, we follow the work of Davis et al [10

10. L. W. Davis, “Theory of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 19(3), 1177–1179 (1979). [CrossRef]

]. Consider a diverging spherical wave propagating along the z axis from the origin. Such a wave has an exponential factor, which can be expanded as

exp[ik(z2+r2)12]=exp[ikzi(zrz)ρ2]Σn=0ε2na2n(ρ,zrz).
(8)

For zzr the condition fizr/z holds, this line of reasoning suggests that

ψ2n=(C2n(f)+a2n(ρ,f))ψ0.
(9)

The coefficient C 2n is determined by inserting this function into Eq. (6). ψ 2n can be easily derived by simple recurrence relations [11

11. H. Luo, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Method for accurate description of a radially polarized Gaussian laser beam beyond the paraxial approximation,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1692–1694 (2007). [CrossRef]

]:

ψ2n=D2nψ0,D2n=a2n(ρ,f)+(n+1)fD2n24,
(10)

where D 0=1, and a 2n(ρ,f) is given by the Eq. (8). These recurrence relations can be used to obtain accurate results with arbitrary order of ε. Such as,

ψ2=(f2f3ρ44)ψ0,
(11)
ψ4=(3f283f4ρ416f5ρ68+f6p832)ψ0,
(12)
Ψ6=(3f383f5ρ416f6ρ683f7ρ864+f8ρ1032f9ρ12384)ψ0,
(13)

After getting vector potential, one can obtain the scalar potential ϕ=i∇·A/k by using the Lorentz gauge. Then, the components of LSF can be obtained by substituting A and ϕ into Maxwell’s equations E=-ik A-∇ϕ and B=∇×A, accurate up to ε 2m+1, as [7

7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4959–4969 (2009). [CrossRef]

,12

12. Y. I. Salamin, “Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond the paraxial approximation,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 319–326 (2007). [CrossRef]

]:

Ex=iEψ0Σn=0mε2nEnx(f,ρ,ξ),
(14)
Ey=iEψ0ξυΣn=0mε2nEny(f,ρ),
(15)
Ez=Eψ0ξΣn=0mε2n+1Enz(f,ρ),
(16)
Bx=0,
(17)
By=iEψ0Σn=0mε2nBny(f,ρ),
(18)
Bz=Eψ0Σn=0mε2n+1Bnz(f,ρ),
(19)

where m≥0, E=E oexp[i(ωt-kz+ϕ 0), E 0=kA 0 and ϕ 0 is the constant phase. For example, the components of electromagnetic field accurate up to ε 7 can be expressed as

Ex=iEψ0[1+ε2(f2ξ2f3ρ44)+ε4(f28f3ρ24+f4(ρ2ξ2ρ416)+f5(ρ4ξ24ρ68)
+f6ρ832)+ε6(3f3163f4ρ2169f5ρ432+15f6ρ4ξ216ρ12f9384+f7(3ρ6ξ28ρ816)
+f8(ρ8ξ232+ρ1032)],
(20)
Ey=iEψ0ξυ[ε2f2+ε4(f4ρ2f5ρ44)+ε6(15f6ρ4163f7ρ68+f8ρ832)],
(21)
Ez=Eψ0ξ[εf+ε3(f22+f3ρ2f4ρ44)+ε5(3f383f4ρ28+17f5ρ4163f6ρ68+f7ρ832)
+ε7(3f483f5ρ283f6ρ416+33f7ρ63229f8ρ864+f9ρ1016f10ρ12384)],
(22)
By=iEψ0[1+ε2(f2ρ22f3ρ44)+ε4(f28+f3ρ24+5f4ρ416f5ρ64+f6ρ832)
+ε6(3f316+3f4ρ216+9f5ρ432+5f6ρ6327f7ρ832+3f8ρ1064f9ρ12384)],
(23)
Bz=Eψ0υ[εf+ε3(f22+f3ρ22f4ρ44)+ε5(3f38+3f4ρ28+3f5ρ416f6ρ64+f7ρ832)
+ε7(3f48+3f5ρ28+3f6ρ416+f7ρ61613f8ρ864+3f9ρ1064f10ρ12384)].
(24)

It is well known that LSF shown above is valid for weakly focused fields. The convergence properties of the Lax series will get worse and worse as the beam is focused gradually tightly. Simply truncating the Lax series does not guarantee accurate description of the beam fields. Higher-order correction terms do not necessarily lead to a better approximation. Nevertheless, a resummation scheme, introduced by Weniger [13

13. E. J. Weniger, “Nonlinear sequence transformations for the acceleration of convergence and the summation of divergent series,” Comput. Phys. Rep. 10(5–6), 189–371 (1989). [CrossRef]

], has been demonstrated recently to be an effective method for overcoming the divergence of Lax series. The accurate beam field can be obtained by resuming the Lax series of field [6

6. R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Summing Lax series for nonparaxial beam propagation,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 774–776 (2003). [CrossRef]

,7

7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4959–4969 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

The Weniger transformation, when applied to the partial sum of an infinite series, sm=∑mn=0an(m≥0), can convert them into the following sequence:

δm=Σn=0mmn(1+n)m1Snan+1Σn=0mmn(1+n)m11an+1,
(25)

where (b)j denotes the Pochhammer symbol.

(b)j=b(b+1)(b+2)(b+j1),mn=m!(mn)!n!.
(26)

Therefore, the electric field z component of Eq. (16), accurate to ε 2m+1, can be rewritten by using Weniger transformation:

Ez=Eψ0ξΣn=0mmn(1+n)m1Snezε2(n+1)+1En+1zΣn=0mmn(1+n)m11ε2(n+1)+1En+1z,
(27)

where sezz=∑n i=0 ε 2i+1 Ezi(f,ρ). Equation (27) gives the z component of electric field of WTF, and other components can be obtained by the same process.

2.2 Plane wave spectrum method

We can obtain the field components of a laser beam by the plane wave spectrum method directly. The field components are expressed by the angular spectrum representation as [8

8. A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, “Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 136(1–2), 114–124 (1997). [CrossRef]

,9

9. P. Varga and P. Török, “The Gaussian wave solution of Maxwell’s equations and the validity of scalar wave approximation,” Opt. Commun. 152(1–3), 108–118 (1998). [CrossRef]

]

E=iE02πk2g(kx,ky)F(kx,ky)exp[i(kxx+kyy+kzz)]dkxdky,
(28)
B=iE02πkm(kx,ky)F(kx,ky)exp[i(kxx+kyy+kzz)]dkxdky,
(29)

where

F(kx,ky)=12πψ(x,y,0)exp[i(kxx+kyy)]dxdy,
(30)

and

g(kx,ky)=(k2kx2)ikxkyjkxkzk,m(kx,ky)=kzjkyk.
(31)

We use i, j, and k to denote unit vectors of in the positive x, y and z directions. Equations (28) and (29) are the exact solutions of Maxwell’s equations when the boundary value ψ(x, y, 0) of one of the components of the Hertz vector is given in the z=0 plane. The Gaussian function exp(-ρ 2) is usually chosen as the boundary value. However, for a non-paraxial laser beam, the terms of high order corrections should be included due to the Lax series theory [5

5. M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, “From Maxwell to paraxial wave optics,” Phys. Rev. A 11(4), 1365–1370 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, we define the boundary field according to Eq. (4) as

ψ(x,y,0)=Σn=0mε2nΨ2n(x,y,0).(m0)
(32)

Substituting Eq. (32) into Eq. (30), and using the parameter transformation

kx=κcosθs,ky=κsinθs,x=rcosθp,y=rsinθp,
(33)

the electric and magnetic fields are given by

E=iE02πk202πg(κ)P(κ)exp[iκrcos(θsθp)]κdκdθs,
(34)
B=iE02πk02πm(κ)P(κ)exp[iκrcos(θsθp)]κdκdθs,
(35)

where,

P(κ)=F(κ)exp[iz(k2κ2)12].
(36)

Then by using the transformation rules [1

1. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985). [CrossRef]

4] of Bessel functions, the field components are given as

Ex=iE02k2[I0(e)+cos(2θp)I2(e)],
(37)
Ey=iE02k2sin(2θp)I2(e),
(38)
Ez=E0k2cos(2θp)I1(e),
(39)
Bx=0,
(40)
By=iE0kI0(m),
(41)
Bz=E0ksinθpI0(m),
(42)

with

I0(e)=0(2k2κκ3)P(κ)J0(rκ)dκ,
(43)
I1(e)=0κ2(k2κ2)12P(κ)J1(rκ)dκ,
(44)
I2(e)=0κ3P(κ)J2(rκ)dκ,
(45)
I0(m)=0κ(k2κ2)12P(κ)J0(rκ)dκ,
(46)
I1(m)=0κ2P(κ)J1(rκ)dκ,
(47)

where Jn is the Bessel function, n order, first kind.

The accuracy of NF depends on the function P(κ), which is derived from the boundary field ψ(x, y, 0). Therefore, the accurate boundary field should be taken into account.

To illustrate the effects of high order correction in boundary field, we study the electric field z component of NF for different beam waist sizes in Fig. 1. For the beam waist w 0=5λ, the propagating field derived by the boundary field of ε 0 model is same as that obtained by high order model, as shown in Fig. 1(a). On the contrary, in the case of w 0=λ, the propagating field based on the ε 0 model deviates from that of the high order model, as shown in Fig. 1(b). Therefore, the terms of ε 2 should be included in the boundary field. In Fig. 1(c), we can see that the boundary field of ε 2 model is also inaccurate for w 0=0.5λ. The terms of ε 4 should be included into boundary field. Thus, we should consider the high order correction for a tightly focused laser beam.

Fig. 1. The electric field z component of NF as a function of transverse coordinate x in the line of y=0 at longitudinal coordinate z=zr with a spot size (a) w 0=5λ, (b) w 0=λ, (c) w 0=0.5λ, where w(z)=w 0[1+(z /zr)2]1/2. The initial phase φ 0=0. The different curves represent the fields obtained by the boundary values including different order corrections, (black) ε 0, (red) ε 2, (green dash-dot) ε 4, (blue dash) ε 6.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Comparison of LSF, WTF and NF

To validate the accuracy of WTF, we compare LSF and WTF with NF. Figure 2 gives the amplitude of the electric field z and x components for a tightly focused beam with waist w 0=λ. The boundary field of NF is accurate to ε 2. Results of Figs. 2(a) and 2(c) show that LSF is accurate close to the beam axis, and divergent far from the beam axis. The divergence of Lax series becomes more serious as increasing of the order of ε. We employ Weniger transformation to eliminate the divergence of LSF and obtain WTF, which are given in Figs. 2(b) and 2(d). It can be seen that the divergence of LSF has been eliminated. Moreover, WTF is accurate more and more as increasing of the order of ε.

Fig. 2. The z and x components of electric field as a function of transverse coordinate x in the line of y=0 at longitudinal coordinate z=5zr for a Gaussian beam with a spot size w 0=λ, and initial phase ϕ=0. The black curves represent the components of NF, and the boundary field is accurate to ε 2. The red, green and blue (dash) curves in (a) and (c) is simulated by LSF accurate to ε 3, ε 7 and ε 39 respectively, and those in (b) and (d) is simulated by WTF accurate to ε 3, ε 7 and ε 39 respectively. The insets in (b) and (d) are small parts of (b) and (d). The legend in (a) applies to other figures as well.

3.2 Simulation of electron dynamics in a tightly focused laser beam

The final goal of our study on the accurate field description is to exactly simulate acceleration of electron by a tightly focused intense laser beam in a vacuum. Electron dynamics in an intense laser are always investigated by LSF [2

2. N. Cao, Y. K. Ho, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, X. Q. Yuan, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, and H. Ito, “Accurate description of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 204(1–6), 7–15 (2002). [CrossRef]

4

4. Y. I. Salamin, G. R. Mocken, and C. H. Keitel, “Electron scattering and acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5(10), 101301 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. However, due to the divergence of LSF, the simulation of LSF cannot be always accurate.

Dynamics of the electron in a laser beam in a vacuum is governed by the equations

dpdt=e(E+β×B),dχdt=ecβ.E,
(48)

where the momentum p=γmc β, the energy χ=γmc 2, the Lorentz factor γ=(1-β 2)-1/2, and β is the velocity scaled by c, the speed of light in vacuum. The peak field intensity I0, will be given in terms of the dimensionless parameter q=eE 0/mcω, where I0 λ 2≈1.375×1018 q 2 (W/cm2)(µm)2. The boundaries of the beam are described by the curves xw(z), where w(z)=w 0[1+(z/zr)2]1/2. An electron will be transmitted if its trajectory crosses the line x=w(z), and will be reflected if its trajectory crosses the line x=-w(z) twice or never. Otherwise, it will be captured by the beam.

An electron is injected from a point outside beam boundary toward to the laser beam focus and interacts with the laser. The trajectories and energy gains of electron for the cases of reflection, transmission and capture have been studied. The results showed that electron dynamics simulated by LSF were not always accurate due to the divergence of LSF, and those simulated by WTF are valid qualitatively [7

7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4959–4969 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Here, we use NF to simulate electron dynamics, and compare the results with those simulated by LSF and WTF in the focal area, as shown in Figs. 35. In the simulations, the correction order of LSF and WTF is chosen to be ε 7 and ε 39, respectively, due to that as the correction order of ε increases, the divergence of LSF is more serious and WTF is more accurate. It is clearly shown that for all cases electron dynamics of WTF are consistent with those of NF, but, electron dynamics of LSF deviate from those of NF. Hence, electron dynamics of WTF are accurate.

Fig. 3. (a) The trajectories. (b) The energy gains of the electron dynamics in a laser beam. The red curves, blue curves and green dash curves represent the electron dynamics obtained by LSF, WTF and NF respectively. The electron is injected toward the beam focus (0, 0, 0). The two black curves represent the beam boundaries. Parameters used in the simulations are injected angle θ=10°, q=10, w 0=5µm, λ=5µm, (z 0, y 0, x 0)=(-5mm, 0, -5tanθmm), initial phase φ 0=0, the initial injection energy γ 0=15, Energy Gain=m 0 c 2(γ-γ 0) and the full interaction time ωt=1.96×106.
Fig. 4. (a) The trajectories. (b) The electron energy gains. The initial injection energy γ 0=200, q=100, and the other parameters are same as those of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5. (a) The trajectories. (b) The electron energy gains. The initial injection energy γ 0=16, q=100, and the other parameters are same as those of Fig. 3.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, to validate the accuracy of WTF, we derive NF by the plane wave spectrum method. By comparing LSF and WTF with NF, we illustrate that LSF is divergent and WTF is accurate. As the correction order increases, the divergence of LSF is more serious, and WTF is accurate more and more. Moreover, the electron dynamics are simulated by LSF, WTF and NF, respectively. The results of WTF are shown to be accurate.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge financial supports from the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 60678025), Chinese National Key Basic Research Special Fund (2006CB921703), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, and 111 Project (B07013).

References and links

1.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447–449 (1985). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Cao, Y. K. Ho, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, X. Q. Yuan, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, and H. Ito, “Accurate description of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 204(1–6), 7–15 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. I. Salamin and C. H. Keitel, “Electron acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 095005 (2002). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. I. Salamin, G. R. Mocken, and C. H. Keitel, “Electron scattering and acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5(10), 101301 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, “From Maxwell to paraxial wave optics,” Phys. Rev. A 11(4), 1365–1370 (1975). [CrossRef]

6.

R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Summing Lax series for nonparaxial beam propagation,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 774–776 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4959–4969 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, “Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams,” Opt. Commun. 136(1–2), 114–124 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Varga and P. Török, “The Gaussian wave solution of Maxwell’s equations and the validity of scalar wave approximation,” Opt. Commun. 152(1–3), 108–118 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

L. W. Davis, “Theory of electromagnetic beams,” Phys. Rev. A 19(3), 1177–1179 (1979). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Luo, S. Y. Liu, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Method for accurate description of a radially polarized Gaussian laser beam beyond the paraxial approximation,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1692–1694 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. I. Salamin, “Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond the paraxial approximation,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 319–326 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

E. J. Weniger, “Nonlinear sequence transformations for the acceleration of convergence and the summation of divergent series,” Comput. Phys. Rep. 10(5–6), 189–371 (1989). [CrossRef]

14.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. A 253(1274), 358–379 (1959). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 8, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 15, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 16, 2009
Published: June 29, 2009

Citation
Jian-Xing Li, Wei-Ping Zang, Ya-Dong Li, and Jian-Guo Tian, "Acceleration of electrons by a tightly focused intense laser beam," Opt. Express 17, 11850-11859 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-14-11850


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References

  1. D. Strickland, and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 55(6), 447-449 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Cao, Y. K. Ho, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, X. Q. Yuan, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, and H. Ito, "Accurate description of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics," Opt. Commun.  204(1-6), 7-15 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Electron acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 095005 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. I. Salamin, G. R. Mocken, and C. H. Keitel, "Electron scattering and acceleration by a tightly focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5(10), 101301 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lax, W. H. Louisell, and W. B. McKnight, "From Maxwell to paraxial wave optics," Phys. Rev. A 11(4), 1365-1370 (1975). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Borghi, and M. Santarsiero, "Summing Lax series for nonparaxial beam propagation," Opt. Lett. 28(10), 774-776 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. J. X. Li, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, "Simulation of Gaussian laser beams and electron dynamics by Weniger transformation method," Opt. Express 17(7), 4959-4969 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Doicu, and T. Wriedt, "Plane wave spectrum of electromagnetic beams," Opt. Commun. 136(1-2), 114-124 (1997). [CrossRef]
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