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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 14 — Jul. 6, 2009
  • pp: 12109–12120
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Demonstration of a true single-shot 100 GHzbandwidth optical oscilloscope at 1053-1064 nm

Alain Jolly, Jean-François Gleyze, Philippe Di Bin, and Vincent Kermène  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 14, pp. 12109-12120 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.012109


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Abstract

We demonstrate an innovating design to validate and to optimise the real-time performance of an all-optical oscilloscope at 1053-1064 nm. A unique broadband pulse is generated by means of frequency beats and of proper optical-shaping, which helps us to evidence a signal bandwidth of 100 GHz and a dynamics range in excess of 25 dB. Gain-narrowing and dispersion effects due to the replication of the input pulse are shown to be the first limitations in the broadband capabilities.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

2. The optical set-up

Starting from a unique input pulse, the re-circulating loop enables the generation of a large amount of replicated pulses [17

17. A. Jolly, J. C. Jolly, and J. F. Gleyze, “Static and Synchronised Switching Noise Management of Replicated Optical Pulse Trains,” Opt. Commun. 264, 89–96 (2006). [CrossRef]

] in the form of a periodic Replicated-Optical-Pulse-Train (ROPT). The pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of the re-circulating loop being determined by the total length of fiber and by an adjustable delay-line, the ROPT can be synchronized with the sampling source very precisely. FR and FS figuring the replication and sampling frequencies, we operate the system in such away that the equivalent scanning rate of the input pulse is determined by ΔF=NR.FR-FS. The number NR equals the unit, or may be an integer of which the value must be determined versus the operating conditions.

The so-called sampling process refers to the stroboscope principle, as widely used in the field of commercial electronic-sampling oscilloscopes. The value of ΔF must be controlled with the required precision versus the expected scanning rate and time-base. Even though such a basic idea may appear fairly simple at first sight, just considering the principle, the demonstration of a complete system under properly controlled conditions does not appear to be so evident in the real world. All the combined issues regarding the synchronization, the management of the spectral bandwidth and the stabilization of the polarization need to be kept under tight control at the same time. The re-circulating loop is clockwise, as shown in Fig. 1 (left -side loop). It is operated as a fully-fibered regenerative amplifier of which the gain is kept close to the unity. Provided single-shot triggering by an acousto-optics modulator, the system is synchronized in such a way that the optical path is closed just prior the arrival time of the input pulse, upstream the input coupler. A number of replicated pulses from N ≈ 100 to 2000 can be produced, depending on the operating conditions. The maximum N is limited by the saturation of the gain in the Ytterbium-Doped-Fiber-Amplifier (YDFA) of the loop, which essentially depends upon the energy of the input pulse. A fully - PM architecture has been selected. Without PM, a number of uncontrolled temporal drifts may result from parasitic de-polarizing effects, which leads to rapid variations in the peak power over couples of closel-yspaced replicated pulses. With proper PM, the Polarization-Extinction-Ratio (PER) in the whole optical path can be stabilized in the range 25–30 dB. Even though some residual variations in the PER can not be reduced below a few dB in the long-term, this has been proven to be the best option for the implementation of a finely controlled replication process. The fundamental limitation in the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) remains the sequential accumulation of the amplified stimulated emission (ASE) onto the useful signal, from the YDFA [18

18. T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, and H. Ito, “Novel ultrafast monolithic optical gate integrating uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator,” ECOC Conference, paper Th 261 (2005).

]. Our design enables the preservation of a large OSNR, in excess of 25 dB, as far as the loop gain remains close to the unity and the number of replicated pulses does not exceed ~1000. Accounting for the minimal length requirements due to the cascade of optical components, we set the repetition frequency of the replicated pulses around FR ~9 MHz. The PRF of the sampling source being FS ~27 MHz, the stroboscope concept is operated modulo NR=3.

Fig. 1. The optical set-up: (A-B-C-D)=50/50% PM couplers, (E-F)=ytterbium-doped PM Fibre Amplifiers; (G)=erbium-doped PM Fibre Amplifier; (H)=isolator; (I-J)=ASE PM filters; (K-L-M)=polarisation controllers; (N)=non linear PM fibre, (O)=PM fibre length

The sampling source is made of a fully - PM assembly, including a mode-locked fibered oscillator which delivers ~600 fs FWHM pulses near 1550 nm, and an Erbium-Doped-Fiber-Amplifier (EDFA). This assembly enables us to select the right amount of peak power (Psample), from some tens to a couple of hundred watts. By comparison with other sampling techniques, which can be based on the use of Mach-Zehnder interferometers [18

18. T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, and H. Ito, “Novel ultrafast monolithic optical gate integrating uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator,” ECOC Conference, paper Th 261 (2005).

], of semiconductor saturable absorbers [19

19. D. A. Reid, P. J. Maguire, L. P. Barry, Q. T. Le, S. Lobo, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, M. Joindot, J. C. Simon, D. Massoubre, J. L. Oudar, and G. Aubin, “All-optical sampling in a multiple quantum well saturable absorber,” Optical Fiber Conference, paper OthG4 (2008).

] or of four wave mixing [20

20. M. Skold, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 Gsample/s optical real-time sampling system with Nyquist-limited bandwidth,” ECOC Conference, postdeadline paper (2007).

, 21

21. J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “300-Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 13, 987–989 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the Sagnac loop presented in Fig. 1 (right-side loop) benefits from a very simple and robust architecture. Such a loop enables the combination of picosecond temporal resolutions together with an elevated output contrast at the signal wavelength. But it suffers from the drawback of the superimposition of the sampled pulse at 1053–1064 nm with a large amount of peak power due to the sampling source, downstream the input-output coupler [22

22. A. Jolly and C. Granier, “All-Optical Sampling with Sagnac Switches Using Closed Pump and Signal Wavelengths near 1µm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3861–3871 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In the practical situation this means that the peak power of the sampled pulse, i.e. a couple of milliwatts up to a few tens of milliwatts, must be discriminated from the couple of emerging tens or hundred watts at 1550 nm. The localization of the sampling wavelength within the transparency area of the silicon, near 1550 nm, was governed by the requirement of elevated discrimination capabilities, assuming the use of a silicon photo – detector downstream. The only penalty consists of the need of more sampling power. We selected a silicon-based, low-noise avalanche photo-detector (APD) of which the impulse time response is 500 ps FWHM. Its silicon layer is sensitivity-enhanced near 1 µm. Given sampled pulses with a peak power ranging from 50 to 100 mW at 1053–1064 nm, the output voltage pulse from the APD varies from 100 to 200 mV. Accounting for the set of sizing parameters in our actual Sagnac loop, Fig. 1, together with the spectral and the temporal specifications of the mode-locked oscillator and of the EDFA, a comprehensive model has been developed using MIRO [23

23. O. Morice, “MIRO: Complete modelling and software for pulse amplification and propagation in high – power laser systems,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1530–1541 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. MIRO is a design numerical code, which has been developed in the CEA for the needs of FCI to model the propagation of high-intensity laser pulses in the presence of nonlinear effects along the propagation path.

Fig. 2. Modelling the switched Sagnac loop to determine the expected sampling resolution versus the sizing data: spectral densities of power of the sampling source (a) and of the signal (b), signal intensity at 1053 nm upstream, inside and downstream the loop (c).

Since the energy of the expected sampled pulses ranges from about 10-15 to 10-14 J, there is no simple process to easily get access to experimental values. The most efficient solution to determine the effective sampling duration δt consists in a theoretical estimate of the temporal response using the set of sizing parameters. Then we implement comprehensive calculations by means of the complete Sellmeier equation in the silica, to describe the pulse propagation in the regime of cross-phase-modulation (XPM) in the presence of group velocity dispersion (GVD) and of higher order dispersion effects [24

24. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Ed. by P.F. Liao and P.L. Kelley, (Academic Press Inc1989).

]. Some results are given in Fig. 2 for 10 m of fiber length, at Psample=50 W. They involve the spectral density of power (SDP) of the signal and of the sampling source during the propagation along the active length of fiber, together with the transient phase shift which is induced onto the co-propagated wave at 1053 nm due to XPM. We find δt~3 ps +/- 0.2ps, in connection with consistent uncertainty margins. Despite the temporal limitations, this sampling configuration benefits from quite an elevated optical contrast. Depending upon the environmental conditions, measurements in the static mode of operation indicate typical values as high as ~20 to 28 dB. The main limitation in the attainable contrast comes from those of the transmission balance of the input-output coupler (C), Fig. 1, and from internal depolarization effects [25

25. B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutino, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Let’s refer again to the figure and discuss the main operating features of the set-up. The principle of synchronization is based on a master-slave configuration, the master being the sampling source itself and the slave being the input pulse to be analysed. This is the reason why a clipping stage has been included downstream the sampling source. The selection of a unique pulse inside the sampling pulse train at 1550 nm ensures single-shot signal triggering while preserving a reasonable jitter, from shot to shot, with the sampling source. A specific pulse-shaping system is implemented to control the shape of the temporal envelope of the input pulse. The generator upstream makes use of frequency beats near by 1053–1064 nm, which helps us to generate the expected broadband pulse. The input SDP may be extended up to 500 pm, and more. Sine modulations are produced in a large range of frequencies by means of mixing two continuous-wave Distributed – Feed - Back (DFB) sources within a PM coupler. These two DFBs are single-frequency (SF) and PM. Our pulse-shaping system is operated in such a way that the input pulse exhibits a composite envelope. The front part alone of the envelope is SF. This ensures slow temporal variations, under the assumption of convenient timing, while the rear part exhibits rapid sine modulations. The total pulse-width is ~90 ns, so that the replication period nearly equals three times the one of the sampling source. These operating conditions enable us to benefit from a number of interesting capabilities to demonstrate the complete optical performance:

-the input SDP can be finely adjusted within quite a large spectral range, i.e. from some 100 MHz up to some 100 GHz. The complete signal bandwidth of the all-optical oscilloscope can be scanned a simple way, which ensures a good theoretical knowledge of the envelope and of the transition times. There is no need of any additional signal calibration,

-this particular form of the SDP of the input pulse helps us to evidence the phenomenology and get free from any numerical calculation, at least in a first-order analysis. Due to the actual limitations in the PER of the set-up, we have to bear some unavoidable variations in the intensity of the replicated or of the sampled pulses, from shot to shot. These variations typically range from ~10 %. The implementation of a differential process, such as simultaneous sampling within small sections of the SF area and of the modulated area, helps us to obviate any misunderstanding when looking at the measurement results,

-the adjustment of spectral filters in the re-circulation loop is made possible with a huge precision, for the aim of bandwidth optimization. This will be of a prime interest in the equalization of the spectral gain. This needs to be reminded as a critical issue regarding the spectral narrowing effects. As shown below, the precision in the alignment of the two ASE filters of the re-circulating loop consists of one of the most critical issues. Our operating process will permit the optimisation of the flatness of the spectral gain over the complete signal bandwidth by means of a simple visual control, just verifying that the distribution of sub-structures remains uniform throughout the whole ROPT.

3. Experimental issues and analysis of the sampling performance

The demonstration of the optical performance can only be performed under finely managed conditions. These conditions imply the optimization of the power budget, anywhere in the set-up, and the control of the spectral features. In addition to the coupling and insertion losses, to be minimised anywhere in the re-circulation loop, the power budget involves transmission losses throughout the Sagnac loop for the two wavelengths of interest. Provided a cut-off wavelength in the range of 940–960 nm, in our PM fibres, the propagation of both signal and sampling pulses remains SM. But the large spectral wavelength-mismatch remains a critical issue. To prevent any significant transmission losses at 1550 nm, we take care of the curvature radius in the involved fibres. This radius must not be shorter than ~7–8 cm. The operating conditions to be managed in relationship with the spectral and bandwidth issues are shown in Fig. 3 below. They involve the tight adjustment of the synchronisation features and of ASE filtering inside the re-circulation loop. The first step to operate the oscilloscope implies the following items:

-flatten the spectral distribution of the small-signal net gain in the re-circulating loop, throughout the whole signal bandwidth. Due to increasing gain-narrowing effects, this has already been underlined as the most critical requirement when the total number of replicated pulses increases. Typically, uncontrolled fluctuations in the net spectral gain distribution should remain below some 10-3. By monitoring the conservation of the complete envelope during the whole replication sequence, we can reveal a simple way any flatness defect due to a given misalignment of the two ASE filters and compensate for it. This can also be made a more efficient way than simply using direct spectral measurements, such as those shown in Fig. 3 (top). They involve the evolution in the profile of the spectral gain distribution versus the relative alignment of the two ASE filters, which are cascaded in the re-circulating loop, Fig. 1. The loop was opened at the location of the upper left port of the input coupler. The situation of the black curve approaches the suitable conditions for convenient gain equalization over a signal bandwidth in excess of 0.3 nm, around the central wavelength ~1052.8 nm.

Fig. 3. Management of bandwidth issues: adjustment of ASE filters in the re-circulating loop to equalize the spectral gain distribution (top) and adjustment of the input spectral density of power near 1053 nm with the help of sinusoidal beats (bottom).

The period of the modulations (TFB) in the rear part of the input pulse is given by the wavelength separation, Δλ FB, which can be measured a simple way as far as it is kept above the resolution limit of the optical spectrum analyzer:

TFB=1FFB=λ2cΔλFB
(1)

Given c the velocity of the light, we get TFB=10 ps at ΔλFB=0.3 nm, Fig. 3 (bottom).

As a second step prior the analysis of the broadband performance, we have to verify the efficiency of the stroboscope process in the low frequency domain, Fig. 4. This is done at a low scanning rate, under the suitable synchronization conditions to scan the entire envelope of a nearly flat input pulse. All the electronics delays and thresholds are adjusted step by step, anywhere necessary. Depending upon the triggering option, the pulse can be either SF, Fig. 4 (top) or modulated, Fig. 4 (bottom). The delay line being positioned near its central position, this also helps us to verify the consistency of the fiber length in the re-circulating loop with the required precision, i.e. +/- 2 cm typically, as compared with a total length of ~21 m.

Fig. 4. Control of the synchronization features to operate the stroboscope process, by means of pulse-shape reconstruction in the situation of a low signal bandwidth and of a low sampling rate: single-shot chronograms using a single-frequency input pulse (a) and superimposed sinusoidal beats (b).

The plots in the figure are obtained adding a total reflector at 1053 nm in front of the unused fourth port of the sampling coupler, to superimpose the ROPT (larger intensity) and the sampled pulses (lower intensity) downstream the output of the set-up. The reflector will be removed to go on the work.

Fig. 5. Variation of the signal bandwidth to evidence the single-shot sampling performance: the replicated optical pulse train (A) and sampled pulse train (B) at FFB=150 MHz, the sample pulse train at FFB=2 GHz near the resolution limit for direct visualization (C), with FFB=30 GHz (D), and FFB=100 GHz (E), together with the control of the spectral density of power at FFB=100 GHz (F). The vertical axis involves the optical power (arbitrary units) and the horizontal axis figures the time axis, as referred to the temporal scale inset.

4. Conclusions and optimisation routes

-the dispersion effects in the re-circulating loop need to be cancelled, using a selected length of micro-structured fiber with an opposite dispersion coefficient. By comparison with other options, this should be the most simple and effective solution to enlarge the optical bandwidth while minimizing additional insertion losses. The suitable micro-structured fiber will exhibit a positive dispersion coefficient in the range of D ~+60 to +100 ps/nm/km. Signal bandwidths in the range 300–500 GHz are expected,

-an adjustable Fabry-Perot filter with a very low finesse, typically 0.1, or a Lyot filter may favorably replace one of the ASE filters in the re-circulation loop. This should help us to benefit from much more simple operating conditions when adjusting the re-circulation loop. The use of a large free-spectral-range Fabry-Perot filter near the location of its minimum transmission will not be as critical as the tedious relative alignment process of our ASE filters,

-the actual Sagnac loop may be replaced by faster sampling means, to get access to sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. This could be made with the help of an improved Sagnac design using a shorter length of micro-structured fiber with the suitable PM performance, or with bulky nonlinear crystals such as a periodically-poled-lithium-niobate. Referring to the Sagnac option to go on with a fully-fibered configuration, we can replace our actual PM fibers with highly-nonlinear micro-structured fibers, the mode field area of which could be reduced by a factor of ~10. Representative computations with MIRO then lead to an estimate of δt ~0.5 to 1 ps, using the same sampling source at 1550 nm. The main issue consists of the commercial availability of the suitable micro-structured fibers with the suitable PM geometry, to maintain an elevated PER.

Acknowledgements

References and links

1.

P. A. Andrekson, “Ultrahigh bandwidth optical sampling oscilloscopes,” Optical Fiber Conference, Inv. paper TuO1 (2004).

2.

D. Besnard, La ligne d’intégration laser – Présentation du thème, CHOCS 29, revue scientifique et technique CEA/DAM (2004).

3.

D. U. Noske and J. R. Taylor, “Picosecond optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1739–1741 (1991). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Yin, A. Chen, W. Zhang, G. Chen, and X. Wen, “Multichannel singe-shot transient signal measurements with a fiber delay line loop,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 343–348 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823–825 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Dorrer, B. de Beauvoir, C. Le Blanc, S. Ranc, J. P. Rousseau, P. Rousseau, J. P. Chambaret, and F. Salin, “Single-shot real-time characterization of chirped-pulse amplification systems by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1644–1646 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3523–3525 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y. Takagi, Y. Yamada, K. Ishikawa, S. Shimizu, and S. Sakabe, “Ultrafast single-shot optical oscilloscope based on time-to-space conversion due to temporal and spatial walk-off effects in nonlinear mixing crystal,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6546–6549 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

C. Dorrer, “Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical sources using time magnification and heterodyning,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CTuC6 (2006).

10.

C. V. Bennett, B. D. Moran, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and M. Ibsen, “640 GHz real-time recording using temporal imaging,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CTuA6 (2008).

11.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161105 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A.L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17, 4324–4329 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456, 81–84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Letters 10, 397–399(1998). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Kringlebotn and P. Morkel, “Amplified Fibre Delay Line with 27000 Recirculations,” Electron. Lett. 28, 201 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

C. Dorrer, J. Bromage, and J.D. Zuegel, “High-dynamic-range, single-shot cross-correlator using a pulse replicator,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper JTuA51 (2008).

17.

A. Jolly, J. C. Jolly, and J. F. Gleyze, “Static and Synchronised Switching Noise Management of Replicated Optical Pulse Trains,” Opt. Commun. 264, 89–96 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, and H. Ito, “Novel ultrafast monolithic optical gate integrating uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator,” ECOC Conference, paper Th 261 (2005).

19.

D. A. Reid, P. J. Maguire, L. P. Barry, Q. T. Le, S. Lobo, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, M. Joindot, J. C. Simon, D. Massoubre, J. L. Oudar, and G. Aubin, “All-optical sampling in a multiple quantum well saturable absorber,” Optical Fiber Conference, paper OthG4 (2008).

20.

M. Skold, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, “100 Gsample/s optical real-time sampling system with Nyquist-limited bandwidth,” ECOC Conference, postdeadline paper (2007).

21.

J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “300-Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 13, 987–989 (2001). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Jolly and C. Granier, “All-Optical Sampling with Sagnac Switches Using Closed Pump and Signal Wavelengths near 1µm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3861–3871 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

O. Morice, “MIRO: Complete modelling and software for pulse amplification and propagation in high – power laser systems,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1530–1541 (2003). [CrossRef]

24.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Ed. by P.F. Liao and P.L. Kelley, (Academic Press Inc1989).

25.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutino, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: April 1, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 9, 2009
Published: July 2, 2009

Citation
Alain Jolly, Jean-François Gleyze, Philippe Di Bin, and Vincent Kermène, "Demonstration of a true single-shot 100 GHz-bandwidth optical oscilloscope at 1053-1064 nm," Opt. Express 17, 12109-12120 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-14-12109


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References

  1. P. A. Andrekson, "Ultrahigh bandwidth optical sampling oscilloscopes," Optical Fiber Conference, Inv. paper TuO1 (2004).
  2. D. Besnard, La ligne d’intégration laser - Présentation du thème, CHOCS 29, revue scientifique et technique CEA / DAM (2004).
  3. D. U. Noske and J. R. Taylor, "Picosecond optical sampling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1739 - 1741 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yin, A. Chen, W. Zhang, G. Chen, and X. Wen, "Multichannel singe-shot transient signal measurements with a fiber delay line loop," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 517, 343-348 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Dorrer, B. de Beauvoir, C. Le Blanc, S. Ranc, J. P. Rousseau, P. Rousseau, J. P. Chambaret, and F. Salin, "Single-shot real-time characterization of chirped-pulse amplification systems by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1644-1646 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, "Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry," Opt. Lett. 31, 3523-3525 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Takagi, Y. Yamada, K. Ishikawa, S. Shimizu, and S. Sakabe, "Ultrafast single-shot optical oscilloscope based on time-to-space conversion due to temporal and spatial walk-off effects in nonlinear mixing crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6546-6549 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Dorrer, "Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical sources using time magnification and heterodyning," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CTuC6 (2006).
  10. C. V. Bennett, B. D. Moran, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and M. Ibsen, " 640 GHz real-time recording using temporal imaging," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CTuA6 (2008).
  11. J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, "Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A.L. Gaeta, "High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier," Opt. Express 17, 4324-4329 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE Phot. Tech. Letters 10, 397-399(1998). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kringlebotn and P. Morkel, "Amplified Fibre Delay Line with 27000 Recirculations," Electron. Lett. 28,201 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Dorrer, J. Bromage, and J.D. Zuegel, " High-dynamic-range, single-shot cross-correlator using a pulse replicator," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper JTuA51 (2008).
  17. A. Jolly, J. C. Jolly, and J. F. Gleyze, "Static and Synchronised Switching Noise Management of Replicated Optical Pulse Trains," Opt. Commun. 264, 89-96 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Yoshimatsu, S. Kodama, and H. Ito, "Novel ultrafast monolithic optical gate integrating uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulator," ECOC Conference, paper Th 261 (2005).
  19. D. A. Reid, P. J. Maguire, L. P. Barry, Q. T. Le, S. Lobo, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, M. Joindot, J. C. Simon, D. Massoubre, J. L. Oudar, and G. Aubin, "All-optical sampling in a multiple quantum well saturable absorber," Optical Fiber Conference, paper OthG4 (2008).
  20. M. Skold, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, "100 Gsample/s optical real-time sampling system with Nyquist-limited bandwidth," ECOC Conference, postdeadline paper (2007).
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