OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12582–12587
« Show journal navigation

Continuous-wave laser action around 2-μm in Ho3+:Lu2SiO5

Bao-Quan Yao, Zheng-Ping Yu, Xiao-Ming Duan, Zhi-Min Jiang, Yun-Jun Zhang, Yue-zhu Wang, and Guang-Jun Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12582-12587 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.012582


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (172 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Continuous-wave (cw) laser action around 2 μm in Ho3+-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO) was demonstrated in this paper. Cryogenically cooled by liquid nitrogen, a 10-mm long Tm-sensitized (6% at.) Ho(0.4% at.):LSO produced a maximum output power of 3 W at 2.07 μm for incident diode power of 11 W at 786 nm, and a slope efficiency of 35% with respect to incident pump power. To achieve room-temperature operation of Tm, Ho:LSO laser, a 1-mm long microchip crystal was pumped by a high brightness diode, generating an output power of greater than 80 mW and a slope efficiency of 26% at 2.08 μm. Using a 1.91 μm Tm:YLF laser as an in-band pump source, room-temperature cw operation of singly-doped Ho: Lu2SiO5 laser at 2106 nm was attained with a maximum output power of 2.8 W and a slope efficiency of 35% corresponding to absorbed pump power.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Holmium lasers emitting at wavelengths around 2 μm are promising source of laser radiation for coherent Doppler lidar system and nonlinear optical generation of tunable mid-infrared radiation [1

1. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 Mum using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm-pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. To meet the stringent requirement for laser lidar transmitter and driving ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator (OPO), significant progress in Ho lasers based on LuLF, YAG and YLF host materials has been made recently [3

3. J. R. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. S. Chen, Y. X. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulseQ-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 462–464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. A. Dergachev, D. Armstrong, A. Smith, T. Drake, and M. Dubois, “3.4-mum ZGP RISTRA nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2.05-mum Ho:YLF MOPA system,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14404–14413 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Lu2SiO5 host has several properties that make it well suited for development of a solid-state laser source around 2 μm. Crystal growth of undoped or doped LSO by the Czochralski technique is quite easy to perform due to its congruent melting behavior. As a monoclinic biaxial crystal (class 2/m, space group c2c), the strong natural birefringence overwhelms the thermally induced stress birefringence that is the source of thermal depolarization observed in isotropic media such as YAG. The thermal conductivity of pure LSO is 3.67 Wm−1K−1 at 300K [6

6. H. I. Cong, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, W. T. Yu, J. D. Fan, X. F. Cheng, S. Q. Sun, J. Zhang, Q. M. Lu, C. J. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Structural and thermal properties of the monoclinic Lu2SiO5 single crystal: evaluation as a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 42(2), 284–294 (2009). [CrossRef]

], which is smaller than 7.2 Wm−1K−1 for YLF and 11.2 Wm−1K−1 for YAG at 299 K [7

7. R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermo-optic properties of laser crystals in the 100-300 K temperature range:Y3Al5O12(YAG), YAlO3(YALO) and LiYF4(YLF),” Proc. SPIE 5707, 165–170 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. However, the weak molar mass difference of 3.5% between Tm, Ho and Lu makes a weak decrease in thermal conductivity of LSO with thulium and holmium doping [8

8. R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insulating crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355–1357 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

In the Tm:Ho system the Tm3+ ions are pumped by a diode laser into the 3F4 manifold, followed by energy transfer to populate the Ho 5I7 upper laser manifold. Emission near 2.1 μm is then generated from Ho 5I75I8 transition. Another alternative approach is to pump Ho ions directly into the upper laser manifold of 5I7 by a Tm-doped laser. In this paper we report what is to our knowledge the first Tm, Ho-codoped and Ho-doped LSO lasers operating around 2 μm, pumped by laser diodes near 790 nm and a Tm laser at 1.9 μm, respectively.

2. Absorption and emission spectrum

Singly-doped-Ho (1 at. %) and Tm (6 at. %):Ho(0.4 at. %)-codoped LSO boules were grown by the standard Czochralski technique. All the Ho:LSO samples utilized to measure spectroscopic parameters have the same size of 15 × 20 mm2 in aperture and 1 mm in length. The room-temperature polarized absorption cross-section spectra corresponding to Tm 3H63H4 and Ho 5I85I7 bands, recorded on a Shimadzu UV-3100PC spectrophotometer at 0.2 nm resolution, are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Room-temperature polarized absorption cross sections of the Tm 3H4 manifold in LSO.
. The absorption spectra of thulium in LSO host is broad, which extends from 760 to 810 nm. The absorption features, coinciding with emission wavelengths of commercially available high-power laser diodes, are located at 786 (σabs = 4.2 × 10−21cm2, linewidth 4 nm) for E//D1 and 791 nm (σabs = 5.8 × 10−21cm2, linewidth 6 nm) forE//<010>. As also shown in Fig. 1, for Ho:LSO along the crystallographic D1 axis the absorption peaks occur at 1.91, 1.94, and 1.99 μm, which are consistent with the emission wavelengths of Tm lasers such as Tm:YLF (1.91 μm), Tm:YAP (1.94 μm) and Tm fiber (1.8~2.1 μm). Meanwhile, there is serious reabsorption at the lasing wavelengths around 2 μm. To reduce the reabsorption losses, it is necessary to maintain Tm,Ho:LSO medium at lower temperature such as 77 K for minimizing the fractional Bolzman population of the holmium 5I8 lower laser Stark level in LSO. And, the low Ho ions concentrations of less than 0.5 at. % and short crystal length to several millimeters could also be preferable for decreasing reabsorption when operating in room temperature [9

9. H. Hemmati, “2.07-µm cw diode-laser-pumped Tm, Ho:YLiF4 room-temperature laser,” Opt. Lett. 14(9), 435–437 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The room-temperature polarized fluorescence spectra, which correspond to Ho 5I75I8 transition, were taken by a 0.3-m single-grating (300 lines/mm, blazing at 2.0 μm) WDM1-3 monochrometer with a resolution of 0.8 nm. The singly-doped Ho:LSO sample was excited at 1.91 μm by a cw Tm:YLF laser. The luminescence signal was detected by an InGaAs detector and processed by a SRS-830 lock-in amplifier. The lifetime of Ho 5I7 manifold for LSO was 3.3 ms, measured by using a 2.05-μm Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser (10 Hz PRF, 20-ns pulse duration) as an exciting source, comparing with 8 ms for Ho:YAG and 12 ms for Ho:YLF. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Room-temperature polarized emission cross-section spectra of Ho:LSO 5I7 manifold.
shows the polarized effective emission cross-section spectrum of Ho:LSO determined by Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. The maximum effective emission cross sections are 2.02×1020cm−2 at 2.03 μm (E//D1) and 1.59×1020cm−2 at 2.09 μm (E//D1) in Ho:LSO, compared with that of 1.13×1020cm2 at 2.09 μm in Ho:YAG [10

10. R. Gaume, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, and G. Aka, “Optical and laser properties of Yb:Y2SiO5 single crystals and discussion of the figure of merit relevant to compare ytterbium-doped laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 19(1), 81–88 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and 1.55×1020cm2 (π polarization) at 2.05 μm in Ho:YLF [11

11. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. In the orthosilicate LSO, holmium ions can lie in the two rare earth sites, respectively, six- and seven-coordinated, both of which are of low symmetry and very distorted [12

12. B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3255–3271 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Consequently, a broad emission band arises, which extends from 1.93 to 2.11 μm, as shown in Fig. 2.

3. Diode-pumped Tm,Ho:LSO laser

The schematic diagram of cryogenic Tm, Ho:LSO laser is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experiment setup of dual-end-pumped cryogenic Tm,Ho: LSO laser. DM, dichroic mirror (HR@2.0-2.1 μm and HT@791 nm), CL, collimating lens (focal length of 25 mm), FL, focusing lens (focal length of 38 mm).
. The laser crystal, cut along the <010> crystallographic axis, doped with 6 at. % Tm3+ and 0.4 at. % Ho3+, had a dimension of 4 mm×4 mm(in cross section)×10 mm(in length), of which both end surfaces were anti-reflection (AR) coated at the pump wavelength of 786 nm (R<0.5%) and the lasing wavelengths of 2.0-2.1μm (R<0.2%). This active medium was wrapped in indium foil and held in a copper heat-sink connected with a small dewar filled with liquid nitrogen, resulting in a significant decrease of ground-state absorption and reduction of thermal-optic effects at low temperature [13

13. D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pump source is a fiber-coupled (0.4 mm core diameter, 0.22 NA) laser diode with a maximum output power of 15 W at 786 nm. The collimated output from the diode was split in half for dual end-pumping, allowing for the heat generated in the Tm, Ho:LSO crystal dissipating along the entire length uniformly, and then relay-imaged into the gain medium with a magnification of 1.5. The absorption spectral profile of Tm,Ho:LSO corresponding to the Tm3+ 3H63H4 transition becomes narrower at 77 K compared to that in room temperature, hence the pump absorption efficiency is sensitive to the diode emission wavelength, which must be held at constant value by controlling its operating temperature. About 90% diode power was absorbed by the 10-mm long Tm,Ho:LSO crystal. The L-shaped resonator with physical length of about 120 mm, is constituted by a flat mirror with 99.5% reflectivity in the wavelength range 2.0-2.1 μm and 95% transmission at the pump wavelength of 786 nm, a flat 45° dichroic mirror with reflectivity of 99.8% at 2.0-2.1 μm and a transmissivity of 95% at 786 nm, and is a plano-concave output coupler (OC) with a radius of curvature of 300 mm.

To achieve operation of Tm,Ho:LSO laser in room temperature, a shorter crystal of 1 mm long was pumped by a high brightness fiber coupled LD (DILAS M1F1S22), which was collimated and refocused to form a beam waist radius of 250 μm inside the gain medium. The input side of the crystal was coated with unity reflectivity near 2 μm and approximately 90% transmissivity at 0.79 μm, while the output surface was 99% reflecting for the lasing wavelength and highly transmitting for the pump wavelength. The diode output was temperature tuned to 791 nm, at which approximately 30% light power was absorbed by the 1-mm long crystal. The laser output power as a function of the absorbed pump power for the microchip Tm,Ho:LSO at 12 °C is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output power of the room-temperature Tm,Ho:LSO laser versus incident pump power.
. An output power of 80 mW at 2.08 μm was obtained for 1.1 W of absorbed power, which corresponds to 4 W of incident power. The threshold was at 0.61 W of absorbed power. The slope efficiency for the output relative to the absorbed pump powers was 26%, compared to 25.4% slope efficiency obtained by the similar Tm, Ho:YLF microchip laser operating at −5 °C [16

16. G. J. Koch, J. P. Deyst, and M. E. Storm, “Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF,” Opt. Lett. 18(15), 1235–1237 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Due to the serious thermal effects the output power would not increase with greater than 1.1 W of absorbed pump power by the active medium.

4. Room-temperature resonantly pumped Ho:LSO laser

Tm, Ho-codoped crystal is difficult to obtain cw output in multi-Watt power level due to its low energy transferring efficiency and strong cooperative upconversion. To achieve cw operation of Ho:LSO laser at room temperature, an in-band-pumping configuration was adopted in our experiment. The laser schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a resonantly pumped Ho:LSO laser operating in room temperature.
. A diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser with an emission wavelength of 1.91 μm and a beam quality parameter of M2≈1.1 was utilized as a pump source. By use of a 200-mm focal length mode-matching lens, pump spot size of ~380 μm in diameter was formed inside the gain medium. The Ho:LSO crystal is 20 mm in length and 4 × 4 mm in cross section, doped with 1 at. % Ho and antireflection coated at the pump and laser wavelengths. At the wavelength of 1.91 μm the single-pass pump absorption efficiency is about 50% by the 20 mm long crystal. The In foil wrapped Ho:LSO laser crystal was clamped in a copper block, which was mounted onto a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to allow for pump generated heat removal and precise temperature control. The crystal temperature was held at 18°C. The L-shaped Ho:LSO laser cavity consists of a flat mirror with R>99.8% at 2.1 μm, a 45° dichroic mirror with R>99.8% at 2.1 μm and T>98% at 1.91 μm, and a concave output coupler with a radius of curvature of 100 mm and 5% transmission at 2.1μm. The total physical length of the resonator is ~50 mm, resulting in a calculated TEM00 beam waist diameter of ~350 μm.

The cw laser data obtained using resonantly pumping configuration are shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Laser output from resonantly pumped Ho:LSO. Inset, laser spectrum of Ho:LSO with OC transmissivity of 5%.
. The maximum output power is 2.8 W for 12 W of absorbed pump power, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 23%, comparing with that of 32% for Ho:YLF laser pumped by a 1.94 μm Tm fiber laser [5

5. A. Dergachev, D. Armstrong, A. Smith, T. Drake, and M. Dubois, “3.4-mum ZGP RISTRA nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2.05-mum Ho:YLF MOPA system,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14404–14413 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and 50% for Ho:YAG laser pumped by a Tm:YLF laser [2

2. P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm-pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The scattering losses inside the crystal and the thermally induced mode mismatch between the pump and resonator beam (less than 350 μm in diameter) could account for the lower conversion efficiency. A linear regression fit to the data yields a slope efficiency of 35% and a threshold pump power of 4 W. The beam quality of the in-band pumped Ho:LSO laser was measured to be M2≈1.1 at the maximum output power level. The output of Ho:LSO laser with 5% transmission OC becomes linearly polarized along the D1 crystallographic axis. The spectral output of room-temperature cw Ho:LSO laser, measured by means of a WDM1-3 monochrometer with a resolution of 0.8 nm, is shown in Fig. 6 inset, in which the emission profile is centered at 2106 nm with FWHM linewidth of 3.3 nm. The longer wavelength of Ho:LSO operation in room temperature is due to the higher gain cross section at 2106 nm for the longer (20 mm compared to 10 mm) and higher Ho3+ concentration (1% compared to 0.4%) medium. For higher optical conversion efficiency the Ho:LSO could be pumped at 1.94 μm where the strongest absorption exists.

5. Summary

In summary, we report the first laser performance of Ho:LSO crystals. The maximum cw output power of 3 W and 80 mW have been achieved by using diode pumped Tm,Ho:LSO lasers, operating in cryogenic temperature regime and in room temperature, respectively. In addition, a maximum cw output power of 2.8 W at 2106 nm, and a slope efficiency of 35% have been demonstrated in resonantly pumped Ho:LSO laser operating in room temperature.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 60878011, and also supported by Acknowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References and Links

1.

S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 Mum using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm-pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

J. R. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. S. Chen, Y. X. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulseQ-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 462–464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

E. Lippert, S. Nicolas, G. Arisholm, K. Stenersen, and G. Rustad, “Midinfrared laser source with high power and beam quality,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3839–3845 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Dergachev, D. Armstrong, A. Smith, T. Drake, and M. Dubois, “3.4-mum ZGP RISTRA nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2.05-mum Ho:YLF MOPA system,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14404–14413 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. I. Cong, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, W. T. Yu, J. D. Fan, X. F. Cheng, S. Q. Sun, J. Zhang, Q. M. Lu, C. J. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Structural and thermal properties of the monoclinic Lu2SiO5 single crystal: evaluation as a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 42(2), 284–294 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermo-optic properties of laser crystals in the 100-300 K temperature range:Y3Al5O12(YAG), YAlO3(YALO) and LiYF4(YLF),” Proc. SPIE 5707, 165–170 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insulating crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355–1357 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

H. Hemmati, “2.07-µm cw diode-laser-pumped Tm, Ho:YLiF4 room-temperature laser,” Opt. Lett. 14(9), 435–437 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Gaume, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, and G. Aka, “Optical and laser properties of Yb:Y2SiO5 single crystals and discussion of the figure of merit relevant to compare ytterbium-doped laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 19(1), 81–88 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

12.

B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3255–3271 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient 1.94-μm Tm:YALO laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 78–81 (1995). [CrossRef]

15.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. H. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+: KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 42, 1008–1015 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

G. J. Koch, J. P. Deyst, and M. E. Storm, “Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF,” Opt. Lett. 18(15), 1235–1237 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: July 2, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: July 5, 2009
Published: July 20, 2009

Citation
Bao-Quan Yao, Zheng-Ping Yu, Xiao-Ming Duan, Zhi-Min Jiang, Yun-Jun Zhang, Yue-zhu Wang, and Guang-Jun Zhao, "Continuous-wave laser action around 2-μm in Ho3+:Lu2SiO5," Opt. Express 17, 12582-12587 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12582


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 Mum using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm-pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. S. Chen, Y. X. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulseQ-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 462–464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Lippert, S. Nicolas, G. Arisholm, K. Stenersen, and G. Rustad, “Midinfrared laser source with high power and beam quality,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3839–3845 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Dergachev, D. Armstrong, A. Smith, T. Drake, and M. Dubois, “3.4-mum ZGP RISTRA nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2.05-mum Ho:YLF MOPA system,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14404–14413 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. I. Cong, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, W. T. Yu, J. D. Fan, X. F. Cheng, S. Q. Sun, J. Zhang, Q. M. Lu, C. J. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Structural and thermal properties of the monoclinic Lu2SiO5 single crystal: evaluation as a new laser matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst. 42(2), 284–294 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermo-optic properties of laser crystals in the 100-300 K temperature range:Y3Al5O12(YAG), YAlO3(YALO) and LiYF4(YLF),” Proc. SPIE 5707, 165–170 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insulating crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355–1357 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Hemmati, “2.07-µm cw diode-laser-pumped Tm, Ho:YLiF4 room-temperature laser,” Opt. Lett. 14(9), 435–437 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Gaume, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, and G. Aka, “Optical and laser properties of Yb:Y2SiO5 single crystals and discussion of the figure of merit relevant to compare ytterbium-doped laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 19(1), 81–88 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm, Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]
  12. B. M. Walsh and N. P. Barnes, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3255–3271 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient 1.94-μm Tm:YALO laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 78–81 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. H. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+: KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 42, 1008–1015 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. G. J. Koch, J. P. Deyst, and M. E. Storm, “Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF,” Opt. Lett. 18(15), 1235–1237 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited