OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12835–12848
« Show journal navigation

Active microring optical integrator associated with electroabsorption modulators for high speed low light power loadable and erasable optical memory unit

Yunhong Ding, Xiaobei Zhang, Xinliang Zhang, and Dexiu Huang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12835-12848 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.012835


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (303 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose and analyze a novel loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on an active microring optical integrator associated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM) on III-V material system. The gain of the active microring is characterized by the two energy band model with amplified spontaneous emission noises taken into account. Based on the light field propagation equation in the active microring waveguide and the transfer function of the EAM-MZI switch, the step function performances of the optical memory under the gain matching condition are discussed for different injection light powers. After that, the memory operation of the novel optical memory unit is analyzed in detail. Simulations show that, the step function response and memory performances are affected by the carrier consumption. However, such influence will be released, and the memory operates well for the low light power injection case. The novel optical memory unit is promising to be cascaded connected and densely integrated for high speed low power optical data stream storage and buffer.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical memory or buffer is critical for all-optical network, and considerable efforts have been made to realize optical data buffering. Most of the optical buffering schemes produce a delay time of the data stream, such as slowing light [1

1. J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, “'Slow' and 'fast' light in resonator-coupled waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(14-15), 2629–2636 (2002). [CrossRef]

4

4. Q. F. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]

], optical fiber loop [5

5. A. M. Liu, C. Q. Wu, M. S. Lim, Y. D. Gong, and P. Shum, “Optical buffer configuration based on a 3×3 collinear fibre coupler,” Electron. Lett. 40(16), 1017 (2004). [CrossRef]

7

7. S. N. Fu, P. Shum, G. Ning, C. Q. Wu, and Y. J. Li, “Theoretical investigation of dual-wavelength packet signal storage with SOA-based dual loop optical buffer,” Opt. Commun. 279(2), 255–261 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and so on. Another scheme is based on optical memory unit and similar to memory in the field of micro-electronics, it solves single bit storage problem. If the single optical data bit storage is solved successfully, the optical data steam storage can be easily solved just by cascading the memory units. A semiconductor optical memory unit controlled by a comb-like electrode has been realized [8

8. S. Zimmermann, A. Wixforth, J. P. Kotthaus, W. Wegscheider, and M. Bichler, “A Semiconductor-Based Photonic Memory Cell,” Science 283(5406), 1292–1295 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, ultra-low temperature is required. Another approach for optical memory unit is the injection-locked optical memory unit realized by single [9

9. Z. R. Wang, G. H. Yuan, G. Verschaffelt, J. Danckaert, and S. Y. Yu, “Storing 2 bits of information in a novel single semiconductor microring laser memory cell,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1228–1230 (2008). [CrossRef]

] or dual microring lasers [10

10. M. T. D. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. But they are still inconvenient for cascading, because that the two operating laser modes are clockwise and anti-clockwise, and there will be influences between neighborhoods for cascaded connection.

2. Principle and simulation model

2.1 Principle

Considering a light Ein(ω) with angular frequency of ω is injected into the memory unit, the transfer function of light is found as
H(ω)=E1signal(ω)Ein(ω)=jκexp(jβL1)exp(12aRL1)1[G(1κ2)exp(ΓEAMa0LEAM)exp(aRLR)]1/2exp(jωT)
(2)
where ωT=βLRΓEAMa0α0LEAM/2π/2. G is the roundtrip optical intensity gain, aR and LR=L1+L2 are the loss coefficient and the length of the ring waveguide except the EAM-MZI switch length, L1 and L2 is the length of the right and left parts of the ring waveguide, and T is the roundtrip propagating time of the light. For an optical integral function, the required optical intensity gain G will be
G=1(1κ2)exp(ΓEAMa0LEAM)exp(aRLR)
(3)
Equation (3) is also the gain matching condition for the memory unit acting as an optical integrator element. For the gain matching condition, the roundtrip net gain is G(1κ2)exp(ΓEAMa0LEAM)exp(aRLR)=1. Under the gain matching condition, if an optical pulse is injected into the memory unit, there will be a light step function generated in the memory unit, without light output from the read port. If we need to read out the information from the memory unit, we need to load a read voltage pulse Vread(t) on the lower EAM of the EAM-MZI switch. Then from Eq. (1)b) we can see Eout0, hence light will be read out from the output port. Additionally,
|rEAMMZI(Vread)|=12e12ΓEAMa0LEAM|1+e12ΓEAM[ad(Vread)a0]LEAMejΓEAM[ad(Vread)αd(Vread)a0α0]LEAM|                      <e12ΓEAMa0LEAM=|rEAMMZI(0)|
(4)
hence, the gain matching condition is destroyed, and the light stored in the memory unit will be erased. Fabrications of the device can be carried out since active microring lasers have been successfully demonstrated [21

21. M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003). [CrossRef]

,22

22. S. Park, S. S. Kim, L. W. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “InGaAsP-InP nanoscale waveguide-coupled microring lasers with submilliampere threshold current using Cl-2-N-2-based high-density plasma etching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 351–356 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and EAMs have been successfully integrated with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) [23

23. L. P. Hou, H. L. Zhu, F. Zhou, L. F. Wang, J. Bian, and W. Wang, “Lossless electroabsorption modulator monolithically rntegrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-wavegulde spot-size converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1635–1637 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers [24

24. H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, “EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 954–956 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Attentions should be paied that the traveling wave effects induced by modulating the EAM to the read output signal are not rigorously considered in our model, but such neglect does not affect the correction of the operation principle and following analysis because such effects are weak and do not impact the main characteristics of the EAM-MZI switch. However, it may slightly influence the dynamics of the EAM-MZI switch, and will further slightly impact the quality of the read out pulses, because for read operation, the memory unit works as a ring resonator modulator with coupling modulation [25

25. W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which determines the quality of the modulated output light pulse.

2.2 Simulation model

The active ring waveguide with multiple quantum wells (MQW) can offer the required gain for the gain matching by a bias current I. To realize the integral function, the active ring resonator must work slightly under the lasing threshold [16

16. Y. P. R. Slavík, N. Ayotte, S. Doucet, T.-J. Ahn, S. LaRochelle, and J. Azaña, “Photonic Temporal Integrator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), CPDB3 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=URI=CLEO-2008-CPDB2003.

], and the injected light must be also on resonation [18

18. Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5315–5321 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Regarding the noises, only the noises which are on resonation will be amplified and should be considered. Then the resonance light fields propagating along the active ring waveguide with MQW can be described by [26

26. M. J. Connelly, “Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 439–447 (2001). [CrossRef]

]

1vgEpCW,CCWt±EpCW,CCWz={j2πλpΔn+12(Γg(z,t,N,λp)αs)}×EpCW,CCW+spCW,CCW
(5)

The ASE noise contribution can be evaluated by a Gaussian-distributed random number generator with a self-correlation function as follows [27

27. J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Time-domain models for the performance simulation of semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2956–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
s(CW,CCW)(z,t,λk)s*(CW,CCW)(z,t,λk)=γRsp(z,t,λk)dzvgδ(zz')δ(tt')δ(λkλk')
(6)
where γ is spontaneous emission coupling coefficient, Rsp (s−1m−3) is the spontaneous emission rate, and dz is the length of each subsection introduced by the spatial discretization of the active zone. The material gain g and spontaneous emission rate Rsp can be evaluated by the two energy band model [28

28. E. B. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Analysis on dynamic characteristics of semiconductor optical amplifiers with certain facet reflection based on detailed wideband model,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9096–9106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
g(ωp)=c22n12ωp2τ(2memhh(me+mhh))3/2×(ωpEg)1/2[fc(ωp)fv(ωp)]
(7)
Rsp(ωp)=Δυπτ(2memhh(me+mhh))3/2×(ωpEg)1/2fc(ωp)[1fv(ωp)]
(8)
where c is velocity of propagation of light in vacuum, n1 is active region refractive index, τ=(Arad+BradN)1 is the radiative carrier recombination lifetime with Arad and Brad as the linear and bimolecular radiative recombination coefficient respectively, is the normalized Planck’s constant, me and mhh are the effective mass of an electron in conduction band and a heavy hole in valence band respectively, fc(ωp) and fv(ωp) are the Fermi-Dirac distributions which determine the occupation probabilities for the electrons in the conduction band and the valence band respectively. Eg is the bandgap energy.

The carrier rate equation is described by
dN(z,t)dt=IeV[Rrad(N)+Rnrad(N)]k=1NdΓvgg(z,t,λk)|ECW(z,t,λk)+ECCW(z,t,λk)|2
(9)
where I is the bias current, V=LRwd is the active layer volume, with w and d as the ring waveguide width and height of active region respectively, Rrad(N)=AradN+BradN2 and Rnrad(N)=AnradN+BnradN2+CN3 with Anrad, Bnrad and C as the linear nonradiative, bimolecular nonradiative and Auger recombination coefficient respectively.

For the light propagating in the EAM, the loss coefficient ad(Vread) of EAM is assumed to be Lorentzian function depends on wavelength and driving voltage [20

20. K. Yonggyoo, L. Hanlim, L. Jaehoon, H. Jaeho, T. W. Oh, and J. Jichai, “Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(8), 900–908 (2000). [CrossRef]

] due to quantum-confined Stark effect. The linewidth enhancement factor is defined by αd(λp,Vread)=(4π/λp)[Δn(λp,Vread)/Δa(λp,Vread)], with Δn(λp,Vread) and Δa(λp,Vread) as the refractive index and absorption change respect to that when the EAM is zero biased. And Δn(λp,Vread) can be evaluated by the Kramers-Kronig relation.

3. Numerical results

3.1. Step function response performances of the optical memory unit

A light step function is basic for the memory unit based on the optical integrator [18

18. Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5315–5321 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The performances of the light step function response to the input data pulse directly impacts the storage performances of the memory unit. A memory unit based on the optical integrator with an ideal light step function can obtain infinite storage time, with invariable readout power for read operation at different read time. As the light step function of the optical integrator based memory is deteriorated, the ability of storage time will be greatly affected as analyzed below. Hence, we first analyze the step function response performances of the memory unit under gain matching condition, i.e. slightly under lasing threshold. Based on the input 2 × 2 coupling equation Eq. (10), light propagation equation Eq. (5), and transfer function Eq. (1) of the EAM-MZI switch, a spatial discretization and time-dependent transfer matrix method (TMM) is applied to calculate the dynamics of the memory unit. The parameters referred above are shown in Table 1

Table 1. Parameters used in the simulation.

table-icon
View This Table
. below.

The system is chosen to work at λ0=1.55μm by adjusting the bandgap energy. The peak wavelength of the gain spectrum is adjusted slightly blue shifted from1.55μm. As the noises are amplified, carriers will be consumed, leading to red shift of the gain spectrum [26

26. M. J. Connelly, “Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 439–447 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. To calculate the threshold current Ith, the noises of EpCW and EpCCW are neglected. The gain matching condition gives the required gain, and further associated with the two energy band based gain model, the required carrier density N is given. Then, combining with carrier rate equation Eq. (9), the threshold current Ith will be solved numerically. With the simulation parameters given in Table 1., a threshold current of 21.884mA is obtained for 1.55μm peak lasing. In fact, this current is slightly lower than the real threshold as the noises will consume the carriers, hence the calculated threshold current is just the integral operation current.

Under the calculated threshold current, the memory unit is stimulated by the spontaneous emission, and iterated until the carrier density is stable. Figure 2 shows the lasing mode spectra on threshold. At this time, and the roundtrip net gain is calculated to be 0.9998, slightly lower than 1.

Fig. 2 Lasing modes spectra at threshold of the memory unit. The integral operation wavelength is at λ0=1.55μm.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 A 25ps FWHM Gaussian optical pulse is injected into the novel memory unit. (a), (b), (c) Roundtrip net gain dynamics for input peak power of 0.01mW, 0.1mW and 1mW respectively. (d), (e), (f) Step function response performances of the memory unit for input peak power of 0.01mW, 0.1mW and 1mW respectively. The dashed lines are ideal step function response, and solid lines are simulated results.
shows the light step function response performances in the memory unit of a 25ps FWHM Gaussian optical pulse is injected into the memory unit under different peak powerPpeak. We can see that for Ppeak=0.01mW low power light pulse injection case, a light field of only 0.05mW is excited in the ring resonator as shown in Fig. 3(d), and little carriers are consumed, the roundtrip net gain is decreased from 0.9998 to 0.9983 as shown in Fig. 3(a). Hence, the gain matching condition is not seriously impacted, and the light step function in the memory unit approaches to the ideal step function response is shown in Fig. 3(d). However, as the injection power increases, more carriers are consumed. For Ppeak=0.1mW light pulse injection case, a higher light field of 0.5mW is excited in the ring resonator after the input pulse is injected at time of 200ps as shown in Fig. 3(e), more carriers are consumed, and the gain matching condition is deteriorated from 0.9998 to 0.9909 at time of 600ps as shown in Fig. 3(b), leading to the step function performance deviates from the ideal performance is shown in Fig. 3(e). After 600ps, as light in the memory unit decreases, little carriers are consumed, then carriers and roundtrip net gain are recovered by the injected current. For Ppeak=1mW light pulse injection, higher light field of about 4.8mW is built in the memory unit, carriers are consumed faster, leading to faster drop from 0.9998 to 0.962 of the roundtrip net gain and faster deterioration of the gain matching condition as shown in Fig. 3(c), hence light decreases faster than Ppeak=0.1mW case as shown in Fig. 3(f). After 300ps, carriers begin to recover by the injected current.

3.2. Memory operation of the optical memory unit

For read operation of the memory unit, a reversely biased voltage pulse should be loaded on the lower EAM of the EAM-MZI switch. Figure 4 shows the memory operation for a 25ps FWHM Gaussian light pulse under different peak power Ppeak. Taking Ppeak=0.01mW for example, as the input pulse shown in Fig. 4(b)
Fig. 4 Memory operation of a 25ps FWHM Gaussian light pulse with different peak power Ppeak.
is injected into the optical memory unit at time of 100ps, a light step function is responded in the memory unit as shown in Fig. 4(c), and there is no light output from the memory unit as shown in Fig. 4(c) until we need to read out the information (assumed to be at time of 1100ps for 1000ps storage time). At time of 1100ps a reversely biased voltage pulse with peak voltage of 4V is loaded on the lower EAM of the EAM-MZI switch as shown in Fig. 4(a). After that, there will be a light pulse with peak power of about Poutpeak=1.5μW read out from the output port as shown in Fig. 4(d), and the light in the memory unit is erased as shown in Fig. 4(c). As analyzed before, for different peak power Ppeak of the input light pulse, there will be different step functions respond in the memory unit as shown in Fig. 4(c), (g) and (k), hence read out pulses with different peak power Poutpeak will be obtained as shown in Fig. 4(d), (h) and (l).

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Output peak power Poutpeak versus input peak power Ppeak.
shows the different peak power Poutpeak of the read out pulse versus input peak power Ppeak. We can see that initially when the input peak light power is weak, the output peak power increases as the input peak power increases to about 0.15mW. This is for the reason that when the input light is weak, a near ideal step function is obtained in the memory unit, and as the input power increases, more light will be stored in the memory unit, hence the read out peak power increases. However, when an input light pulse higher than 0.15mW peak power is injected into the memory unit, as the Ppeak increases, the carriers will be consumed faster, leading to the gain matching condition be destroyed faster, and the step function be more deteriorated. Hence the light stored in the memory unit begins to decrease, and the read out peak power decreases. The curve of the read out peak power versus input peak power is not smooth, which is caused by the noises.

Fig. 6 (a) The normalized read out power at different read time of read operation for different Ppeak. (b) The effective storage time versus different input peak power Ppeak.

The energy consumption per bit can be evaluated by the energy consumption by bias current for gain matching condition and the voltage pulse loaded on the EAM for read/write operation. With the biasing threshold current of 21.8mA and the typical electric potential between the anode and cathode of about 1.0 Volt, the energy consumption for gain matching condition is about 1.09pJ/bit for data of 20Gbit/s with 25ps pulse width. The energy consumption per bit of the EAM can be calculated by EEAM=(1/2)CcapVpp2 [34

34. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008). [CrossRef]

] with Ccap and Vpp as the capacitance of the EAM and peak-to-peak driving voltage for read/write operation respectively. With a capacitance Ccap as low as 0.1pF [24] and Vpp of 4V in our simulation, the energy consumption per bit of the EAM is approximately 0.8pJ/bit. Hence, the total energy consumption per bit is expected to as low as 1.89 pJ/bit. Such energy consumption per bit is comparable with the slow light buffer with an energy consumption per bit of 2~3 pJ/bit for around 1000 bits buffering [19]. What’s more, such energy consumption per bit can be further reduced by reducing the threshold current, working with higher bit rate with narrower pulse width, and designing the more effective EAM with lower capacitance [34] and peak-to-peak driving voltage.

3.3. Influences of the coupling coefficient of the EAM-MZI switch

4. Conclusion

We have proposed and analyzed a novel loadable and erasable memory unit based on active microring resonator associated with EAM-MZI switch for read control on III-V material system. Based on the two energy band gain model, light propagation equation in the active ring waveguide, and transfer function of the EAM-MZI switch, the integral performances and memory operations are simulated and analyzed in detail for different input power of the injected light pulse. Simulations show that this memory unit can work well for low power high speed light pulse. If this novel memory unit is cascaded connected and densely integrated, it has the potential for high speed low light power large scale data stream storage.

Acknowledgement

References and links

1.

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, “'Slow' and 'fast' light in resonator-coupled waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(14-15), 2629–2636 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

J. B. Khurgin, “Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: comparative analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(5), 1062–1074 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Q. F. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

A. M. Liu, C. Q. Wu, M. S. Lim, Y. D. Gong, and P. Shum, “Optical buffer configuration based on a 3×3 collinear fibre coupler,” Electron. Lett. 40(16), 1017 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. R. Wang, N. Chi, and S. Y. Yu, “Time-slot assignment using optical buffer with a large variable delay range based on AVC crosspoint switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 2994–3001 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

S. N. Fu, P. Shum, G. Ning, C. Q. Wu, and Y. J. Li, “Theoretical investigation of dual-wavelength packet signal storage with SOA-based dual loop optical buffer,” Opt. Commun. 279(2), 255–261 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Zimmermann, A. Wixforth, J. P. Kotthaus, W. Wegscheider, and M. Bichler, “A Semiconductor-Based Photonic Memory Cell,” Science 283(5406), 1292–1295 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Z. R. Wang, G. H. Yuan, G. Verschaffelt, J. Danckaert, and S. Y. Yu, “Storing 2 bits of information in a novel single semiconductor microring laser memory cell,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1228–1230 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

M. T. D. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, “Programmable incoherent Newton-Cotes optical integrator,” Opt. Commun. 119(3-4), 390–402 (1995). [CrossRef]

12.

N. Q. Ngo, “Optical integrator for optical dark-soliton detection and pulse shaping,” Appl. Opt. 45(26), 6785–6791 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. Quoc Ngo, “Design of an optical temporal integrator based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in transmission,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 3020–3022 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Azaña, “Proposal of a uniform fiber Bragg grating as an ultrafast all-optical integrator,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 4–6 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

M. A. Preciado and M. A. Muriel, “Ultrafast all-optical integrator based on a fiber Bragg grating: proposal and design,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1348–1350 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. P. R. Slavík, N. Ayotte, S. Doucet, T.-J. Ahn, S. LaRochelle, and J. Azaña, “Photonic Temporal Integrator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), CPDB3 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=URI=CLEO-2008-CPDB2003.

17.

N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, “Optical realization of Newton-Cotes-based integrators for dark soliton generation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 563–572 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5315–5321 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

R. S. Tucker and J. L. Riding, “Optical ring-resonator random-access memories,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(3), 320–328 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Yonggyoo, L. Hanlim, L. Jaehoon, H. Jaeho, T. W. Oh, and J. Jichai, “Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(8), 900–908 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003). [CrossRef]

22.

S. Park, S. S. Kim, L. W. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “InGaAsP-InP nanoscale waveguide-coupled microring lasers with submilliampere threshold current using Cl-2-N-2-based high-density plasma etching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 351–356 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

L. P. Hou, H. L. Zhu, F. Zhou, L. F. Wang, J. Bian, and W. Wang, “Lossless electroabsorption modulator monolithically rntegrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-wavegulde spot-size converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1635–1637 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, “EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 954–956 (2001). [CrossRef]

25.

W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. J. Connelly, “Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 439–447 (2001). [CrossRef]

27.

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Time-domain models for the performance simulation of semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2956–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

E. B. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Analysis on dynamic characteristics of semiconductor optical amplifiers with certain facet reflection based on detailed wideband model,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9096–9106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

I. Stamataki, S. Mikroulis, A. Kapsalis, and D. Syvridis, “Investigation on the multimode dynamics of InGaAsP-InP microring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1266–1273 (2006). [CrossRef]

30.

G. H. Yuan and S. Y. Yu, “Analysis of dynamic switching Behavior of bistable semiconductor ring lasers triggered by resonant optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1227–1234 (2007). [CrossRef]

31.

Y. Boucher and A. Sharaiha, “Spectral properties of amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(6), 708–720 (2000). [CrossRef]

32.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]

33.

Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Raman based silicon photonic integrator,” to be presented at the 8th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO®/Pacific Rim 2009), Shanghai, China, 30 August - 3 September, 2009.

34.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(200.4490) Optics in computing : Optical buffers
(200.4560) Optics in computing : Optical data processing
(210.4680) Optical data storage : Optical memories
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Optics in Computing

History
Original Manuscript: May 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 18, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 18, 2009
Published: July 13, 2009

Citation
Yunhong Ding, Xiaobei Zhang, Xinliang Zhang, and Dexiu Huang, "Active microring optical integrator associated with electroabsorption modulators for high speed low light power loadable and erasable optical memory unit," Opt. Express 17, 12835-12848 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12835


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, “'Slow' and 'fast' light in resonator-coupled waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(14-15), 2629–2636 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Khurgin, “Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: comparative analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(5), 1062–1074 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. F. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Liu, C. Q. Wu, M. S. Lim, Y. D. Gong, and P. Shum, “Optical buffer configuration based on a 3×3 collinear fibre coupler,” Electron. Lett. 40(16), 1017 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. R. Wang, N. Chi, and S. Y. Yu, “Time-slot assignment using optical buffer with a large variable delay range based on AVC crosspoint switch,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 2994–3001 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. S. N. Fu, P. Shum, G. Ning, C. Q. Wu, and Y. J. Li, “Theoretical investigation of dual-wavelength packet signal storage with SOA-based dual loop optical buffer,” Opt. Commun. 279(2), 255–261 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Zimmermann, A. Wixforth, J. P. Kotthaus, W. Wegscheider, and M. Bichler, “A Semiconductor-Based Photonic Memory Cell,” Science 283(5406), 1292–1295 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. R. Wang, G. H. Yuan, G. Verschaffelt, J. Danckaert, and S. Y. Yu, “Storing 2 bits of information in a novel single semiconductor microring laser memory cell,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1228–1230 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. M. T. D. Hill, H. J. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. J. Leijtens, J. H. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432(7014), 206–209 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, “Programmable incoherent Newton-Cotes optical integrator,” Opt. Commun. 119(3-4), 390–402 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Q. Ngo, “Optical integrator for optical dark-soliton detection and pulse shaping,” Appl. Opt. 45(26), 6785–6791 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Quoc Ngo, “Design of an optical temporal integrator based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in transmission,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 3020–3022 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Azaña, “Proposal of a uniform fiber Bragg grating as an ultrafast all-optical integrator,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 4–6 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Preciado and M. A. Muriel, “Ultrafast all-optical integrator based on a fiber Bragg grating: proposal and design,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1348–1350 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. P. R. Slavík, N. Ayotte, S. Doucet, T.-J. Ahn, S. LaRochelle, and J. Azaña, “Photonic Temporal Integrator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), CPDB3 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=URI=CLEO-2008-CPDB2003 .
  17. N. Q. Ngo and L. N. Binh, “Optical realization of Newton-Cotes-based integrators for dark soliton generation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 563–572 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5315–5321 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. R. S. Tucker and J. L. Riding, “Optical ring-resonator random-access memories,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(3), 320–328 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Yonggyoo, L. Hanlim, L. Jaehoon, H. Jaeho, T. W. Oh, and J. Jichai, “Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(8), 900–908 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Sorel, G. Giuliani, A. Scire, R. Miglierina, S. Donati, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Operating regimes of GaAs-AlGaAs semiconductor ring lasers: experiment and model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(10), 1187–1195 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Park, S. S. Kim, L. W. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “InGaAsP-InP nanoscale waveguide-coupled microring lasers with submilliampere threshold current using Cl-2-N-2-based high-density plasma etching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 351–356 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. L. P. Hou, H. L. Zhu, F. Zhou, L. F. Wang, J. Bian, and W. Wang, “Lossless electroabsorption modulator monolithically rntegrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-wavegulde spot-size converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1635–1637 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, “EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 954–956 (2001). [CrossRef]
  25. W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. J. Connelly, “Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 439–447 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Time-domain models for the performance simulation of semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2956–2968 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. B. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Analysis on dynamic characteristics of semiconductor optical amplifiers with certain facet reflection based on detailed wideband model,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9096–9106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I. Stamataki, S. Mikroulis, A. Kapsalis, and D. Syvridis, “Investigation on the multimode dynamics of InGaAsP-InP microring lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1266–1273 (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. G. H. Yuan and S. Y. Yu, “Analysis of dynamic switching Behavior of bistable semiconductor ring lasers triggered by resonant optical pulse injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1227–1234 (2007). [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Boucher and A. Sharaiha, “Spectral properties of amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(6), 708–720 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]
  33. Y. H. Ding, X. B. Zhang, X. L. Zhang, and D. X. Huang, “Raman based silicon photonic integrator,” to be presented at the 8th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO®/Pacific Rim 2009), Shanghai, China, 30 August - 3 September, 2009.
  34. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited