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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12900–12909
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Single-shot digital holography by use of the fractional Talbot effect

Lluís Martínez-León, María Araiza-E, Bahram Javidi, Pedro Andrés, Vicent Climent, Jesús Lancis, and Enrique Tajahuerce  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12900-12909 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.012900


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Abstract

We present a method for recording in-line single-shot digital holograms based on the fractional Talbot effect. In our system, an image sensor records the interference between the light field scattered by the object and a properly codified parallel reference beam. A simple binary two-dimensional periodic grating is used to codify the reference beam generating a periodic three-step phase distribution over the sensor plane by fractional Talbot effect. This provides a method to perform single-shot phase-shifting interferometry at frame rates only limited by the sensor capabilities. Our technique is well adapted for dynamic wavefront sensing applications. Images of the object are digitally reconstructed from the digital hologram. Both computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Digital holography has proved to be a useful technique to measure the complex amplitude distribution associated to diffracted light beams [1

1. U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), 85–101 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. It derived from conventional holography but involves digital sampling and numerical processing of interference patterns [2

2. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967). [CrossRef]

,3

3. M. A. Kronrod, N. S. Merzlyakov, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, “Reconstruction of holograms with a computer,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 17, 333–334 (1972).

]. Its success was made possible in part by taking advantage of the great progress in the fabrication of CCD and CMOS image sensors [4

4. L. Onural and P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).

6

6. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among many others, current applications include three-dimensional (3D) imaging and microscopy [4

4. L. Onural and P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).

12

12. B. Javidi, S. Yeom, and I. Moon, “Real-time 3D sensing, visualization and recognition of biological microorganisms,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 550–567 (2006). [CrossRef]

], optical encryption [13

13. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000). [CrossRef]

-15

15. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Optical retrieval of encrypted digital holograms for secure real-time display,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 321–323 (2002). [CrossRef]

], and pattern recognition [16

16. B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 610–612 (2000). [CrossRef]

18

18. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M.-A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant 3D object recognition using digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3887–3893 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

In digital holography an image sensor records the interference pattern between the light beam scattered by the object under study and a reference beam. This interference pattern is processed in the computer to reconstruct an image of the diffracting object by simulating the reference and using a Fresnel propagation algorithm. The first and more direct approach to avoid spatial overlapping between holographic twin images and zero order is to use off-axis geometries to record the digital hologram [5

5. U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33(2), 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999). [CrossRef]

,13

13. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. However, the pixel size of actual digital cameras and the requirement to separate the different orders in the reconstruction window with the proper carrier spatial frequency limit the maximum spatial frequency of the interference pattern and the size of the object to be reconstructed. Actually, it has been shown that the space-bandwidth product of in-line digital holographic systems is better in a factor of 4 than that of off-axis configurations thus allowing for a larger effective field of view and a higher imaging resolution [19

19. L. Xu, X. Peng, Z. Guo, J. Miao, and A. Asundi, “Imaging analysis of digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2444–2452 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, phase-shifting in-line digital holography is an interesting alternative to exploit efficiently the limited spatial resolution of current digital sensors [6

6. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Short-coherence digital microscopy by use of a lensless holographic imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4489–4496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6595–6601 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In this technique, several interferograms are recorded, each with a phase-shifted version of the reference beam, and combined to obtain just the object wavefront. Four different interference patterns are usually combined although it has been proved that it is possible to get good results with just two [20

20. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1414–1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nevertheless, phase-shifting in-line methods imply more complex optical systems than off-axis techniques and require sequential acquisition. Therefore they are not well adapted to measure dynamic wavefronts.

To allow time-resolved measurement, several single-shot phase-shifting techniques have been introduced [21

21. A. Hettwer, J. Kranz, and J. Schwider, “Three channel phase-shifting interferometer using polarization-optics and a diffraction grating,” Opt. Eng. 39(4), 960–966 (2000). [CrossRef]

27

27. T. Nomura, S. Murata, E. Nitanai, and T. Numata, “Phase-shifting digital holography with a phase difference between orthogonal polarizations,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4873–4877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The point is the simultaneous acquisition of several interferograms at the expense of a loss in the spatial resolution. In one approach, specific diffractive optical elements are designed to separate the different interferograms in different spatial regions of the image sensor [25

25. Y. Awatsuji, A. Fujii, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel three-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 2995–3002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Phase-shifting is performed through polarizing elements. This method has allowed developing dynamic wavefront analyzers. Another approach takes advantage of the periodic nature of sensor arrays [26

26. Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 183–189 (2008). [CrossRef]

31

31. J. R. Leger and G. J. Swanson, “Efficient array illuminator using binary-optics phase plates at fractional Talbot planes,” Opt. Lett. 15(5), 288–290 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this case, spatial division-multiplexing is applied periodically and each phase-shifted interferogram is acquired by sampling the sensor array. However, the method requires using pixelated polarizer devices, such as retarder wave plates or linear polarizers, which are difficult to fabricate and hard to integrate with the CCD sensor, and may require relay optical systems introducing undesirable aberrations. Nevertheless, these methods have been used with success to record digital holograms using three and even two phase shifting steps [24

24. Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef]

27

27. T. Nomura, S. Murata, E. Nitanai, and T. Numata, “Phase-shifting digital holography with a phase difference between orthogonal polarizations,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4873–4877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Finally, other techniques have been proposed that are able to deal with vibrations and to work with moving objects based on computational post-processing [28

28. T. M. Kreis and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 37(8), 2357–2360 (1997). [CrossRef]

] or for specific applications such as pattern recognition [29

29. B. Javidi and D. Kim, “Three-dimensional-object recognition by use of single-exposure on-axis digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 236–238 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper we present a new method for recording single-shot digital holograms based on the fractional Talbot effect. The Talbot effect or self-imaging phenomenon is observed when a grating is illuminated by a coherent light beam [30

30. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]

]. Under parallel illumination, replicas of the grating appear periodically at distances multiple of the Talbot distance. A superposition of shifted replicas of the grating but weighted by different phase factors, referred as Fresnel images, appear at fractions of the Talbot distance [30

30. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]

36

36. A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kowalik, and O. Quintero, “Kinoform sampling filter,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 35–42 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. This property has been extensively used to develop efficient Talbot array illuminators or kinoform sampling filters [31

31. J. R. Leger and G. J. Swanson, “Efficient array illuminator using binary-optics phase plates at fractional Talbot planes,” Opt. Lett. 15(5), 288–290 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36

36. A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kowalik, and O. Quintero, “Kinoform sampling filter,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 35–42 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. The Talbot effect has been applied also to shearing interferometers for wavefront sensing [37

37. A. Lohmann and D. E. Silva, “An interferometer based on the Talbot effect,” Opt. Commun. 2(9), 413–415 (1971). [CrossRef]

,38

38. N. H. Salama, D. Patrignani, L. De Pasquale, and E. E. Sicre, “Wavefront sensor using the Talbot effect,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(4), 269–272 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Digital holography has been used to analyze the Talbot effect and its application to spectrometry [39

39. S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and S. Grilli, “Talbot self-image effect in digital holography and its application to spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 104–106 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the course of submitting the manuscript we were made aware of a recent approach to perform parallel phase-shifting digital holography by using the self-imaging effect of a periodic phase mask located at the reference beam [40

40. A. Fajst, M. Sypek, M. Makowski, J. Suszek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Self-imaging phase mask used in digital holography with phase-shifting,” Proc. SPIE 7141, 1–7 (2008).

].

In our Talbot-based dynamic digital holography system, a conventional two-dimensional (2D) binary amplitude grating is used to codify the reference beam in an interferometer. This grating generates a periodic three-step phase distribution with uniform irradiance over the sensor plane by fractional Talbot effect. The sensor records only one interferogram between the Talbot codified reference beam and the light field scattered by the object. Different pixels of the sensor record the interferogram with different phase shifts, and the hologram is obtained by sampling and processing the pixelated phase-shifted interferogram. Therefore, our method is able to characterize dynamic wavefronts with a time resolution only limited by the acquisition time of the sensor. Compared with off-axis techniques, our optical setup is also very simple and compact but it does not require a tilted reference beam and allows an easy suppression of the zero and twin image terms. In contrast with other phase-shifting techniques, our system does not require special diffractive elements or complex pixelated polarization devices and, because of the reference amplitude modulation, it is easily adjustable to different wavelengths. Once the digital hologram has been generated, images of the object are digitally reconstructed. Both computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

In Section 2 we describe the basic principle of the method to perform single-shot digital holography. In Section 3 we report some computer simulations while experimental results are presented in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5 we discuss conclusions and future applications.

2. Basic layout of the system for Talbot digital holography

Our Talbot digital holographic system is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a 2D binary amplitude grating codifying the reference beam, as is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical system for recording digital holograms by fractional Talbot effect.
. In this optical setup, a laser beam is spatial filtered, collimated and divided by a beam splitter into an object path and a reference path in order to obtain two uniform plane waves travelling in different directions. After reflecting in a mirror, the object beam illuminates the input object, and the light scattered travels towards the CCD detector through a second beam splitter. The complex amplitude distribution, O(x,y,z), of the light field diffracted by the object at a location (x,y,z) is the superposition of the spherical waves emitted by different points of the input object. Let us write the complex amplitude in the plane of the CCD, located at z = 0, in the following form:
O(x,y,0)=AO(x,y)eiϕO(x,y),
(1)
where AO(x,y) and ϕO(x,y) denote the amplitude and phase of the diffracted light field. Our objective is to measure both parameters to be able to reconstruct the complex amplitude distribution O(x,y,z) at different distances z.

The parallel reference beam, after being reflected by a mirror, is diffracted by a 2D binary amplitude grating (see Fig. 1). The diffracted light beam travels towards the sensor after reflecting in the second beam splitter. The system is aligned in such a way that the reference beam generates a plane wave traveling perpendicular to the sensor when the 2D grating is absent. The amplitude transmittance t(x,y) of the grating can be written as follows:
t(x,y)=tc(x,y)[j=P/2P/21   k=P/2P/21δ(xjd)   δ(ykd)],   
(2)
where tc(x,y) is the amplitude transmittance of the unit cell, ⊗ denotes convolution, d is the period of the array, P is the number of periods, δ(x) represents the Dirac delta function, and j and k are integer numbers.

Since t(x,y) is a periodic function, the amplitude distribution associated with the grating produces self-images by free-space propagation, i.e., diffraction patterns that are a copy of the input distribution, but also Fresnel images, as is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the phase distribution at the 1/4 fractional Talbot plane provided by an amplitude 2D grating, and the corresponding irradiance distribution at the 1/2 Talbot plane. The magnified unit cell shows the different phases obtained at the 1/4 Fresnel image.
. In each transversal dimension, the former diffraction patterns consist of the superposition of r phase-weighted copies of the input grating shifted by integer multiples of d/r. Under monochromatic illumination, the Fresnel images are obtained at distances [30

30. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]

]
z=2d2λ(q+nm)=zt(q+nm)   ,
(3)
where z t is the so-called Talbot distance, q is an integer, and n and m are natural numbers with no common factor (with n<m). The ratio n/m determines the amplitude distribution at the unit cell of a particular Fresnel image. Different values of q lead simply to different positions of the Fresnel image. The number of replicas, r, associated with the Fresnel image of index n/m is given by m/2 when m is even and by m when m is odd. By choosing the opening ratio of the grating in accordance with the index n/m of the Fresnel image it is possible to get a uniform irradiance distribution with a periodic multilevel phase at the output plane.

Several formulations have been proposed to evaluate the weighting phase factors of Fresnel images [30

30. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]

36

36. A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kowalik, and O. Quintero, “Kinoform sampling filter,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 35–42 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. As we are interested in just three different phases at the output plane we restrict our analysis to the particular case n/m = 1/4 or 3/4. However other orders of the Fresnel image can be interesting to obtain more complex periodic phase distributions. For our case, the amplitude distribution generated by the reference beam at the output plane, at a distance given by Eq. (3), with n/m = 1/4 and q arbitrary, is:
R(x,y,0)=A2[t(x,y)+it(x+d2,y)+it(x,y+d2)+i2t(x+d2,y+d2)],
(4)
where A is the constant amplitude of the reference beam just before the grating, assumed equal to unity in the analysis that follows. To get a Fresnel image with uniform irradiance, the amplitude transmittance, tc(x,y), of the unit cell of the grating in Eq. (2) should be given by

tc(x,y)=rect(xd/2)rect(yd/2).
(5)

Therefore, we are able to obtain three different phase factors, 0, π/2 and π at the unit cell, distributed as is shown in Fig. 2, with uniform irradiance.

For practical purposes, it is important to consider the effect of using a finite grating in Eq. (2) in order to achieve the amplitude distribution in Eq. (4). It has been shown that the number of periods P of the grating and the number of periods P’ of the Fresnel image must fulfill two restrictions, the first one to guarantee the proper profile of the Fresnel image and the second imposed by the paraxial approximation [41

41. V. Arrizón and G. Rojo-VelázquezV. ArrizónG. Rojo-VelázquezVictor Arrizón and Gustavo Rojo-Velázquez, “Fractional Talbot field of finite gratings: compact analytical formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1252–1255 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In our case, we must require

P>>8nm  and  P+P'<<4dλ(q+nm).
(6)

When the amplitude distribution generated by the object beam, O(x,y,0), in Eq. (1) interferes with that of the Talbot-codified reference beam R(x,y,0) in Eq. (4) we obtain a pixelated interferogram with different periodic phase shifts. Two approaches are now possible to reconstruct the light field diffracted by the object. In the first approach, three interferograms with the same size of the original one, I(x,y,0), I(x,y,π/2), and I(x,y,π) are generated by extracting the values of the original interferogram periodically at locations with the same phase shift, and using linear interpolation to allocate the empty pixels. Interpolation is performed by averaging the values of adjacent pixels in a similar way as is done in Refs [24

24. Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef]

26

26. Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 183–189 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the interpolation is more accurate for the interferogram with a π/2 shift, as we have information in two pixels of the unit cell.

In this way, it can be shown that, the complex field generated by the object beam at the output plane, our digital hologram, can be written as

O(x,y,0)=14{I(x,y,0)I(x,y,π)+i[2I(x,y,π/2)I(x,y,0)I(x,y,π)]}.
(7)

This equation is directly obtained by expanding each interferogram in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the complex amplitude distribution associated to both the object and the reference patterns at the output plane and assuming a parallel reference beam.

The resulting complex digital hologram, O(x,y,0) allows us to reconstruct numerically the complex amplitude distribution, O(x,y,z), generated by the 3D object at plane located at a distance z from the sensor. The reconstruction can be obtained by computing a discrete Fresnel integral or, alternatively, by using the propagation transfer function method, i.e.,
O(m,n;z)=F1{F[O(m,n,0)]exp[iπλz(u2(ΔxNx)2+v2(ΔyNy)2)]},
(8)
where F denotes the fast Fourier transform, (u,v) are discrete spatial frequency variables, (m,n) are discrete transversal spatial coordinates in both the CCD plane and the output plane, and N x and N y are the number of samples in the x and y directions. Note that negative values of z are to be considered to simulate backward propagation in Eq. (8). In this approach, the resolution at the output plane is the same for any propagation distance z, and is given by the resolution at the input plane, i.e., the size of the pixel (Δx,Δy) in the CCD sensor.

3. Numerical simulations

The diffraction pattern generated by both 2D objects at the output plane was evaluated by using the propagation transfer function method, and so was done to evaluate the Fresnel image generated by the grating. From the interference between these fields we generated three interpolated interferograms for each phase shift. The digital hologram was then evaluated by using Eq. (7) and, finally, we used Eq. (8) to reconstruct the objects at distances z 1 and z 2.

The results are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Gray level pictures corresponding to the results of the numerical simulation: (a) Talbot interferogram at the output plane of the optical system in Fig. 1, (b) and (c) reconstructed images at two different distances from the resulting digital hologram. The Fresnel image projected onto the sensor plane corresponds to that obtained at a distance from the grating given by (1 + 3/4)zt.
. Figure 4(a) shows the irradiance distribution associated to the interferogram at the output plane of the Talbot digital holography system in Fig. 1 obtained by the interference between the Fresnel diffraction patterns of both 2D objects in Fig. 3 and the Fresnel image of the grating. Figures 4 (b) and (c) are reconstructed images of the objects obtained by computing the inverse Fresnel diffraction pattern from the corresponding digital hologram. Note that the objects are clearly reconstructed. Small artifacts in these pictures are due basically to the random phase mask attached to the objects but also because of the interpolation procedure.

4. Experimental results

The Talbot digital holographic system in Fig. 1 was assembled in the laboratory to record the digital holograms of several 2D objects located at different distances. The light source is an Ar laser operating at 514.5 nm. The sensor is a monochrome CCD camera with 2024 × 2024 pixels with size equal to 9 × 9 µm2.

The amplitude mask at the reference beam is a 2D binary square grating with size 2 × 2 cm2, period d = 144 µm and opening ratio 0.5, manufactured in our laboratory by laser photolithography on a chrome photomask. The photomask was a quartz substrate (size 2 × 2 × 0.09 inch) coated with a low reflectivity chromium layer (thickness 120 nm) and S1805 photoresist film (Shipley). The blank was irradiated by using a laser writing machine (Microtech, srl). The final mask was obtained by developing the photoresist with MF319 developer (Shipley), etching the unprotected chromium, and cleaning the remaining photoresist. The Talbot distance for this grating is z t = 80.6 mm. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Gray level pictures of a central region of the light distribution generated by the grating at the output plane of the system in Fig. 1: (a) Irradiance distribution of the first self image, (b) uniform irradiance distribution of the Fresnel image with = (1 + 3/4)z t, (c) interference pattern between the same Fresnel image and a parallel object beam showing the periodic three-step phase distribution.
shows a central region of the irradiance distribution of the first self-image of the grating recorded by the CCD. The distance from the grating to the CCD was then adjusted to obtain a Fresnel image with q = 1 and n/m = 3/4. Figure 5(b) shows the irradiance distribution (approximately uniform) generated by the Fresnel image on the CCD while Fig. 5(c) is a gray level picture of the interference pattern generated when a parallel light beam is used as object beam in the interferometer. Note the periodic three-step phase distribution (with values 0, π/2 and π) associated to the Fresnel image. The requirements established in Eq. (6) to get high quality Fresnel images are fulfilled by using a parallel light beam with 15 mm diameter as. In this way, we illuminate around 100 periods of the grating.

The objects positioned in the object beam were 2D transparencies with an approximate size of 1.3 × 1.3 cm2 located at different distances. The first transparency codifies the binary object shown in Fig. 3(a) and was located at a distance of 32 cm from the CCD. The second corresponds to the object in Fig. 3(b), at a distance of 37 cm, while the third object was a USAF resolution target located at 42 cm from the sensor.

The interferogram between the object diffraction patterns and the Talbot codified reference beam was recorded with a single shot of the CCD. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Gray-level pictures of a partial region of the interference patterns generated at the output plane of the Talbot holography system in Fig. 1 for different 2D objects located at the object beam: (a) the object in Fig. 3(a) and (b) the object in Fig. 3(b). The grating located at the reference beam generates the Fresnel image corresponding to = (1 + 3/4)z t. Note the pixelated structure.
shows a central region of the result for the first two objects. It is possible to note the pixelated structure of the recorded interferogram because of the periodic structure of the Fresnel image. The digital hologram is then obtained by interpolation and applying Eq. (7). In our preliminary experiment, the period of the grating was chosen as large as 16 times the sensor pixel size to get an adequate value of the Talbot distance to locate the different optical elements in Fig. 1 without difficulty, but also to improve the tolerance to transversal misalignments. In this way, each square of constant phase in Fig. 6 has a size of 72 × 72 µm2, corresponding to 8 × 8 pixels of the camera, and the resolution of our final hologram (with only 256 × 256 complex values) is 8 times lower than the maximum achievable.

Once the digital holograms were recorded, images of the objects were reconstructed evaluating the Fresnel diffraction integral in the computer by using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. The results are shown in pictures (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Gray level pictures showing the result of the reconstruction of the different digital holograms recorded experimentally: (a), (b), and (c) show the reconstruction of the objects in Fig. 3(a), Fig. 3(b) and the USAF resolution target, respectively.
. These results confirm the feasibility and flexibility of our method.

5 Conclusions

We have proposed a dynamic digital holography system based on a three-step phase shifting technique obtained by the fractional Talbot effect. The basic idea consists in using a 2D binary grating codifying the reference beam of a conventional Match-Zehnder interferometer. In this way, a periodic three-step phase distribution with uniform irradiance is generated by the reference beam over the sensor plane by fractional Talbot effect. The interference of this diffraction pattern with the light diffracted by an object allows measuring the Fresnel digital hologram of the object with one single shot of the light sensor. The light field diffracted by the object at different distances can then be reconstructed from the digital hologram.

Simulations and experiments were performed with 2D objects but their extension to 3D scenes and/or microscopy is obvious and will be the subject of future work. Also, the results can be further improved by using codifying gratings with a smaller period and well adapted to the sensor pixel size. However, computer simulations and preliminary experimental results confirm the feasibility and flexibility of our method.

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to the Serveis Centrals d’ Intrumentació Científica (SCIC) of the Universitat Jaume I for the use of the lithography system based on direct laser writing. This work has been supported in part by the agreement between the Universitat Jaume I and the Fundació Caixa Castelló (Bancaixa), grant P1-1B2006-29. Maria A. Araiza-E gratefully acknowledges a grant, 08I011.36/1, from the same agreement and partial support by PROMEP PIFI 2007-33-07, México. B. Javidi is grateful for support from Guggenheim Foundation.

References and links

1.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), 85–101 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967). [CrossRef]

3.

M. A. Kronrod, N. S. Merzlyakov, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, “Reconstruction of holograms with a computer,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 17, 333–334 (1972).

4.

L. Onural and P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).

5.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33(2), 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

F. Dubois, L. Joannes, and J.-C. Legros, “Improved three-dimensional imaging with a digital holography microscope with a source of partial spatial coherence,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7085–7094 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Short-coherence digital microscopy by use of a lensless holographic imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4489–4496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. Martínez-León, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Applications of short-coherence digital holography in microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 3977–3984 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. Frauel, T. Naughton, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Three Dimensional Imaging and Display Using Computational Holographic Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 636–654 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

B. Javidi, S. Yeom, and I. Moon, “Real-time 3D sensing, visualization and recognition of biological microorganisms,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 550–567 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6595–6601 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Optical retrieval of encrypted digital holograms for secure real-time display,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 321–323 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 610–612 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, and B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40(23), 3877–3886 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M.-A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant 3D object recognition using digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3887–3893 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

L. Xu, X. Peng, Z. Guo, J. Miao, and A. Asundi, “Imaging analysis of digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2444–2452 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1414–1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

A. Hettwer, J. Kranz, and J. Schwider, “Three channel phase-shifting interferometer using polarization-optics and a diffraction grating,” Opt. Eng. 39(4), 960–966 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. Awatsuji, A. Fujii, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel three-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 2995–3002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 183–189 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

T. Nomura, S. Murata, E. Nitanai, and T. Numata, “Phase-shifting digital holography with a phase difference between orthogonal polarizations,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4873–4877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

T. M. Kreis and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 37(8), 2357–2360 (1997). [CrossRef]

29.

B. Javidi and D. Kim, “Three-dimensional-object recognition by use of single-exposure on-axis digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 236–238 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]

31.

J. R. Leger and G. J. Swanson, “Efficient array illuminator using binary-optics phase plates at fractional Talbot planes,” Opt. Lett. 15(5), 288–290 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

A. W. Lohmann and J. A. Thomas, “Making an array illuminator based on the Talbot effect,” Appl. Opt. 29(29), 4337–4340 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

V. Arrizón and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Multilevel phase gratings for array illuminators,” Appl. Opt. 33(25), 5925–5931 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

J. Werterholm, J. Turunen, and J. Huttunen, “Fresnel diffraction in fractional Talbot planes: a new formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1283–1290 (1994). [CrossRef]

35.

C. Zhou and L. Liu, “Simple equations for the calculation of a multilevel phase grating for Talbot array illumination,” Opt. Commun. 115(1-2), 40–44 (1995). [CrossRef]

36.

A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kowalik, and O. Quintero, “Kinoform sampling filter,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 35–42 (2001). [CrossRef]

37.

A. Lohmann and D. E. Silva, “An interferometer based on the Talbot effect,” Opt. Commun. 2(9), 413–415 (1971). [CrossRef]

38.

N. H. Salama, D. Patrignani, L. De Pasquale, and E. E. Sicre, “Wavefront sensor using the Talbot effect,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(4), 269–272 (1999). [CrossRef]

39.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and S. Grilli, “Talbot self-image effect in digital holography and its application to spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 104–106 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

A. Fajst, M. Sypek, M. Makowski, J. Suszek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Self-imaging phase mask used in digital holography with phase-shifting,” Proc. SPIE 7141, 1–7 (2008).

41.

V. Arrizón and G. Rojo-VelázquezV. ArrizónG. Rojo-VelázquezVictor Arrizón and Gustavo Rojo-Velázquez, “Fractional Talbot field of finite gratings: compact analytical formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1252–1255 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.5080) Diffraction and gratings : Phase shift
(070.6760) Fourier optics and signal processing : Talbot and self-imaging effects
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry

ToC Category:
Holography

History
Original Manuscript: May 22, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 26, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 28, 2009
Published: July 13, 2009

Citation
Lluís Martínez-León, María Araiza-E, Bahram Javidi, Pedro Andrés, Vicent Climent, Jesús Lancis, and Enrique Tajahuerce, "Single-shot digital holography
by use of the fractional Talbot effect," Opt. Express 17, 12900-12909 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12900


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References

  1. U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(9), 85–101 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967). [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Kronrod, N. S. Merzlyakov, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, “Reconstruction of holograms with a computer,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 17, 333–334 (1972).
  4. L. Onural and P. D. Scott, “Digital decoding of in-line holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1124–1132 (1987).
  5. U. Schnars and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33(2), 179–181 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Dubois, L. Joannes, and J.-C. Legros, “Improved three-dimensional imaging with a digital holography microscope with a source of partial spatial coherence,” Appl. Opt. 38(34), 7085–7094 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Short-coherence digital microscopy by use of a lensless holographic imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4489–4496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Martínez-León, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Applications of short-coherence digital holography in microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(19), 3977–3984 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Frauel, T. Naughton, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Three Dimensional Imaging and Display Using Computational Holographic Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 636–654 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Javidi, S. Yeom, and I. Moon, “Real-time 3D sensing, visualization and recognition of biological microorganisms,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 550–567 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6595–6601 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Optical retrieval of encrypted digital holograms for secure real-time display,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 321–323 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 610–612 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, and B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40(23), 3877–3886 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M.-A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant 3D object recognition using digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3887–3893 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Xu, X. Peng, Z. Guo, J. Miao, and A. Asundi, “Imaging analysis of digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2444–2452 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1414–1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Hettwer, J. Kranz, and J. Schwider, “Three channel phase-shifting interferometer using polarization-optics and a diffraction grating,” Opt. Eng. 39(4), 960–966 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Awatsuji, M. Sasada, and T. Kubota, “Parallel quasi-phase shifting digital holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Awatsuji, A. Fujii, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel three-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 2995–3002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Awatsuji, T. Tahara, A. Kaneko, T. Koyama, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), 183–189 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. T. Nomura, S. Murata, E. Nitanai, and T. Numata, “Phase-shifting digital holography with a phase difference between orthogonal polarizations,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4873–4877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. M. Kreis and W. P. O. Jüptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 37(8), 2357–2360 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. B. Javidi and D. Kim, “Three-dimensional-object recognition by use of single-exposure on-axis digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 236–238 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. T. Winthrop and C. R. Worthington, “Theory of Fresnel images: I,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(4), 373–381 (1965). [CrossRef]
  31. J. R. Leger and G. J. Swanson, “Efficient array illuminator using binary-optics phase plates at fractional Talbot planes,” Opt. Lett. 15(5), 288–290 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. W. Lohmann and J. A. Thomas, “Making an array illuminator based on the Talbot effect,” Appl. Opt. 29(29), 4337–4340 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. V. Arrizón and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Multilevel phase gratings for array illuminators,” Appl. Opt. 33(25), 5925–5931 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Werterholm, J. Turunen, and J. Huttunen, “Fresnel diffraction in fractional Talbot planes: a new formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1283–1290 (1994). [CrossRef]
  35. C. Zhou and L. Liu, “Simple equations for the calculation of a multilevel phase grating for Talbot array illumination,” Opt. Commun. 115(1-2), 40–44 (1995). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Kolodziejczyk, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kowalik, and O. Quintero, “Kinoform sampling filter,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 35–42 (2001). [CrossRef]
  37. A. Lohmann and D. E. Silva, “An interferometer based on the Talbot effect,” Opt. Commun. 2(9), 413–415 (1971). [CrossRef]
  38. N. H. Salama, D. Patrignani, L. De Pasquale, and E. E. Sicre, “Wavefront sensor using the Talbot effect,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(4), 269–272 (1999). [CrossRef]
  39. S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and S. Grilli, “Talbot self-image effect in digital holography and its application to spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 104–106 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Fajst, M. Sypek, M. Makowski, J. Suszek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Self-imaging phase mask used in digital holography with phase-shifting,” Proc. SPIE 7141, 1–7 (2008).
  41. V. Arrizón, G. Rojo-Velázquez, and Victor Arrizón and Gustavo Rojo-Velázquez, “Fractional Talbot field of finite gratings: compact analytical formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1252–1255 (2001). [CrossRef]

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