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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 13246–13254
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In-fiber polarimeters based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

Haifeng Xuan, Wei Jin, Min Zhang, Jian Ju, and Yanbiao Liao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 13246-13254 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.013246


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Abstract

In-fiber polarimeters or polarization mode interferometers (PMIs) are fabricated by cascading two CO2-laser-induced in-fiber polarizers along a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber. Since the two interfering beams are the orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental mode, which are tightly confined to the core and have much lower loss than higher order modes, the PMIs can have either short (e.g., a few millimeters) or long (tens of meters or longer) device length without significantly changing the fringe contrast and hence provide design flexibility for applications required different device lengths. As examples of potential applications, the PMIs have been experimentally demonstrated for wavelength-dependent group birefringence measurement; and for strain, temperature and torsion sensors. The PMI sensors are quite sensitive to strain but relatively insensitive to temperature as compared with fiber Bragg grating sensors. The PMIs function as good directional torsion sensors that can determine the rate and direction of twist at the same time.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In-fiber interferometers based on the interference of different modes/polarizations have been a subject of continuous interest due to their potential applications as multi-wavelength comb-filters and sensors for multi-parameter measurement[1

1. A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, “Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170–177 (1994). [CrossRef]

5

5. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Optical Engineering 36, 598–609 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. As compared with the traditional two-fiber interferometers[6

6. C. K. kirkendall and A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” Journal of physics. D, Applied physics 37, 197–216 (2004). [CrossRef]

], the in-fiber devices based on a single fiber has the advantage of compactness, common mode noise reduction, and easiness for embedding into materials for smart structure applications[7

7. E. Udd, Fiber optic smart structures (Wiley-Interscience1995).

]. Early works used dual mode elliptical fibers and the interference between the two lowest order LP modes or between different polarizations of the two modes were exploited for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement [1

1. A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, “Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170–177 (1994). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. B. K. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “Nonlinear strain response of two-mode fiber-optic interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 934–936 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Optical Engineering 36, 598–609 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The mode coupling/splitting for these interferometers was realized by off-set alignments or the use of mode splitters[2

2. T. Graham, W. Douglas, W. C. Michie, and C. Brian “In-line mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fibre,” C. Brian and D. C. J. Julian, eds. (SPIE, 1994), pp. 339–342.

]; however, fabrication of the in-fiber devices realizing mode splitting/polarizing is not straightforward and need complex polishing, alignment and/or metal coating procedures[8

8. R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, “Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer,” Optics Letters 12, 287–289 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. More recently researchers exploited the interference of the fundamental mode with a cladding mode by use of a pair of long period gratings (LPGs) or a combination of a LPG with a non-adiabatic fiber taper or an offset splice [9

9. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express 15, 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899–1901 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. These works include in-fiber interferometers in conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) [10

10. L. S. Pieter, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1576–1580 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. Y.-J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Measurement of refractive-index variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1297–1299 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs)[9

9. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express 15, 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 29, 346–348 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period f iber grating and one point collapsing of air holes,” Opt. Lett. 33, 812–814 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899–1901 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and have been applied for applications such as strain, temperature or refractive index measurement. However, the fringe contrast of these core/cladding mode interferometers decreases quickly with increase of the device length due to the relatively large (and surrounding dependent) loss of the cladding modes, which limit the device to short length.

We have recently demonstrated a core/surface mode in-fiber interferometer in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) by non-adiabatic tapering of a piece of HC-PBF[15

15. J. Jian, N. M. Li, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Photonic bandgap fiber tapers and in-fiber interferometric sensors,” Optics Letters (2009). [PubMed]

]. The length of such a device is also limited due to the relatively larger loss experienced by the surface mode and the fringe contrast is relatively low because of the small fraction of power coupled into the surface mode.

In this paper, we report a novel in-fiber polarimeter by cascading two in-fiber polarizers made directly on a piece of HC-PBF. The fabrication of such polarizers made by partial collapsing/deforming of air-holes through the use of an automatically scanned pulsed CO2 laser [16

16. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Optics Letters 33 (2008).

] and the process is straightforward and multiple in-fiber polarizers may be made directly on a single piece of HC-PBF. The two interfering beams are the two orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental mode in a HC-PBF and have much lower transmission losses as compared with cladding/surface modes, even when the fiber is subjected to tight bend[17

17. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This will allow the development of in-fiber interferometers with basically arbitrary long device length. Unlike the conventional core-cladding interferometers that require the removal of coating of the fiber in the sensing region to avoid significant loss of the cladding modes, coating with basically any refractive index may be applied to the present in-fiber polarimeter without increasing the loss of the two interfering beams. The paper is organized as follows: the basic operating principle and the fabrication of the in-fiber polarimeters are outlined in Section 2, the use of the polarimeter for the measurement of wavelength-dependent group birefringence is described in Section 3, and the responses of the polarimeter to strain, temperature, and twist are presented in Section 4.

2. Operating principle and fabrication of PMI

The HC-PBF PMIs are based on a commercial HC-1550-02 PBF from Crystal-Fiber A/S. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrograph of the fiber cross-section is shown in Fig.1(c). The hollow-core has a diameter of ~10.9µm and is surrounded by a holey lattice with an average pitch value of 3.8µm. The holey cladding region has a diameter of 70µm and is surrounded by a ring of solid silica. The total diameter of the fiber is about 120µm. The thickness of the silica bridges between cladding-holes is about 0.34µm, and the air-filling fraction of holey cladding region is above 90%.

As have been shown previously, HC-PBFs have considerable residual birefringence due to the imperfect non-centro-symmetry resulted from the fiber fabrication process [19

19. M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm,” Optics Express 13, 1457–1467 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Optics Express 11, 1613–1620 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The birefringence existing in the HC-1550-2 PCF results in accumulated phase difference between the two orthogonal polarization modes when they propagate along the PBF, and this is the basis for the stable operation of the in-fiber PMI.

Figure 1(a) is a schematic of a PMI comprising of two in-fiber polarizers fabricated along a commercial HC-1550-02 PBF. Figures 1(b) and 1(d) shows the side view and cross section, respectively, of a typical in-fiber HC-PBF polarizer. The incoming light, which is linearly polarized by the first in-fiber polarizer, excites two orthogonal polarization modes that propagate through physical length L along the HC-PBF and recombine at the second polarizer. It should be emphasized that the principal axis of the polarizers are not be along the birefringence axes of the PBF. Assume that the directions of two polarizers are in parallel and are ideally 45°aligned to the birefringence axes of the HC-PBF, the output from the second polarizer may be expressed as

Ip=I02(1+cos(2πλ·L·B))
(1)

where I 0 is a constant depending on the source light intensity. Ip is PMI output intensity. B=nxeff-nyeff, nxeff and nyeff are respectively the effective refractive index of x- and y-polarization mode. L is the separation between the two polarizations as shown in Fig.1(a), and λ is the wavelength of light in vacuum.

Fig.1. (a) Schematic of an in-fiber PMI, (b) Side view of an in-fiber polarizer formed by CO2 laser heating the HC-PBF, (c) SEM micrograph of the original HC-1550-02 PBF, (d) Cross-sectional view of the CO2 laser heated section.
Fig.2 . Experimental setup for PMI fabrication

An in-fiber HC-PBF PMI can be fabricated by a two-step process: polarizer 1 on the left as shown in Fig.1(a) is firstly fabricated by following a procedure as described in [16

16. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Optics Letters 33 (2008).

]; polarizer 2 is then fabricated with the same CO2 laser setup but with a different on-line spectrum monitoring system as shown in Fig.2. Instead of monitoring the evolution of polarization-dependent loss (PDL) as in [16

16. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Optics Letters 33 (2008).

], the wavelength-domain interference fringes are monitored during the PMI fabrication process by use of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Aglient 86140B) in combination with a broadband SLED light source. Fig.3 shows an example of recorded transmission spectrum for a PMI with L=531mm, clearly showing the wavelength domain fringes of the PMI.

As illustrated in Fig.3, the contrast of interference fringes grows with the number of repeated CO2-laser-scanning cycles. The scanning cycle is a parameter defined in [16

16. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Optics Letters 33 (2008).

, 21

21. Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Optics Express 16, 2784–2790 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and it refers to a complete scanning process of the CO2 laser across a section of HC-PBF (the length of the CO2 laser treated region as shown in Fig. 1(b). Repeated scanning across the same section of fiber increases the degree of air-hole collapse and improves the extinction ratio of the polarizer being fabricated. There are fringes with contrast around 0.8dB even before the second polarizer is being fabricated, indicating that there are residual polarization mode coupling or mixing occurring after the first polarizer. After 15 scanning cycles, the fringe contrast increased to above 8 dB over the wavelength range from 1550 to 1650 nm. After 40 scanning cycles, the fringe contrast is about 20 dB or more for wavelength beyond 1550nm.

Fig.3 . Evolution of wavelength domain fringes during PMI fabrication process. The device length of the PMI is 531mm and the resolution of the OSA is 0.1nm.

3. Measurement of group birefringence of HC-PBF

The wavelength domain fringes as shown in Fig.3 can be used to determine group birefringence of the HC-PBF as function of wavelength [22

22. S. C. Rashleigh, “Measurement of fiber birefringence by wavelength scanning: effect of dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 8, 336–338 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, K. Delplace, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, “Birefringent solid-core photonic bandgap fibers assisted by interstitial air holes,” (AIP, 2009), p. 131102.

]. It’s well known that the wavelength spacing Δλ between two adjacent fringe peaks or dips may be related, to a first order approximation, to fiber group birefringence Bg by

Δλλ2BgL.
(2)

Fig.4 . (a) The result obtained from the Short-Time Fourier Transform of Fig.3. (b) |Bg(λ)| - λ relationships deduced from Differential Group Delay measurement and from transmission spectrum of PMI.

4. Response of PMI to strain, temperature, and twist

Fig5. (a) Shift of fringe around 1624nm with temperature. (b) Linear fit showing the relationship between the dip wavelength and temperature. The device length of the PMI is 230mm.
Fig. 6. (a) Temperature responses of three different dips; (b) Relative shift of dip wavelength with temperature. The PMI is the same as that in Fig.5.

The response of the PMI to longitudinal strain is investigated by monitoring the shifts of comb-like peaks or dips by use of an OSA. Contrary to the temperature response, the interference dips move toward shorter wavelength (blue-shift) as longitudinal strain increases. Fig.7(a) shows the shift of the fringe dip around 1626.9nm for a PMI with device length of 531mm. The dip wavelength decreases linearly with applied strain with a coefficient of about 0.6pm/µε, as shown in Fig. 7(b). This value is comparable and slightly smaller than FBG sensors [5

5. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Optical Engineering 36, 598–609 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and ~10 times smaller than other in-fiber photonic crystal fiber interferometric devices [14

14. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899–1901 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and Sagnac interferometer based on polarization maintaining fiber [26

26. O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For comparison, the strain responses of the three dips at 1630.1nm, 1626.9nm and 1623.4nm are shown in Fig.8. Different fringes have slightly different sensitivity to longitudinal stain, and the dips at shorter wavelengths generally have slightly higher strain sensitivity. This phenomena is opposite to that of the device reported in [26

26. O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which the peak at longer wavelength is more sensitive to strain.

Fig. 7. (a) Shift of fringe around 1626nm with longitudinal strain; (b) Linear fit showing the relationship between the dip wavelength and strain. The device length of the PMI is 531mm
Fig. 8. (a) Strain responses of three different dips at different wavelengths; (b) Relative shift of dip wavelengths with strain. The PMI is the same as that in Fig.7.

One of the unique features of the in-fiber PMI is its response to torsion. Fig.9(a) shows the experimental setup we used for torsion measurement. During experiment, one end of the PMI (the first polarizer) is fixed to a stationary stage, and the other end (the second polarizer) is fixed to the center of a rotatable disc that can be turned to apply twist to the PMI. An 8g mass is attached to the fiber to keep the device straight. A SLED source and OSA are used to measure the transmission spectrum as the PMI is twisted. The device length of the PMI is 147mm. Firstly, the PMI is twisted clockwise by a total angle of 135°C, corresponding to a twist rate of ~16 rad/m. The PMI is then loosened gradually step by step for more measurement points to be taken. The same procedure is repeated anticlockwise. As shown in Fig. 9(b), the dip wavelength around 1628nm changes linearly with the applied twist rate in the region of ±16rad/m. The dip wavelength shifts towards shorter wavelength as the PMI is twisted clockwise, whereas it shiftes toward longer wavelengths as the PMI is twisted anticlockwise. The twist sensitivity is ~70 pm/(rad/m) with good repeatability. This value is bigger than the long-period fiber gratings induced by CO2 laser pulses [30

30. Y.-P. Wang, J.-P. Chen, and Y.-J. Rao, “Torsion characteristics of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1167–1172 (2005). [CrossRef]

], ~10 times smaller than the corrugated long-period fiber gratings [31

31. L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, “Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159–1168 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and ~100 times smaller than the Sagnac interferometer based on polarization maintaining fiber [26

26. O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Further more, the determinations of twist direction were not discussed in [26

26. O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 31

31. L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, “Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159–1168 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In Fig. 10, the responses of four dips at different wavelengths to twist rate are compared. From Fig.10 (b), it is obvious that the dips at shorter wavelengths have higher sensitivity to twist rate. The sensitivity of the dip at the 1617.4nm, is ~110pm/(rad/m), approximately 2.5 times larger than that of the dip at 1646.2nm.

Fig. 9. a) Experimental setup for testing the torsion characteristics of the PMI (b) Dip wavelength against twist rate applied. The device length of the PMI is 147mm
Fig. 10. (a) Responses of different dips to twist rate. (b) Relative shift of dip wavelengths with twist rate. The PMI is the same as in Fig. 9.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgement

The research work was supported by the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong SAR Government through a GRF grant PolyU5182/07E, and NSF of China though grant no: 60629401.

References and links

1.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, “Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170–177 (1994). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Graham, W. Douglas, W. C. Michie, and C. Brian “In-line mode splitter applied to a dual polarimeter in elliptical core fibre,” C. Brian and D. C. J. Julian, eds. (SPIE, 1994), pp. 339–342.

3.

B. K. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “Nonlinear strain response of two-mode fiber-optic interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 934–936 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 8, 23–33 (1990). [CrossRef]

5.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Optical Engineering 36, 598–609 (1997). [CrossRef]

6.

C. K. kirkendall and A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” Journal of physics. D, Applied physics 37, 197–216 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

E. Udd, Fiber optic smart structures (Wiley-Interscience1995).

8.

R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, “Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer,” Optics Letters 12, 287–289 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express 15, 5711–5720 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. S. Pieter, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1576–1580 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 29, 346–348 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Y.-J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Measurement of refractive-index variation with temperature by use of long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1297–1299 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period f iber grating and one point collapsing of air holes,” Opt. Lett. 33, 812–814 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899–1901 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Jian, N. M. Li, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, “Photonic bandgap fiber tapers and in-fiber interferometric sensors,” Optics Letters (2009). [PubMed]

16.

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Optics Letters 33 (2008).

17.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, “Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm,” Optics Express 13, 1457–1467 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, “Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength,” Optics Express 11, 1613–1620 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Optics Express 16, 2784–2790 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Measurement of fiber birefringence by wavelength scanning: effect of dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 8, 336–338 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

X. Chen, M.-J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, W. Wood, A. Crowley, J. Carberry, L. Zenteno, and K. Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888–3893 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

V. Pureur, G. Bouwmans, K. Delplace, Y. Quiquempois, and M. Douay, “Birefringent solid-core photonic bandgap fibers assisted by interstitial air holes,” (AIP, 2009), p. 131102.

25.

C. Leon, Time-frequency analysis: theory and applications (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995).

26.

O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4841–4848 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fibre grating and its application as temperature sensor,” (IEE, 1998), pp. 2059–2060.

28.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, “Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point,” Optics Communications 258, 159–163 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

E. Li, “Temperature compensation of multimode-interference-based fiber devices,” Optics Letters 32, 2064–2066 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

Y.-P. Wang, J.-P. Chen, and Y.-J. Rao, “Torsion characteristics of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1167–1172 (2005). [CrossRef]

31.

L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, “Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159–1168 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: June 15, 2009
Revised Manuscript: July 11, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: July 12, 2009
Published: July 17, 2009

Citation
Haifeng Xuan, Wei Jin, Min Zhang, Jian Ju, and Yanbiao Liao, "In-fiber polarimeters based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 17, 13246-13254 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-13246


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References

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