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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 16 — Aug. 3, 2009
  • pp: 13283–13297
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A generic eye model by reverse building based on Chinese population

Mei-mei Kong, Zhi-shan Gao, Xin-hua Li, Shu-hua Ding, Xiao-mei Qu, and Mei-qun Yu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 16, pp. 13283-13297 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.013283


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Abstract

The human eye has ethnic difference, the existing typical eye models are based on western eyes. A generic eye model based on Chinese population is presented for the first time. The statistical analyzed ocular parameters based on measured data are used for the initial generic eye model, and the wavefront aberration data obtained at two different pupil diameters are used for reproduction by optimizing the initial generic eye model. The differences and similarities between Chinese generic eye model and western eye models are given. The Chinese generic eye model provides a suitable model for the related further researches and applications on Chinese eye.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

From the point of view of optics, the human eye is an optical instrument [1

1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge, 2003), pp.261–263.

] consisting of several refractive optical elements, such as cornea, pupil, lens, retina and so on. The building of a schematic eye model based on biometric measurement of the eye and optical properties of ocular refractive surfaces is helpful in teaching aids in optics, optometry, ophthalmology, psychology (vision and visual perception) and visual ergonomics [2

2. G. Smith, “Schematic eyes: history, description and applications,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176–189 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, this can be used to understand and research the optical performances of eye in refractive surgical procedures, such as photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) [3

3. P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones, and R. Brancato, “Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 3591, 10–21 (1999). [CrossRef]

5

5. HQ Guo, ZQ Wang, Y Wang, QL Zhao, and Y Wang, “A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model,” Optik 116, 433–437 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and intraocular lens implants [6

6. S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6595–6605 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 2204–2218 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Method

Fig. 1. the flow diagram of reverse building Chinese generic eye model

In general, the image quality of an optical system with known parameters is evaluated by using an optical design program. However, the lens parameters of human eye are not known exactly because of the difficulties of measurement and the complexity of its structure. In the process of building the eye optical model, the image quality of the eye optical system is measured with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with the measured known parameters such as corneal surface radii, intraocular distances and so on, the unknown lens parameters in the eye model are optimized by Zemax. Here the measured eye wavefront aberration is used to represent the image quality, and the lens parameters can be estimated by reproducing the measured eye aberration, so we refer to this method as reverse building. The flow diagram of reverse building is shown as Fig. 1.

3. Statistical analyzed of the measured data

Currently, myopia accounts for a large proportion of the normal population in China, and an emmetropic selection is necessary in many subjects. After the selection with a large amount of data, 50 emmetropic eyes of no eye diseases with uncorrected visual acuity better than 20/25, spherical power ranged from +0.75~-1.75DS, cylinder refraction <0.75D are chosen. The subjects are adults with average age of (26.64±5.22) years. The measured parameters include anterior and posterior radii, central thickness of the cornea, intraocular distances (anterior chamber depth, lens central thickness, and the overall axial length; vitreous depth is obtained by subtracting the other distances from the overall axial length), and eye aberrations. Every parameter is obtained with at least three measurements. In the two hospitals, the measurement apparatuses used are different (Table 1). The measurement of corneal anterior surface topography and wavefront aberrations were taken with CRS-Master Twinline system (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany), Orbscan ⎕ corneal topographer and Zywave wavefront aberrometer (Baush & Lomb, USA). The intraocular distances were measured with Pentacam anterior segment analysis system (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), IOL-Master optical biometer (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) and A/B ultrasonic diagnostic instrument.

Table 1. the measurement apparatuses used

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3.1 The corneal parameters and intraocular distances

Generally speaking, if a quantity is composed of many small independent random factors affecting the results, it can be considered show a normal distribution (see Central Limit Theorem). The measured corneal parameters and intraocular distances are analyzed with normality test with statistical analysis software SPSS 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago). The mean values of measured data are adopted in the original generic eye model, the 95% confidence interval of these data are used to be as the variable range during optimization.

The graphic method of normality test in SPSS 13.0 by Probability-probability Plot (P-P plot) and Quantile-quantile Plot (Q-Q plot) can be used [25

25. CH Yu, SPSS and Statistical Analysis, (Electronics Industry Press, Beijing, 2007), pp.110–113 (in Chinese).

]. In the P-P plot, using the cumulative frequency of samples as abscissa and the corresponding cumulative probability calculated in accordance with the normal distribution as ordinate, the sample values are the scattered points in the Cartesian coordinate system. If the sample is subject to normal distribution, then these scattered points will be around the diagonal of the first quadrant distribution. Likewise, in the Q-Q plot, using sample quantile as abscissa and the corresponding quantile calculated in accordance with the normal distribution as ordinate, the sample values are the scattered points in the Cartesian coordinate system. Similar to P-P plot, if the sample is subject to normal distribution, then these scattered points will show a diagonal line of the first quadrant distribution in the Q-Q plot. The method of Q-Q plot is more efficient [25

25. CH Yu, SPSS and Statistical Analysis, (Electronics Industry Press, Beijing, 2007), pp.110–113 (in Chinese).

], so we use this graphic method to deal with the measured corneal parameters and intraocular distances.

Take the anterior corneal surface curvature radii for example. According to the corneal toric surface properties with orthogonal steep meridian (the smallest radius of curvature) and flat meridian (the largest radius of curvature) [26

26. FM Li, Ophthalmologic encyclopedia, (People Sanitation Press, Beijing, 1996), pp.2523–2527 (in Chinese).

], the steep curvature radius Rx and the flat curvature radius Ry are measured. The Q-Q plots of these data are shown as Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 respectively.

Fig. 2. the Q-Q plots of the anterior corneal surface steep curvature radius Rx with normality test
Fig. 3. the Q-Q plots of the anterior corneal surface flat curvature radius Ry with normality test

From Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the data points are around the diagonal of the first quadrant distribution in (a) Normal Q-Q Plots. It indicates that the anterior corneal surface curvature radii appear normal distribution. In (b) Deviation from Normal Q-Q Plots, the residuals distribute around Y=0 mostly, and the absolute values of most residuals are less than 0.12 and 0.2 respectively, it indicates that the normality properties of the anterior corneal surface curvature radii are nice.

Fig. 4. the Normal distribution histogram of the anterior corneal surface steep curvature radius Rx
Fig. 5. the Normal distribution histogram of the anterior corneal surface flat curvature radius Ry

Table 2. the mean values and 95% confidence intervals of measured parameters

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Figure 4 and Fig. 5 depict the Normal distribution histogram of the anterior corneal surface steep curvature radius Rx and the anterior corneal surface flat curvature radius Ry, respectively. It is calculated that the average values are Rx=(7.77±0.21)mm, Ry=(7.93±0.23)mm, and the 95% confidence intervals of Rx and Ry are (7.71, 7.83)mm and (7.86, 8.00)mm respectively. The data of other parameters are dealt with the same method as the anterior corneal surface curvature radii. The mean values ± standard deviation (SD) and 95% confidence intervals of these measured parameters are listed in Table 2.

3.2 The eye wavefront aberrations

Zernike polynomials are widely used to describe the human eye aberration. According to that the human eye pupil diameter size adjusts with the environmental changes, the eye wavefront aberrations described by 5-order Zernike polynomials coefficients at two different pupil diameters (3mm and 6mm) were measured. The coefficients are analyzed with SPSS 13.0, too. The average values of Zernike polynomials coefficients are depicted as Fig. 6 (3mm pupil diameter) and Fig. 7 (6mm pupil diameter) respectively.

From Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, we can know that defocus Z0 2 is the dominant eye aberration no matter the size of pupil diameter. When the pupil diameter is 3mm, the other ones are primary spherical Z0 4, astigmatism x Z2 2, coma x Z1 3, trefoil y Z-3 3, coma y Z-1 3 and trefoil x Z3 3 orderly. When the pupil diameter is 6mm, the other ones are primary spherical Z0 4, coma x Z1 3, astigmatism y Z-2 2 and trefoil x Z3 3 orderly.

Fig. 6. the average values of Zernike polynomials coefficients at 3mm pupil diameter
Fig. 7. the average values of Zernike polynomials coefficients at 6mm pupil diameter

4. The key optical models of eye models

4.1 The corneal optical models with bi-conic surface

The cornea, which is at the forepart of human eye optical system, is one of the main refractive optical elements. The common way of describing the corneal aspheric surface is to use a conicoid in the form

x2+y2+(1+k)z22Rz=0
(1)

where the origin is at the surface apex, x and y are the surface coordinate, z is the axis of revolution, R is the radius at the apex, and k is the conic coefficient, is less than -1 for hyperboloids, -1 for paraboloids, between -1 and 0 for ellipses, 0 for spheres, and greater than 0 for oblate ellipsoids.

However, this rotationally symmetric representation of the corneal surface is inadequate, because that there are orthogonal steep meridian (the smallest radius of curvature) and flat meridian (the largest radius of curvature) on the corneal surface [26

26. FM Li, Ophthalmologic encyclopedia, (People Sanitation Press, Beijing, 1996), pp.2523–2527 (in Chinese).

]. From the perspective of the optical structure, the curvature radius on meridian plane and sagittal plane is not equal, and that is the reason of the existence of corneal astigmatism. Therefore, the surface type of bi-conic which is more suitable for the cornea is used. In Zemax [32

32. ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX® Optical Design Program User’s Guide, pp.230 (2005).

], the sag of a bi-conic expression is given by

z=cxx2+cyy21+1(1+kx)cx2x2(1+ky)cy2y2
(2)

where the origin is at the surface apex, the sagittal plane is on xoz plane, the meridian plane is on yoz plane, cx and cy are the curvatures at the apex on sagittal plane and meridian plane respectively, i.e. cx=1Rx,cy=1Ry Rx and Ry are sagittal radius and meridian radius respectively, kx and ky are conic coefficients on sagittal plane and meridian plane respectively.

4.2 The lens GRIN distribution models

There are two methods of expressing the crystalline lens gradient-index (GRIN) distribution. One is that the refractive index changes stepwise with lens shell-structure, i.e. non-continuous. The other is that the refractive index is described with a continuous gradient index equation. However, the non-continuous structure of lens produces multiple foci [34

34. A. P. Masajada, “Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 19, 41–48 (1999). [CrossRef]

], and when the number of shells increases to make the model consist with the lens fibre layer structure, the refractive index distribution will approach a continuous change. Therefore, the second method is used here.

The continuous gradient index equations of the GRIN lenses in the schematic eye models of Gullstrand [20

20. G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Blaker [10

10. J. W. Blaker, “Toward and adaptive model of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 220–224 (1980). [PubMed]

], Liou & Brennan [13

13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and A. V. Goncharov & C. Dainty [15

15. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

] all derived from the general form of GRIN distribution

n(r,z)=n0(z)+n1(z)r2+n2(z)r4+n3(z)r6+
(3)

where n 0(z)=n 00+n 01 z+n 02 z 2+⋯,n 1(z)=n 10+n 11 z+n 12 z 2+⋯,n 2(z)=n 20+n 21 z+n 22 z 2+⋯,n 3(z)=n 30+n 31 z+n 32 z 2+⋯,z is the coordinate along the optical axis, r is the radial coordinate. The above-mentioned four continuous equations [20

20. G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. J. W. Blaker, “Toward and adaptive model of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 220–224 (1980). [PubMed]

, 13

13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

] are

n(r,z)=1.4060.0062685(z1.7)2+0.0003834(z1.7)3
[0.00052375+0.00005735(z1.7)+0.00027875(z1.7)2]r20.000066716r4
(4)
n(r,z)=1.387+0.014z0.00384z20.0012r2
(5)
n(r,z)={1.368+0.049057z0.015427z20.001978r20<z1.591.407+0.0(z1.59)0.006605(z1.59)20.001978r21.59<z4.02
(6)
n(r,z)=1.3620.0021490r20.0000106r4
+0.049467z0.015958z2+0.0001715z3+0.000141z4
(7)

Eq. (4)~(7) are proposed by Gullstrand, Blaker, Liou & Brennan and A. V. Goncharov & C. Dainty respectively. Among them, the lens was divided into anterior and posterior part to express the refractive index distribution in Liou model [13

13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The posterior part, i.e. the second expression in Eq. (6) is modified from the original one with “z” replaced by “z-1.59” because only in this way the anterior and posterior refractive indexes are equal at z=1.59.

The integrated approach with these different expressions is used to achieve the averages of the lens refractive index in axial and radial direction. Then the new coefficients and GRIN expression are obtained by fitting these refractive index values with a single equation

n(r,z)=1.379+0.035118z0.012214z2+0.00076664z30.0018073r2
(8)

Curves comparing the fitting new continuous GRIN expression with other ones in axial direction and radial direction are shown as Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 respectively. These comparison curves indicate that the new single equation has the consistent distribution with other research results and a compact form. The lens GRIN model as the initial parameters programmed in C language with Eq. (8) is loaded in Zemax in the purpose of finding the Chinese generic eye model. Although Liou & Brennan model eye has some drawbacks since the GRIN lens parameters used overestimate the dioptric power, the analysis of lens refractive index based on the GRIN distribution in Liou & Brennan model is used widely [15

15. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez, and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, “On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371–381 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For better comparability with other results, the data from this model are used here. Moreover, the fitting GRIN expression Eq. (8) obtained by averaging is only the initial lens refractive index distribution; it will be changed to reproduce the measured aberration by later optimization.

Fig. 8. the contrast curves of fitting new GRIN with others in axial direction
Fig. 9. the contrast curves of fitting new GRIN with others in radial direction

4.3 The chromatic dispersion models of ocular media

There are several different chromatic dispersion equations and data of ocular media, for example, Le Grand proposed using the Cornu equation to describe the refractive index of ocular media changes with wavelength [21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

]; different dispersion equations were presented in above-mentioned typical eye models. From reference [21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

], analyzing and fitting data, it was proposed that Cauchy’s equation [Eq. (9)] was the most suitable for the chromatic dispersion models of ocular media. But Conrady equation [Eq. (10)] with very simple form is empirical and designed for most common optical materials, including those of the eye, in the visible region [35

35. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, Third Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp.176–177.

]. Furthermore, Conrady equation is more accurate to the fifth decimal place than Cauchy [36

36. D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, Second Edition (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004), pp.145.

]. Therefore, the chromatic dispersion models of ocular media based on Conrady equation is discussed here.

n(λ)=A+Bλ2+Cλ4+Dλ6+
(9)
n(λ)=n0+Aλ+Bλ3.5
(10)

With the various references and sources about chromatic dispersion models of ocular media [12

12. R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

], we fit their different data with Conrady equation to know the fitting precision. Table 3 gives the fitting coefficients of Conrady equation, max fitting error and Abbe number. The max fitting errors with 10-4 magnitude are very small. The coefficients A and B of Conrady equations fitted to Liou & Brennan [13

13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

] are the same because the equations they used show that the differences between the different media do not change with wavelength, which means their equations are not theoretically sustainable [21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, we discard the usage of this chromatic dispersion source especially of lens in the process of subsequent discussion.

After the determination of fitting precision with Conrady equation, the Conrady equations of ocular media are fitted based on the some averages of various sources [12

12. R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

] in the visible spectrum ranged from about 0.4µm to 0.75µm (Table 4). The fitting coefficients of Conrady equation, max fitting error and Abbe number are shown in Table 5. The Conrady equations for cornea, aqueous, lens, vitreous are Eq. (11)~(14) respectively.

Table 3. Conrady equations fitted to various sources of chromatic dispersion data [21, 1214]

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Table 4. some averages of various sources [1214,21] in the visible spectrum

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Table 5. Conrady equations fitted to averages of various sources [1214,21] in the visible spectrum

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Cornea:
n(λ)cornea=1.3625+6.6460×103λ+3.5752×104λ3.5
(11)

Aqueous:
n(λ)aqueous=1.3229+6.7866×103λ+3.5976×104λ3.5
(12)

Lens:
n(λ)lens=1.4050+6.3200×103λ+6.4981×104λ3.5
(13)

Vitreous:
n(λ)vitreous=1.3222+6.6518×103λ+3.4545×104λ3.5
(14)

Fig. 10. the contrast curves of the fitting Conrady equations for ocular media with various sources of chromatic dispersion data in the visible spectrum

Figure 10 depicts the contrast curves of the fitting Conrady equations for ocular media with various sources of chromatic dispersion data [12

12. R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

] in the visible spectrum. The chromatic dispersions of cornea (a), aqueous (b), lens (c) and vitreous (d) based on Conrady equations are consistent with the sources [12

12. R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The chromatic dispersion models of ocular media represented by Conrady equations are built as a refractive index database to be called in Zemax.

5. Chinese generic eye model

Based on above-mentioned statistical results of the measured data and the stimulation of the key optical models of eye model, the building of Chinese generic eye model is implemented in three stages:

1. With Zemax, the original eye model is structured according to averages in Table 2. The stop of the optical system is set on the pupil of eye model. Similar to corneal surface, the lens surface type is expressed by bi-conic with initial structural parameters referring to the data in existing eye models [2

2. G. Smith, “Schematic eyes: history, description and applications,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176–189 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. W. Lotmar, “Theoritical eye model with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1522–1528 (1971). [CrossRef]

15

15. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The lens GRIN model constructed by C language is loaded in Zemax as the initial parameters, the chromatic dispersion models of ocular media represented by Conrady equations with the form of a refractive index database is also called in Zemax.

2. The measured eye aberration phase plate is introduced at the entrance pupil. The measured aberrations described by 5-order Zernike polynomials coefficients are obtained at eye pupil diameters of 3mm and 6mm respectively. Thus two phase plates of Zernike Standard Phase surface type are introduced into two systems of different pupil diameters simultaneously by the multi-configuration function in Zemax.

Fig. 11. the measured wavefront aberrations with opposite signs (a) & (b) and predicted wavefront aberrations obtained by the generic eye model (c) & (d) at pupil diameter of 3mm (left) and 6mm (right)

Table 6. the structural parameters of Chinese generic eye model

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Fig. 12. the schematic plots of Chinese generic eye model at the pupil diameter of 3mm (a) and 6mm (b)

The measured aberrations with opposite signs at different pupil diameters are shown as Fig. 11 (a) & (b). After the optimization and removing the phase plates, the wavefront aberrations of obtained eye optical system are shown in Fig. 11 (c) & (d). Comparing with the Fig. 11 (a) & (b), the predicted wavefront aberrations of obtained generic eye model agree approximately, and the RMS errors are 0.07µm and 0.17µm respectively.

The structural parameters of Chinese generic eye model and its schematic plots are shown as Table 6 and Fig. 12. The eye optical system is consist of 6 surfaces, the first and second surface represent the anterior and posterior of cornea; the third one represents the pupil; the fourth and fifth one represent the anterior and posterior of lens; the sixth one represents retina. The pupil is not exactly centered with respect to the rest of the eye and is often displaced slightly nasally by ~0.5mm [13

13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the displacement of the third surface is introduced as shown in Fig. 12.

6. Discussion

The parameters in Table 6 are in the actual measured ranges (Table 2). The surface performance comparison of main refractive optical elements (the cornea and lens) in Chinese generic eye model with existing western eye models [9

9. W. Lotmar, “Theoritical eye model with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1522–1528 (1971). [CrossRef]

14

14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

] are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. the surface performance comparison of main refractive elements in Chinese generic eye model with existing western eye models

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From the comparison, we can find that,

1. The radii of anterior corneal surface are similar, elliptical surface with the similar conic coefficients of anterior corneal surface in Chinese model and in most western models. The posterior corneal surface in Chinese model is also elliptical surface with the conic coefficients -0.14 (meridional) and -0.10 (sagittal), but in most western models except Liou model (-0.60), the conic coefficient is 0 (spherical surface).

2. The lens exact shape is not known, the lens structure optimized based on our measured eye aberrations in Chinese model has a great different from the ones in western models. The radii of anterior lens surface in Chinese model are bigger than that in western models. The anterior lens surface in Chinese model is hyperboloid, too. But the conic coefficients of anterior lens surface in Chinese model are smaller than that in most western models. Furthermore, the radii of posterior lens surface are similar, although the conic coefficients of posterior lens surface in Chinese model indicate hyperboloidal surface, while in western models, the posterior lens surface is expressed by paraboloid (the conic coefficient is -1) or oblate ellipsoid (Liou model) or spherical surface.

3. There will be infinite combinations of the lens GRIN distributions and surfaces that give the targeted performance. The reproduce precision can be improved by using complex surface type to express lens [23

23. R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez, and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, “On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371–381 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. This work will be confirmed in further research on Chinese personalized eye models which need higher fidelity than the generic eye model.

Fig. 13. the MTF of Chinese generic eye model compared with experimental result and two western eye models

7. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

This research is supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Research Project, No. 60678048).

References and links

1.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge, 2003), pp.261–263.

2.

G. Smith, “Schematic eyes: history, description and applications,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176–189 (1995). [CrossRef]

3.

P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones, and R. Brancato, “Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 3591, 10–21 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit, and J. A. Campin, “Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4611, 165–175 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

HQ Guo, ZQ Wang, Y Wang, QL Zhao, and Y Wang, “A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model,” Optik 116, 433–437 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. Mooren, “Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6595–6605 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

ISO 11979-2, Ophthalmic implants—Intraocular lenses—Part 2: optical properties and test methods (International Organization for Standardization, 1999).

8.

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 2204–2218 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

W. Lotmar, “Theoritical eye model with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1522–1528 (1971). [CrossRef]

10.

J. W. Blaker, “Toward and adaptive model of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 220–224 (1980). [PubMed]

11.

A. C. Kooijman, “Light distribution on the retina of a wide-angle theoretical eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1544–1550 (1983). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, and J. Bescos, “Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273–1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. Liou and N. Brennan, “Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684–1695 (1997). [CrossRef]

14.

I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, “Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881–1891 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157–2174 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

QL Zhao, ZQ Wang, and CS Zhang, “The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye,” Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409–1412 (2002) (in Chinese).

17.

YJ Liu, ZL Fang, and ZQ Wang. “A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters,” Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488–491 (2005) (in Chinese).

18.

YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, “An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens,” Optik 116, 241–246 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu, and H Zhang, “Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens,” J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109–114 (2007) (in Chinese).

20.

G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(7), 1949–1957 (1994). [CrossRef]

23.

R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez, and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, “On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371–381 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

A. V. Goncharov, M. Nowakowski, M. T. Sheehanb, and C. Dainty, “Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing,” Opt. Express 16, 1692–1703 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

CH Yu, SPSS and Statistical Analysis, (Electronics Industry Press, Beijing, 2007), pp.110–113 (in Chinese).

26.

FM Li, Ophthalmologic encyclopedia, (People Sanitation Press, Beijing, 1996), pp.2523–2527 (in Chinese).

27.

M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam, and G.L. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea,” Vision Res. 46, 993–1001 (2006). [PubMed]

28.

N. Brown, “The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441–459 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. F. Koretz, S. A. Strenk, and L. M. Strenk, “Reply to comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study’,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 22, 1219–1220 (2005). [CrossRef]

30.

J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider, and P. A. Goeckner, “Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,” Vision Res. 29, 1685–1692(1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

M. Dubbelman, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment--a comparative study’,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 22, 1216–1218 (2005). [CrossRef]

32.

ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX® Optical Design Program User’s Guide, pp.230 (2005).

33.

MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li, and XM Qu, “Corneal model based on human eye optical models,” Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707–712 (2009) (in Chinese).

34.

A. P. Masajada, “Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye,” Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 19, 41–48 (1999). [CrossRef]

35.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, Third Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp.176–177.

36.

D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, Second Edition (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004), pp.145.

37.

G. Smith, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 11, 359–369 (1991). [CrossRef]

38.

M. Dubbelman and G.L. Van der Heijde, “The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,” Vision Res. 41, 1867–1877 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

P. Artal and R. Navarro, “Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246–249 (1994). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(170.4460) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 11, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 28, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 29, 2009
Published: July 20, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Mei-mei Kong, Zhi-shan Gao, Xin-hua Li, Shu-hua Ding, Xiao-mei Qu, and Mei-qun Yu, "A generic eye model by reverse building based on Chinese population," Opt. Express 17, 13283-13297 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-16-13283


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References

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th (expanded) ed. (United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge, 2003), pp.261-263.
  2. G. Smith, "Schematic eyes: history, description and applications," Clin. Exp. Optom. 78, 176-189 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. P. G. Gobbi, F. Carones and R. Brancato, "Optical eye model for photo-refractive surgery evaluation," Proc. SPIE 3591, 10-21 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. E. O. Curatu, G. H. Pettit and J. A. Campin, "Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements," Proc. SPIE 4611, 165-175 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Q. Guo, Z. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Q. L. Zhao and Y. Wang, "A new method to calculate corneal ablation depth based on optical individual eye model," Optik 116, 433-437 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell and M. Mooren, "Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses," Appl. Opt. 46, 6595-6605 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. ISO 11979-2, Ophthalmic implants—Intraocular lenses—Part 2: optical properties and test methods (International Organization for Standardization, 1999).
  8. P. Rosales and S. Marcos, "Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses," Opt. Express 15, 2204-2218 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Lotmar, "Theoritical eye model with aspherics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1522-1528 (1971). [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Blaker, "Toward and adaptive model of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 220-224 (1980). [PubMed]
  11. A. C. Kooijman, "Light distribution on the retina of a wide-angle theoretical eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73, 1544-1550 (1983). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Navarro, J. Santamaria and J. Bescos, "Accommodation-depend model of the human eye with aspherics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1273-1281 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Liou and N. Brennan, "Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1684-1695 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. I. Escudero-Sanz and R. Navarro, "Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1881-1891 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, "Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2157-2174 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. QL Zhao, ZQ Wang and CS Zhang, "The actions of aspheric surfaces and gradient-index on optical image of the eye," Acta Photonica Sinica 31, 1409-1412 (2002) (in Chinese).
  17. YJ Liu, ZL Fang and ZQ Wang. "A new model of human eye considering tear film and the optical characters," Journal of Optoelectronics · Laser 16, 488-491 (2005) (in Chinese).
  18. YJ Liu, ZQ Wang, LP Song, and GG Mu, "An anatomically accurate eye model with a shell-structure lens," Optik 116, 241-246 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. HF Zhu, ZL Fang, YJ Liu and H Zhang, "Influence of different factors on diopter accommodation of accommodative intraocular lens," J. Appl. Opt. 28, 109-114 (2007) (in Chinese).
  20. G. Smith, "The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance," Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 3-18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, "Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(1), 29-37 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(7), 1949-1957 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez and J. L. Hernandez-matamoros, "On the Prediction of Optical Aberrations by Personalized Eye Models," Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 371-381 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. A. V. Goncharov, M. Nowakowski, M. T. Sheehanb and C. Dainty, "Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing," Opt. Express 16, 1692-1703 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. CH Yu, SPSS and Statistical Analysis, (Electronics Industry Press, Beijing, 2007), pp.110-113 (in Chinese).
  26. FM Li, Ophthalmologic encyclopedia, (People Sanitation Press, Beijing, 1996), pp.2523-2527 (in Chinese).
  27. M. Dubbelman, V.A.D.P. Sicam and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the anterior and posterior surface of the aging human cornea," Vision Res. 46, 993-1001 (2006). [PubMed]
  28. N. Brown, "The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation," Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441-459 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. F. Koretz, S. A. Strenk and L. M. Strenk, "Reply to comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment: a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1219-1220 (2005). [CrossRef]
  30. J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider and P. A. Goeckner, "Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,’’Vision Res. 29, 1685-1692(1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Dubbelman, R. G. L. van der Heijde and H. A. Weeber, "Comment on ‘Scheimpflug and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior segment--a comparative study’," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 1216-1218 (2005). [CrossRef]
  32. ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX® Optical Design Program User's Guide, pp.230 (2005).
  33. MM Kong, ZS Gao, L Chen, XH Li and XM Qu, "Corneal model based on human eye optical models," Optics and Precision Engineering 17(4), 707-712 (2009) (in Chinese).
  34. A. P. Masajada, "Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye," Ophthalmic. Physiol. Opt. 19, 41-48 (1999). [CrossRef]
  35. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, Third Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp.176-177.
  36. D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, Second Edition (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004), pp.145.
  37. G. Smith, "The optical modelling of the human lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 11, 359-369 (1991). [CrossRef]
  38. M. Dubbelman and G.L. Van der Heijde, "The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox," Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. P. Artal and R. Navarro, "Monochromatic modulation transfer function of the human eye for different pupil diameters: an analytical expression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 246-249 (1994). [CrossRef]

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