## A highly non-linear tellurite microstructure fiber with multi-ring holes for supercontinuum generation

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 18, pp. 15481-15490 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.015481

Acrobat PDF (464 KB)

### Abstract

We have fabricated a highly nonlinear complex microstructure tellurite fiber with a 1.8 micron core surrounded by four rings of holes. The cane for the fiber was prepared by combining the methods of cast rod in tube and stacking. In the process of fiber-drawing a positive pressure was pumped into the holes of cane to overcome the collapse of holes and reshape the microstructure. The correlations among pump pressure, hole size, surface tension and temperature gradient were investigated. The temperature gradient at the bottom of the preform’s neck region was evaluated quantitatively by an indirect method. The chromatic dispersion of this fiber was compared with that of a step-index air-clad fiber. It was found that this fiber has a much more flattened chromatic dispersion. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report about a soft glass microstructure fiber which has such a small core together with four rings of holes for the dispersion engineering. The SC generation from this fiber was investigated under the pump of a 1557 nm femtosecond fiber laser. Infrared supercontinuum generation, free of fine structure, together with visible third harmonic generation was obtained under the pump of a femtosecond fiber laser with a pulse energy of several hundred pJ.

© 2009 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear optics: the next decade,” Opt. Express **16**(26), 22126–22128 (2008). [PubMed]

5. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science **288**(5466), 635–639 (2000). [PubMed]

_{2}of silica glass is only 2.2×10

^{−20}m

^{2}/W, which is too low and restricts the further improvement of fiber nonlinearity. Additionally silica glass photonic crystal fiber is not transparent at the wavelengths longer than 3 μm, which makes the SC beyond this wavelength difficult. Nonsilica glasses such as tellurite glass and chalcogenide glass are transparent in the mid-infrared range, and have a n

_{2}higher than silica glass by at least one order of magnitude. Investigations on SC from these nonsilica glass microstructure fibers have already been reported in some papers lately [6

6. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express **11**(24), 3196–3201 (2003). [PubMed]

12. M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express **17**(14), 12174–12182 (2009). [PubMed]

13. C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser,” Opt. Lett. **30**(15), 1980–1982 (2005). [PubMed]

14. G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett. **34**(13), 2015–2017 (2009). [PubMed]

15. J. J. Miret, E. Silvestre, and P. Andrés, “Octave-spanning ultraflat supercontinuum with soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express **17**(11), 9197–9203 (2009). [PubMed]

*γ*is the nonlinear coefficient,

*P*

_{0}is the peak power of pump pulse, T

_{0}is the width of pulse, and β

_{2}is group velocity dispersion (GVD). A higher value of N benefits the flatness of SC by eliminating the fine structure of spectrum. To get higher N at low peak power, β

_{2}is expected to be as low as possible. When the pump wavelength is close to the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), third order dispersion (TOD) has an important influence on the breadth of SC. A high TOD renders the splitting of pulse and reduces the spectrally broadening [16]. On the whole, a dispersion flattened fiber is preferable for a broad and flattened SC spectrum generated from a low-cost and compact device.

18. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express **15**(23), 15086–15092 (2007). [PubMed]

## 2. Fiber fabrication and characterization

_{2}-6Bi

_{2}O

_{3}-6ZnO-11.5Li

_{2}O (mol%). The raw materials were analytic grade. A tellurite glass rod in the shape of hexagon was prepared by casting the glass melt in an alloy mold and then annealing it at the transition temperature. The tellurite glass tubes were prepared by the rotational casting method. The rod was inserted into a tube and then was elongated into the original cane. Tellurite glass capillaries were prepared by elongating the tubes. Eight capillaries together with the original cane were stacked into another tellurite glass tube. The original cane was at the center surrounded by other eight capillaries which formed a ring. The tube stacked by original cane and capillaries was elongated into the final cane with the diameter of 2.5 mm. The final cane was inserted into another tellurite jacket tube, and then was fixed at the drawing tower for the fiber-drawing. The jacket tube was used to decrease the ratio of the core to cladding size. In the fiber-drawing process a positive pressure of nitrogen gas was pumped into the holes of the cane. In Fig. 1 the cross sections of the fibers and final cane are shown. Inset a, b and c correspond to the pump pressures of 2.8, 3.6 and 8.5 kPa respectively. The final cane is shown in inset d. The fiber shown in inset c is the desired fiber. Its specific characteristics are shown in inset e. It has a 1.8 μm hexagonal core surrounded by four rings of holes. From the inner ring to the outer ring, the holes of the first ring derived from the holes of original cane. The holes of the second ring derived from the gap holes formed by the sidewalls of capillaries and the original cane. The holes of the third ring derived from the holes of capillaries. The holes of the fourth ring derived from the gap holes formed by the sidewalls of capillaries and tube.

_{x}and r

_{y}are radii of curvature in each of the axes that are parallel to the surface. For the cylindrical surface, r

_{x}is the radius of fiber hole. Here the radius of the hole which is not circular is represented by the radius of the circular one which has the same area. r

_{y}is infinite. Equation (2) can be revised as:In Eq. (3) r is the radius of hole in fiber. For a stable fiber-drawing process, supposed the proportion among the microstructures of preform could be reproduced accurately by the fiber, the hole size of fiber should be:In Eq. (4) R is the radius of hole in preform. r

_{0}is the reproductive size of fiber hole. S

_{f}and S

_{p}are the speeds of fiber-drawing and preform-decline respectively. Consequently Eq. (3) can be revised as:For a stable fiber-drawing process, σ, S

_{f}and S

_{p}are constants. From Eq. (5) it can be found for a smaller preform hole, a larger pump pressure is required to counteract △P.

*V*is the molar volume of that substance,

*T*is the critical temperature where the surface tension is zero, and

_{c}*k*, which is a constant valid for almost all substances, is 2.1×10

^{−7}J/(K·mol

^{−2/3}). According to Eq. (5) and Eq. (6) the temperature difference △T between two rings can be calculated by:In Eq. (7) the subscript means the specific ring. When drawing fiber the preform shrank and a neck region was formed. Here △T corresponds to the cross section at the bottom of neck region, namely the top cross section of the fiber region.

_{1}was 25 μm and R

_{3}was 52 μm respectively. S

_{p}/S

_{f}was 10000. Accurate value of △P

_{i}should be the pump pressure under which the radius of fiber hole is equal to the reproductive size r

_{0}. However, when the holes in fiber appeared initially, their radii were very sensitive to the pump pressure. From Eq. (3) it can be seen that when the pump pressure is slightly higher than the additional pressure, the holes become larger. What’s more, a larger hole corresponds to a smaller additional pressure. Consequently the holes became larger and larger, until the superabundant pressure was offset by the tension originated from plastic deformation. In inset a of Fig. 1 the average radius of holes is about 1.0 μm. In inset e the average radius of holes in the first ring is about 0.7 μm. Though both of them are higher than their reproductive sizes respectively, because of the super-sensitivity of hole size to pump pressure, it is reasonable to believe that the pump pressures, 2.8 kPa for the third ring and 8.5 kPa for the first ring, were very close to their accurate additional pressures respectively. The calculated △T is 3.1 °C.

^{2}×km) for the complex microstructure fiber and 1.053 ps/(nm

^{2}×km) for the air-clad fiber respectively. On the whole the complex microstructure fiber has a chromatic dispersion more flattened than that of the air-clad fiber.

## 3. Supercontinuum generation

_{non}was calculated by: L

_{non}=1/(P

_{0}×γ). P

_{0}was defined in Eq. (1). γ is the nonlinear coefficient which can be calculated by:In Eq. (8)

*F(x,y)*is the profile of the mode field. n

_{2}(

*x,y*) is the distribution of nonlinear refractive index. It is 5.9×10

^{−19}m

^{2}/W for this tellurite glass, and 2.9×10

^{−23}m

^{2}/W for air. γ at 1557 nm is 394 km

^{−1}W

^{−1}. Under the maximal pulse energy the peak power of launched pulse is 1670 W. The nonlinear length is 1.5 mm which is much shorter than the effective length. Here we used the complex microstructure fiber in the length of 30 cm because this length was convenient for the experiment. The fiber length can be reduced greatly if required. The pump wavelength locates at the anomalous dispersion range. In this case the propagation dynamics of femtosecond pulse are already a well-known process. The soliton is generated by the combined effect of SPM and GVD. The order of soliton N calculated by Eq. (1) is 6 for the maximal pump power. The red-shift of SC ascribes to the soliton self-frequency shift, whose characteristic is clear for the SC spectra pumped by pulse with low energy.

22. D. R. Austin, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, and T. G. Brown, “Dispersive wave blue-shift in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express **14**(25), 11997–12007 (2006). [PubMed]

24. M. Frosz, P. Falk, and O. Bang, “The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength,” Opt. Express **13**(16), 6181–6192 (2005). [PubMed]

_{s}and P

_{s}are the soliton’s centre frequency and peak power respectively, ω

_{DW}is the frequency of dispersive wave, β

_{n}is the n-th order derivative of the frequency-dependent wave vector. The calculated wavelength of dispersive waves λ

_{DW}vs. the soliton’s center wavelength λ

_{S}are shown in Fig. 5 . There is a close match between the SC spectra and the calculated phase matching condition considering that the practical value of λ

_{DW}usually is a little lower than the calculated one because of the nonlinear phase shift [25

25. I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, “Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express **12**(1), 124–135 (2004). [PubMed]

27. A. Efimov, A. Taylor, F. Omenetto, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, and P. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express **11**(20), 2567–2576 (2003). [PubMed]

28. F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express **17**(8), 6134–6147 (2009). [PubMed]

12. M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express **17**(14), 12174–12182 (2009). [PubMed]

## 4. Summary

## Acknowledgement

## References and links

1. | Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear optics: the next decade,” Opt. Express |

2. | H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, and K. I. Sato, “More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing,” Electron. Lett. |

3. | A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, “Ophthalmic laser interferometry,” Proc. SPIE |

4. | M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

5. | D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science |

6. | H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express |

7. | F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 μm in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express |

8. | H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express |

9. | P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express |

10. | X. Feng, W. H. Loh, J. C. Flanagan, A. Camerlingo, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, K. E. Frampton, N. M. White, J. H. V. Price, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Single-mode tellurite glass holey fiber with extremely large mode area for infrared nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express |

11. | G. Qin, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Spectrum controlled supercontinuum generation in microstructure tellurite fibers,” J. Cera. Soc. Jap. |

12. | M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express |

13. | C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser,” Opt. Lett. |

14. | G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | J. J. Miret, E. Silvestre, and P. Andrés, “Octave-spanning ultraflat supercontinuum with soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express |

16. | T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, “Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B |

17. | X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, and T. M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

18. | H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express |

19. | P. G. de Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, “Capillary and Wetting Phenomena-Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves,” Springer. (2002). |

20. | W. Gregory H, “Statistical Physics,” New York: Dover Publications. (1987). |

21. | A. N. Kensington, “The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces, 3rd ed.” Oxford University Press. (1941). |

22. | D. R. Austin, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, and T. G. Brown, “Dispersive wave blue-shift in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express |

23. | T. Schreiber, T. Andersen, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Supercontinuum generation by femtosecond single and dual wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Express |

24. | M. Frosz, P. Falk, and O. Bang, “The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength,” Opt. Express |

25. | I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, “Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express |

26. | F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. |

27. | A. Efimov, A. Taylor, F. Omenetto, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, and P. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express |

28. | F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication

(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

**ToC Category:**

Photonic Crystal Fibers

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 20, 2009

Revised Manuscript: August 1, 2009

Manuscript Accepted: August 2, 2009

Published: August 17, 2009

**Citation**

Meisong Liao, Xin Yan, Guanshi Qin, Chitrarekha Chaudhari, Takenobu Suzuki, and Yasutake Ohishi, "A highly non-linear tellurite microstructure fiber with multi-ring holes for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express **17**, 15481-15490 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15481

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### References

- Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear optics: the next decade,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22126–22128 (2008). [PubMed]
- H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, and K. I. Sato, “More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing,” Electron. Lett. 36(25), 2089–2090 (2000).
- A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, “Ophthalmic laser interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 658, 48–51 (1986).
- M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2795 (1996).
- D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000). [PubMed]
- H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3196–3201 (2003). [PubMed]
- F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 μm in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4928–4934 (2006). [PubMed]
- H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5082–5087 (2004). [PubMed]
- P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008). [PubMed]
- X. Feng, W. H. Loh, J. C. Flanagan, A. Camerlingo, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, K. E. Frampton, N. M. White, J. H. V. Price, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Single-mode tellurite glass holey fiber with extremely large mode area for infrared nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13651–13656 (2008). [PubMed]
- G. Qin, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Spectrum controlled supercontinuum generation in microstructure tellurite fibers,” J. Cera. Soc. Jap. 117(1365), 706–708 (2009).
- M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12174–12182 (2009). [PubMed]
- C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(15), 1980–1982 (2005). [PubMed]
- G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2015–2017 (2009). [PubMed]
- J. J. Miret, E. Silvestre, and P. Andrés, “Octave-spanning ultraflat supercontinuum with soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9197–9203 (2009). [PubMed]
- T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, “Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1969–1980 (2004).
- X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, and T. M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(6), 2046–2054 (2005).
- H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15086–15092 (2007). [PubMed]
- P. G. de Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, “Capillary and Wetting Phenomena-Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves,” Springer. (2002).
- W. Gregory H, “Statistical Physics,” New York: Dover Publications. (1987).
- A. N. Kensington, “The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces, 3rd ed.” Oxford University Press. (1941).
- D. R. Austin, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, and T. G. Brown, “Dispersive wave blue-shift in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14(25), 11997–12007 (2006). [PubMed]
- T. Schreiber, T. Andersen, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Supercontinuum generation by femtosecond single and dual wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9556–9569 (2005). [PubMed]
- M. Frosz, P. Falk, and O. Bang, “The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6181–6192 (2005). [PubMed]
- I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, “Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 12(1), 124–135 (2004). [PubMed]
- F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(15), 1158–1160 (2001).
- A. Efimov, A. Taylor, F. Omenetto, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, and P. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2567–2576 (2003). [PubMed]
- F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6134–6147 (2009). [PubMed]

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