## High-flux and broadband biphoton sources with controlled frequency entanglement

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16385-16393 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016385

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### Abstract

We report the high-flux and broadband generation of biphotons with controlled frequency entanglement. For the generation of the entangled state consisting of frequency-anticorrelated photons, we use PPMgSLT pumped by a continuous-wave (cw) laser. Meanwhile, the state consisting of frequency-correlated photons is produced from PPKTP under the extended phase-matching condition. Both states exhibited interference patterns with over 90% visibilities in two-photon interference experiments.

© 2009 OSA

## 1. Introduction

2. L. A. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. **4**(3), 372 (2002). [CrossRef]

3. V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **96**(1), 010401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. N. Ph. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, K. Edamatsu, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, “Nonclassical excitation for atoms in a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **75**(19), 3426–3429 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear interactions with an ultrahigh flux of broadband entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **94**(4), 043602 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. M. Nakatani, R. Shimizu, and K. Koshino, “Multimode theory of up-conversion of two photons,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. **78**(5), 054401 (2009). [CrossRef]

7. N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, M. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, “Observation of optical-fibre Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon level,” Nat. Photonics **3**(2), 95–98 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 2. Generation schemes for frequency-entangled states

8. P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **100**(13), 133601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **101**(19), 190501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 3. Experiment

19. C. E. Kuklewicz, M. Fiorentino, G. Messin, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “High-flux source of polarization-entangled photons from a periodically poled KTiOPO_{4} parametric down-converter,” Phys. Rev. A **69**(1), 013807 (2004). [CrossRef]

19. C. E. Kuklewicz, M. Fiorentino, G. Messin, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “High-flux source of polarization-entangled photons from a periodically poled KTiOPO_{4} parametric down-converter,” Phys. Rev. A **69**(1), 013807 (2004). [CrossRef]

## 4. Results and discussion

_{3}crystal, we successfully generated broadband parametric emissions whose FWHM was approximately 30 nm, even under the type-II phase-matching condition with a 40-mm-long crystal. On the other hand, we can see that the FWHM of the parametric emission from the PPKTP is approximately 13 nm. The bandwidth of 13 nm, which is almost twice as broad as that of the pump laser, is quite reasonable because we can understand the EPM as a condition that allows broadband second-harmonic generation in terms of the up-conversion process [20

20. F. König and F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase matching of second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO_{4} with zero group-velocity mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **84**(10), 1644–1646 (2004). [CrossRef]

*R*

_{exp}as 11.6 and 5.7 counts/mW/sec for the PPMgSLT and PPKTP, respectively. In our measurements, there are no timing synchronizations between the gate pulse applied to the detector and the pump lasers. Thus, biphotons out of the gate pulses did not contribute to the coincidence counts. The actual production rate

*R*

_{act}of biphotons can be estimated as the following relation:where

*f*is the repetition rate of the gate pulse,

*d*the gate duration

*and*

_{,}*η*optical losses including imperfect quantum efficiency of the detectors. In this measurement, we set the repetition rate

*f*at 90 kHz,

*d*was 10 ns, and

*η*was estimated to be 0.1, which value was obtained from the ratio of the coincidence count to the single photon count rates. Substituting these values into Eq. (1), we obtained the actual biphoton production rates as 135,000 and 67,000 pairs/mW/sec for the PPMgSLT and PPKTP crystals, respectively.

## 5. Summary

## References and links

1. | D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger eds., |

2. | L. A. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. |

3. | V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

4. | N. Ph. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, K. Edamatsu, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, “Nonclassical excitation for atoms in a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

5. | B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear interactions with an ultrahigh flux of broadband entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

6. | M. Nakatani, R. Shimizu, and K. Koshino, “Multimode theory of up-conversion of two photons,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. |

7. | N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, M. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, “Observation of optical-fibre Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon level,” Nat. Photonics |

8. | P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

9. | M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrabroadband biphotons generated via chirped quasi-phase-matched optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

10. | X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express |

12. | W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump,” Phys. Rev. A |

13. | J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and M. Hendrych, “Indistinguishability of entangled photons generated with achromatic phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A |

14. | J. P. Torres, F. Macià, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, “Engineering the frequency correlations of entangled two-photon states by achromatic phase matching,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | M. Hendrych, M. Mičuda, and J. P. Torres, “Tunable control of the frequency correlations of entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | A. Valencia, A. Ceré, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, “Shaping the waveform of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

17. | V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Generating entangled two-photon states with coincident frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

18. | O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-photon coincident-frequency entanglement via extended phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

19. | C. E. Kuklewicz, M. Fiorentino, G. Messin, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “High-flux source of polarization-entangled photons from a periodically poled KTiOPO |

20. | F. König and F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase matching of second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO |

21. | C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

22. | M. H. Rubin, D. N. Klyshko, Y. H. Shih, and A. V. Sergienko, “Theory of two-photon entanglement in type-II optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A |

23. | H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A |

**OCIS Codes**

(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics

(270.4180) Quantum optics : Multiphoton processes

**ToC Category:**

Quantum Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 9, 2009

Revised Manuscript: August 24, 2009

Manuscript Accepted: August 28, 2009

Published: August 31, 2009

**Citation**

Ryosuke Shimizu and Keiichi Edamatsu, "High-flux and broadband biphoton sources
with controlled frequency entanglement," Opt. Express **17**, 16385-16393 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16385

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### References

- D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger eds., The Physics of Quantum Information, (Springer, Berlin, 2000).
- L. A. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4(3), 372 (2002). [CrossRef]
- V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(1), 010401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- N. Ph. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, K. Edamatsu, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, “Nonclassical excitation for atoms in a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(19), 3426–3429 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Dayan, A. Pe’er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear interactions with an ultrahigh flux of broadband entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043602 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Nakatani, R. Shimizu, and K. Koshino, “Multimode theory of up-conversion of two photons,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 78(5), 054401 (2009). [CrossRef]
- N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, M. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, “Observation of optical-fibre Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon level,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 95–98 (2009). [CrossRef]
- P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 133601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrabroadband biphotons generated via chirped quasi-phase-matched optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 183601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 190501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15377–15386 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump,” Phys. Rev. A 56(2), 1627–1634 (1997). [CrossRef]
- J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and M. Hendrych, “Indistinguishability of entangled photons generated with achromatic phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 71(2), 022320 (2005). [CrossRef]
- J. P. Torres, F. Macià, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, “Engineering the frequency correlations of entangled two-photon states by achromatic phase matching,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 314–316 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Hendrych, M. Mičuda, and J. P. Torres, “Tunable control of the frequency correlations of entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2339–2341 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Valencia, A. Ceré, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, “Shaping the waveform of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 243601 (2007). [CrossRef]
- V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Generating entangled two-photon states with coincident frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183602 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-photon coincident-frequency entanglement via extended phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(8), 083601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. E. Kuklewicz, M. Fiorentino, G. Messin, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “High-flux source of polarization-entangled photons from a periodically poled KTiOPO4 parametric down-converter,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013807 (2004). [CrossRef]
- F. König and F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase matching of second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO4 with zero group-velocity mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1644–1646 (2004). [CrossRef]
- C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. H. Rubin, D. N. Klyshko, Y. H. Shih, and A. V. Sergienko, “Theory of two-photon entanglement in type-II optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 50(6), 5122–5133 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043816 (2007). [CrossRef]

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