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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 19 — Sep. 14, 2009
  • pp: 16739–16744
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An electric-field-active 1377-nm narrow-line Si light-emitting diode at 150 K

Yuhsuke Yasutake, Jun Igarashi, Norishige Tana-ami, and Susumu Fukatsu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16739-16744 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016739


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Abstract

A new class of silicon-based light-emitting diode is demonstrated using InSb-quantum-dot-embedded Si containing the emissive {311} rod-like defects (RLDs). A narrow peak centered at 1377 nm (900 meV) characteristic of the {311} RLDs was found to develop out of an otherwise broad background electroluminescence (EL) upon the application of electric fields in the growth direction. Such electric-field-active EL was observed up to 150 K with a slight downward shift of the peak energies, accompanied by an anomaly in the thermal roll-off of the EL intensity. Spectral variations with temperature and electric field indicate a switching of dominance between the closely correlated defect states that are responsible for the EL emission.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

In this letter, we demonstrate EL sharply peaked at 1377 nm due to the {311} RLDs in a Si layer with embedded InSb quantum dots (QDs). A thermal budget was given to the sample chip in order to relax the built-in strain. Passing a current through the chip caused the E-line to develop out of the otherwise broad background of EL, which allows the operation of such an electric-field-active narrow-line LED up to 150 K.

2. Experimental

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Normalized 9-K PL spectra of InSb-QDs-embedded-Si LED: (a) as-grown, (b) after receiving post-growth annealing 600 °C for 30 min. Arrow indicates the developing E-line due to {311} RLDs. The spectra have been shifted vertically for clarity.
compares the 9-K PL spectra of the InSb-QDs-embedded-Si ((a) as-grown and (b) annealed at 600 °C for 30 min.) on a normalized scale. The spectrum of the as-grown sample is dominated by a broad background emission due to the InSb QDs, over the wavelengths, 1075 −1700 nm [14

14. M. Jo, K. Ishida, K. Kawamoto, and S. Fukatsu, “Evolution of In-based compound semiconductor quantum dots on Si (001),” Phys. Status Solidi 0(4c), 1117–1120 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The doublet centered at 1112 nm (1114 meV) and the peak located at 1180 nm (1050 meV) are presumably due to point defects, which tend to be diminished after annealing and therefore are not of interest here. The phonon replicas of Si are not observed although the pump light with a penetration length ~1 μm largely excites the substrate side of Si. This is indicative of carrier funneling effects and/or a fairly large cross-section of the relevant electronic states other than the Si band-edge. After annealing at 600 °C, however, a small signature of the E-line (indicated by the arrows) begins to be visible at 1377 nm (900 meV) riding on the broad EL band that has undergone a three-fold increase in terms of intensity as compared to the as-grown spectrum. Note further that the spectral dip around 1385 nm (895 meV) that is consistently observed for all the spectra throughout this work is an artifact attributed to O-H absorption.

Interestingly, as visible in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a). Comparison of PL and EL spectra taken at 9 K from InSb-QDs-embedded-Si LED containing {311} RLDs. A broad background visible for PL is quenched in the case of EL with only the sharp E-line dominating at 10 mA. (b) Synopsis of EL spectra as a function of forward injection current. Note the spectral changes including a monotonic shift of the peaks with increasing current. (c) E-line intensity versus injected current at 9-K, and the ratio of the intensities of the E-line and the broadband emission due to InSb QDs. (d) EL peak energies as a function of current. The peak energies have been determined by Lorentzian fitting.
, the E-line was found to grow rapidly as the electric field was applied (electric-field-active EL), and the resultant spectrum was such that the broadband emission was nearly totally suppressed, leaving the predominant E-line feature. Such a spectral dominance switch upon current injection was continuous as a function of bias voltage as shown in Fig. 3(b). The broad background is seen at a very low injection current, 0.06 mA, while it tends to be quenched above 10 mA. This is more clearly represented by the suppression ratio, defined as the intensity of the E-line divided by that of the broad band, as a function of current as shown by the filled triangles in Fig. 3(c). Also plotted in Fig. 3(c) is the E-line intensity. Interestingly, the E-line evolves in an unusual nonmonotonic way, which seems to be connected with the spectral dominance switch. The underlying physics of the electric-field-active EL clearly merits further study.

The apparent loss of spectra at temperatures higher than 150 K seems to be consistent with the spectral changes shown in Fig. 3. The EL intensity at increased current levels tends to drop starting at 80 mA and a sharp decline follows. Such a tendency naturally invokes an argument based on the local lattice heating, which should in part explain the absence of spectra above 150 K.

It is worth noting that the present work was the first to demonstrate the introduction of RLDs to Si by means of epitaxy in combination with post-growth treatment. As a matter of fact, there have been no successful reports of introducing the {311} RLDs directly into Si without recourse to irradiation of highly energetic particles. Strain relaxation of the embedded InSb QDs that occurred during annealing might have played a key role in giving rise to the emission pertaining to the {311} RLDs. These points have to be justified in the future by performing thorough morphological characterization, including the TEM observations mentioned in the preceding section, in combination with dedicated EL measurement.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, an attempt was made to develop a new class Si-based LED containing the narrow-line, electric-field-active emissive {311} RLDs by first growing InSb-QDs-embedded-Si followed by strain relaxation of the grown layers during post-growth annealing. LED was operated up to 150 K, accompanied by repeatable spectral changes with varying temperature and current. Engineering of appropriate defects in Si is expected to function as the touchstone in developing a viable Si-based light emitters including LEDs.

References and links

1.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature 410(6825), 192–194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. Hoang, J. Holleman, P. LeMinh, J. Schmitz, T. Mchedlidze, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Influence of Dislocation Loops on the Near-Infrared Light Emission From Silicon Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1860–1866 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

E. Ö. Sveinbjörnsson and J. Weber, “Room temperature electroluminescence from dislocation-rich silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2686–2688 (1996). [CrossRef]

4.

J. M. Shainline and J. M. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 334–348 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. M. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nat. Mater. 4(12), 887–891 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Bao, M. Tabbal, T. Kim, S. Charnvanichborikarn, J. S. Williams, M. J. Aziz, and F. Capasso, “Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6727–6733 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Rotem, J. M. Shainline, and J. M. Xu, “Electroluminescence of nanopatterned silicon with carbon implantation and solid phase epitaxial regrowth,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14099–14106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

E. C. Lightowlers, L. Jeyanathan, A. N. Safonov, V. Higgs, and G. Davies, “Luminescence from rod-like defects and hydrogen related centres in silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24(1-3), 144–151 (1994). [CrossRef]

9.

D. C. Schmidt, B. G. Svensson, M. Seibt, C. Jagadish, and G. Davies, “Photoluminescence, deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements on MeV self-ion implanted and annealed n-type silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(5), 2309–2317 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Mchedlidze, T. Arguirov, G. Jia, and M. Kittler, “Signatures of distinct structures related to rod-like defects in silicon detected by various measurement methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(7), 2229–2237 (2007) (a). [CrossRef]

11.

A. P. G. Hare, G. Davies, and A. T. Collins, “The temperature dependence of vibronic spectra in irradiated silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 5(11), 1265–1276 (1972). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Takiguchi, M. Tajima, A. Ogura, S. Ibuka, and Y. Tokumaru, “Photoluminescence Analysis of {311} Interstitial Defects in Wafers Synthesized by Separation by Implanted Oxygen,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6A), L567–L569 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Jo, N. Yasuhara, Y. Sugawara K. Kawamoto and S. Fukatsu, “Postgrowth annealing effects on photoluminescence from strained GaSb quantum dots grown on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” 2004 1st IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, p.121–123 (2004).

14.

M. Jo, K. Ishida, K. Kawamoto, and S. Fukatsu, “Evolution of In-based compound semiconductor quantum dots on Si (001),” Phys. Status Solidi 0(4c), 1117–1120 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: June 24, 2009
Revised Manuscript: July 30, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: August 26, 2009
Published: September 4, 2009

Citation
Yuhsuke Yasutake, Jun Igarashi, Norishige Tana-ami, and Susumu Fukatsu, "An electric-field-active 1377-nm narrow-line Si light-emitting diode at 150 K," Opt. Express 17, 16739-16744 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16739


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References

  1. W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature 410(6825), 192–194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Hoang, J. Holleman, P. LeMinh, J. Schmitz, T. Mchedlidze, T. Arguirov, and M. Kittler, “Influence of Dislocation Loops on the Near-Infrared Light Emission From Silicon Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(8), 1860–1866 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ö. Sveinbjörnsson and J. Weber, “Room temperature electroluminescence from dislocation-rich silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2686–2688 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Shainline and J. M. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1(4), 334–348 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. M. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nat. Mater. 4(12), 887–891 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Bao, M. Tabbal, T. Kim, S. Charnvanichborikarn, J. S. Williams, M. J. Aziz, and F. Capasso, “Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6727–6733 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Rotem, J. M. Shainline, and J. M. Xu, “Electroluminescence of nanopatterned silicon with carbon implantation and solid phase epitaxial regrowth,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14099–14106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. C. Lightowlers, L. Jeyanathan, A. N. Safonov, V. Higgs, and G. Davies, “Luminescence from rod-like defects and hydrogen related centres in silicon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 24(1-3), 144–151 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Schmidt, B. G. Svensson, M. Seibt, C. Jagadish, and G. Davies, “Photoluminescence, deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements on MeV self-ion implanted and annealed n-type silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(5), 2309–2317 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Mchedlidze, T. Arguirov, G. Jia, and M. Kittler, “Signatures of distinct structures related to rod-like defects in silicon detected by various measurement methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(7), 2229–2237 (2007) (a). [CrossRef]
  11. A. P. G. Hare, G. Davies, and A. T. Collins, “The temperature dependence of vibronic spectra in irradiated silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 5(11), 1265–1276 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Takiguchi, M. Tajima, A. Ogura, S. Ibuka, and Y. Tokumaru, “Photoluminescence Analysis of {311} Interstitial Defects in Wafers Synthesized by Separation by Implanted Oxygen,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6A), L567–L569 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jo, N. Yasuhara, Y. Sugawara K. Kawamoto and S. Fukatsu, “Postgrowth annealing effects on photoluminescence from strained GaSb quantum dots grown on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” 2004 1st IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, p.121–123 (2004).
  14. M. Jo, K. Ishida, K. Kawamoto, and S. Fukatsu, “Evolution of In-based compound semiconductor quantum dots on Si (001),” Phys. Status Solidi 0(4c), 1117–1120 (2003). [CrossRef]

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