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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 19 — Sep. 14, 2009
  • pp: 16745–16749
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Mixed plasmons coupling for expanding the bandwidth of near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies

Chenggang Hu, Liyuan Liu, Zeyu Zhao, Xu’nan Chen, and Xiangang Luo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16745-16749 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016745


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Abstract

We theoretically investigate the electromagnetic response of mixed-size sub-wavelength square hole array (M-SHA) combined with thick metal layer (TML). Near-perfect absorption with bandwidth about 17nm is firstly observed. Field distribution and dispersion relationship indicate that mixed surface plasmons (M-SPs) coupling is supported by M-SHA and TML. The absorption band is proved to be dominated by M-SPs coupling.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Structure design and simulations

M-SHA consists of periodic alternate arrayed strip-1 and strip-2, which has respective Cell-1 and Cell-2 shown as Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of M-SHA combined with TML. (a) Top view. (b) Section view located at the dash-dot line marked in (a). In simulation, the dielectric material is set to be SiO2 with permittivity of 2.1. The whole structure is embedded into free space.
. This structure is analogous with that proposed by L. Kuipers et al [16

16. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The square hole in Cell-1 has dimension of a = 100nm and b = 110nm in x and y direction, respectively. Cell-2 is constructed by 90 anticlockwise rotation upon Cell-1, without change of the proportion of metal and period (P = 240nm) in the two strips as suggested in references 16

16. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

and 17

17. K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005). [CrossRef]

. M-SHA and TML are separated by a middle dielectric layer as shown in Fig. 1(b). M-SHA, center dielectric layer and TML has respective thickness of ts = 20nm, td = 70nm, tm = 60nm. The computer simulation is performed using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In simulation, the polarization direction of electric and magnetic field is along with x and y direction, respectively. Corresponding periodic boundary conditions are considered. The in-plane mesh size is set to be 2nm so as to distinguish the difference of Cell-1 and Cell-2. Drude model is used to describe the realistic characteristic of gold at visible frequencies [18

18. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. The simulated wavelength range is from 500nm to 700nm. The observation planes are designed to be 750nm (larger than the maximum simulated wavelength) away from the adjacent structure surfaces.

3. Simulation results

4. Discussions

The distribution of the electric field densities is presented to explain the physical origin of the broadened Near-PA band with the simulation results shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (Color Online) Distribution of the electric field densities at (a) 591.72nm, (b) 608.84nm and (c) 600nm. Only one period is shown. All distributions are recorded on the top surface of the M-SHA. The black solid lines show the configuration of M-SHA. (a), (b) and (c) share the same color bar. (d) Dispersion diagram at the interface of M-SHA and free space. k0 represents light line. The upper frequency f+ and lower frequency f- represent the edges of Near-PA band.
. From the electric field density shown in Fig. 3(a), it can be seen that most of energy is concentrated into Strip-2, which indicates that coupling at λ- only exists in Strip-2. While, as shown in Fig. 3(b), strong coupling at λ+ not exists in Strip-2 but in Strip-1. The different distributions of electric field density represent two different SPs coupling modes at λ- and λ+. This behavior is analogous with the discussion about SPs bandgap on metal surface bearing periodic texturing [19

19. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]

] where different distribution of oscillation of electrons shows different SPs coupling mode at bandgap edge. In this case, the different size of hole in Strip-1 and Strip-2 along the direction of electric polarization is the origin of different SPs coupling mode. As shown in Fig. 1(a), dimension of hole in Strip-1 is a = 100nm in x direction, while it is b = 108nm in Strip-2. It can be concluded that SPs coupling is supported by respective strip in M-SHA combined with TML. In overall Near-PA band, M-SPs are excited in both strips and bound in the two gold/air interfaces of M-SHA, such as that at 600nm shown in Fig. 3(c). The dispersion relationship at the interface of M-SHA and free space is also shown in Fig. 3(d). Apparent bandgap from f- = c/λ- to f+ = c/λ+ is observed. Wave vector is near zero in the bandgap, which results that R is suppressed as shown in Fig. 2.

The composite structure proposed in this paper is a specific case, as shown in Fig. 1. In fact, the structural parameters have significant influence on the electromagnetic behavior of M-SHA combined with TML. Reference 15 has proved that Near-PA has red shift with increasing period of SHA and degenerates into electric resonance of SHA with increasing dielectric thickness. While distinguishing with SHA, the size (especially the dimension of b) of the metal hole in M-SHA combined TML dominates the behavior of M-SPs coupling. As shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (Color Online) The influence of the dimension of b on the electromagnetic behavior of M-SHA combined with TML. Solid line: b = 108nm, dot line: b = 112nm and dash line: b = 116nm.
, the space between the two SPs coupling is broadened when the dimension of b increases. Although the larger space means wider bandwidth, the absorption rate in the band decreases rapidly. For example, absorption is only 60% when b = 116nm, which is much smaller than that (>95%) when b = 108nm. In other words, there exist optimal values of the hole size to obtain a bandwidth with high absorption, such as the presented case shown in Fig. 1. Although the bandwidth of Near-PA in this case is only about 17nm, M-SPs coupling in this case has exhibited indeed its potential ability for breaking the single frequency limitation of perfect meta-material absorber and broadening the bandwidth of Near-PA. Simultaneously, it can be expected that not restricted to two but more mixed-size holes can be introduced to obtain wider bandwidth of Near-PA.

Further, only normal incident light is investigated in the case presented in Fig. 1. In fact, as provided in reference 4

4. Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvetset, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on negative index plasmonic metamaterial.” http://arXiv.org/cond-mat/0807.1312v1.

, perfect absorption based on meta-material only exists in normal direction. Absorption rate will decrease when incident light is oblique. This conclusion can also been applied in the case shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), perfect absorption needs specific surface plasmons coupling between M-SHA and TML. When oblique incident light is applied, a slight shift of the absorption band should be introduced according to the momentum matching condition [20

20. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

]: k x ± 2nπ/P = k sp, where k x = (2π/λ)sinα is the wave vector of incident light, 2nπ/P is the grating momentum wave vector, k sp is the wave vector of the SP wave in the two gold/air interfaces of M-SHA and α is the angle of the incident wave as shown in Fig. 1. It is evident that an additional momentum is introduced by oblique incident wave. This will produce a slight change of the SPs coupling wavelength in M-SHA, which has been mentioned in reference 20

20. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by 973 Program of China (No.2006CB302900) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.60507014, No.60528003 and No.60778018).

References and links

1.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A meta-material absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. M. Tao, A. C. Bingham, D. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, N. I. Shrekenhamer, K. Landy, X. Fan, W. Zhang, J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvetset, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on negative index plasmonic metamaterial.” http://arXiv.org/cond-mat/0807.1312v1.

5.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, and A. J. Mark Lee, Taylor and R. D. Averitt, “Novel electrically resonant terahertz meta-materials.” http://arXiv.org/cond-mat/0605002 v1.

6.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y. P. Bliokh, J. Felsteiner, and Y. Z. Slutsker, “Total absorption of an electromagnetic wave by an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(16), 165003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, “Lamellar metallic grating anomalies,” Appl. Opt. 33(22), 5214–5219 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19(3), 431–436 (1976). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

E. Popov and L. Tsonev, “Comment on ‘Resonant electric field enhancement in the vicinity of a bare metallic grating exposed to s-polarized light by A.A. Maradudin and A. Wirgin’ Anomalous light absorption by lamellar metallic gratings,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 271(3), L378–L382 (1992). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Otto, “Exitation of non-radiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]

15.

C. Hu, Z. Zhao, C. Xu’nan, and X. Luo, “Realizing near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies.” Opt. Express unpublished.

16.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

19.

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]

20.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: June 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: August 17, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: August 30, 2009
Published: September 4, 2009

Citation
Chenggang Hu, Liyuan Liu, Zeyu Zhao, Xu’nan Chen, and Xiangang Luo, "Mixed plasmons coupling for expanding the bandwidth of near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies," Opt. Express 17, 16745-16749 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16745


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References

  1. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A meta-material absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. Tao, A. C. Bingham, D. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, N. I. Shrekenhamer, K. Landy, X. Fan, W. Zhang, J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvetset, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on negative index plasmonic metamaterial.” http://arXiv.org/cond-mat/0807.1312v1 .
  5. W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, and A. J. Mark Lee, Taylor and R. D. Averitt, “Novel electrically resonant terahertz meta-materials.” http://arXiv.org/cond-mat/0605002 v1 .
  6. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. P. Bliokh, J. Felsteiner, and Y. Z. Slutsker, “Total absorption of an electromagnetic wave by an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(16), 165003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, “Lamellar metallic grating anomalies,” Appl. Opt. 33(22), 5214–5219 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. C. Hutley and D. Maystre, “The total absorption of light by a diffraction grating,” Opt. Commun. 19(3), 431–436 (1976). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. E. Popov and L. Tsonev, “Comment on ‘Resonant electric field enhancement in the vicinity of a bare metallic grating exposed to s-polarized light by A.A. Maradudin and A. Wirgin’ Anomalous light absorption by lamellar metallic gratings,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 271(3), L378–L382 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Otto, “Exitation of non-radiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Hu, Z. Zhao, C. Xu’nan, and X. Luo, “Realizing near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies.” Opt. Express unpublished.
  16. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  19. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54(9), 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]
  20. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

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