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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 19 — Sep. 14, 2009
  • pp: 16783–16791
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Plasmonic interference nanolithography with a double-layer planar silver lens structure

Beibei Zeng, Xufeng Yang, Changtao Wang, and Xiangang Luo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16783-16791 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016783


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Abstract

We present here a surface plasmon interference lithography method with double-layer planar silver lens. This kind of lithography method provides interference patterns with sufficient contrast for lithography process and simple structure for the convenience of fabrication. Rigorous coupled wave analysis method has been performed with practical parameters to testify this lithography scheme. Furthermore, some key factors influencing the pattern quality have been discussed. It is pointed out that three factors mainly determine the resolution of the interference patterns, and therefore we give a theoretical resolution limit of about 1/12 wavelength to the surface plasmon interference lithography method.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, developments in the microelectronics industry and nanotechnology have posed great challenges to traditional micro-fabrication techniques. Several methods, such as nanoimprint lithography [1

1. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996). [CrossRef]

], electron-beam lithography [2

2. R. S. Dhaliwal, W. A. Enichen, S. D. Golldaday, M. S. Gordon, R. A. Kendall, J. E. Lieberman, H. C. Pfeiffer, D. J. Pinckney, C. F. Robinson, J. D. Rockrohr, W. Stickel, and E. V. Tressler, ““PREVAIL- Electron projection technology approach for next generation lithography,” IBM,” J. Res. Dev. (Srinagar) 45, 615–638 (2001).

], and scanning probe lithography [3

3. E. B. Cooper, S. R. Manalis, H. Fang, H. Dai, K. Matsumoto, S. Minne, T. Hunt, and C. F. Quate, “Terabitper-square-inch data storage with the atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3566–3568 (1999). [CrossRef]

], have been proposed to achieve nanometer-scale features. Compared with these techniques, however, photolithography has been considered as a useful technology because of its easy repetition and suitability for large-area fabrication. However, in order to overcome the diffraction limit that restricts the conventional photolithography method, optical contact or near field lithography, such as evanescent near field lithography [4

4. J. G. Goodberlet and H. Kavak, “Patterning sub-50 nm features with near-field embedded-amplitude masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1315–1317 (2002). [CrossRef]

,5

5. M. Naya, I. Tsuruma, T. Tani, A. Mukai, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Yasunami, “Near-field optical photolithography for high-aspect-ratio patterning using bilayer resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201113 (2005). [CrossRef]

], has been demonstrated to produce sub-100nm features.

In addition, a new kind of surface plasmons assisted lithography method has been proposed to produce nano-scale patterns with simple conventional light source [6

6. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004). [CrossRef]

,7

7. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It employs surface plasmons (SPs) excited by the grating mask made of noble metal, which has an optical frequency but a much shorter wavelength than incident light, to yield deep subwavelength interference patterns. As we all know, surface plasmons will split into two modes, the symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode, in the thin metal film [8

8. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguide: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Due to its large wave-vector, the antisymmetric mode shows potential application in nanolithography with conventional light source. Therefore some methods, such as metal-layer lithography scheme [9

9. X. J. Jiao, P. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Tang, J. Xie, and H. Ming, “Numerical simulation of nanolithography with the subwavelength metallic grating waveguide structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4850–4860 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and metamaterial lithography [10

10. T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], have been presented to realize surface plasmon interference lithography. Nevertheless, these methods suffer from some problems like low contrast of interference patterns and difficulty in fabrication, which restrict their practical applications in nanolithography.

In order to overcome these difficulties, we put forward a double-layer planar silver lens (DLSL) structure with the mismatched permittivities between the metal and surrounding dielectric medium to give high resolution interference patterns in this paper. A feature size far beyond the diffraction limit with sufficient intensity contrast could be obtained by affiliating the DLSL structure below the conventional chromium grating mask, which could be practical for lithography process. In addition, some factors influencing the interference fringe sizes such as the thickness of silver and dielectric film are also investigated. Based on theoretical analysis, we propose a resolution limit of about 1/12 wavelength to the surface plasmon interference lithography method. In the following, the lithography principle and characteristics will be described in detail.

2. Numerical analysis and simulation results

The proposed structure consists of chromium grating mask, a layer of PMMA, two layers ofAgAl2O3 stack, photoresist and silica substrate, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of the proposed double-layer planar silver lens (DLSL) structure. The thicknesses of thePMMA,AgandAl2O3layers are all equal to 30nm.
. All the components are treated as semi-infinite in the y direction. In our configurations, the thicknesses ofAg,PMMA, andAl2O3layers are all equal to 30nm. And the thickness of chromium grating mask is set to be 50nm. The permittivities of thePMMA,Al2O3, and photoresist are set as εPMMA=2.31,εAl2O3=3.22and εpr=2.89 [11

11. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials, CRC, Boston, (2003).

], respectively. Drude model ε(ω)=ε0ωp2/[ω(ω+iVc)]is used to describe the permittivity of silver, where ε0 = 4.9638, plasma frequency ωp = 1.4497e16 rad/s and collision frequency Vc = 8.33689e13 rad/s. The calculated permittivity of silver is εAg=-6.5875 + 0.2258i at the operating wavelength 442nm. This calculated permittivity agrees well with the experiment data [12

12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. All the materials are assumed to be nonmagnetic so that the magnetic permeability μ is equal to 1 and only the permittivity ε has been taken into account.

From the waveguide theory, as the thicknesses ofAl2O3and silver layers decrease, SPs modes at these metal-dielectric interfaces couple and split into an antisymmetric/symmetric pair [8

8. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguide: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For example, for TM-polarized waves in a metal-dielectric-metal structure, the transverse wave vector kx can be defined by the dispersion relations:
ε1kz2+ε2kz1tanh(ikz1d2)=0,for antisymmetric mode
(1)
ε1kz2+ε2kz1coth(ikz1d2)=0,for symmetric mode
(2)
and kz defined by the momentum conservation:
kz1,22=ε1,2(ωc)2kx2,
(3)
where the subscripts 1 and 2 denote the case of Al2O3 and silver layer, respectively, and d is the thickness of the Al2O3 layer. The thicknesses of Al2O3and silver layer determine the wave vector of the coupled SPs mode, and they should be properly chosen to ensure that SPs modes at these metal-dielectric interfaces interact with each other to generate the coupled modes. We will discuss about this later. Furthermore, the coupled modes interfere with each other and the electric field intensity distribution performs the profile of standing wave with doubled spatial frequency.

In Fig. 2 (a)
Fig. 2 (a)(b) Calculated distribution of total electrical field intensity for the proposed DSDL structure. The geometrical parameters are the same as those mentioned above.
and Fig. 2 (b), total electric field intensity distribution for the proposed structure, which corresponds to the coupling of antisymmetric mode on the silver layer, has been performed by the two-dimensional rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method [14

14. L. F. Li, “New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(10), 2758 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The simulated structure is the same as that shown in Fig. 1. From Fig. 2 (a), we can see that antisymmetric mode SPs has been excited on the silver layers and the total electric field intensity distribution performs the profiles of standing wave with doubled spatial frequency. A regular interference electric field distribution with periodicity of 82 nm in the photoresist layer could be obtained, as shown in Fig. 2 (b). If half peak (hp) width is taken as the feature size, fringes of 41nm about 1/11 of incident wavelength can be achieved.

For the TM-polarized incident wave, Fig. 3 (a)
Fig. 3 (a) H-field transmission factor shown as a function of wavelength and transverse wave number through the proposed DLSL structure. The dashed red line represents SPPs resonant wavelength 365nm, and the solid red line denotes the operating wavelength 442nm. (b) Intensity contrast (visibility) of interference patterns at different cross sections beneath the output surface of the DLSL structure, d denotes the distance between the output surface and the cross section. The inset depicts the different interference intensities distributions at different distances (d) beneath the output surface of the DLSL structure. The periodicity of the chromium grating mask is set to be 164nm. Other parameters are the same as those mentioned above.
shows the calculated H-field transmission factor in the photoresist layer as a function of wavelength and transverse wave number through the DLSL structure. Parameters of the structure are the same as those mentioned before. From this figure, two main modes can be clearly distinguished and it is clearly shown that the antisymmetric mode has a larger wave vector than the symmetric one at the same wavelength, such as 442nm [9

9. X. J. Jiao, P. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Tang, J. Xie, and H. Ming, “Numerical simulation of nanolithography with the subwavelength metallic grating waveguide structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4850–4860 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, it is also seen in Fig. 3 (a) that when the wavelength is close to 365nm (i-line), the two split modes begin to converge due to the resonant excitation of SPPs at the condition of Re(εm)εd, which means that the metal and the surrounding dielectric have a matched permittivity at the working wavelength. It indicates that components with wide band of large wave vectors can be enhanced and transmitted through this structure and has been used in the sub-diffraction imaging structure [13

13. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and double-layer planar lens lithography [16

16. D. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Experimental comparison of resolution and pattern fidelity in single- and double-layer planar lens lithography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 461 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However, this is unexpected in interference lithography because the interference of the evanescent components with different wave vectors would result in an irregular pattern. Therefore, we choose the working wavelength as 442nm (HeCd laser) where the gap between two split modes is relatively wide and only the components with some particular wave vectors can be enhanced and transmitted through the DLSL structure. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the transverse wave number corresponding to the antisymmetric mode is about 2.7k0at the wavelength of 442nm, which corresponds to the grating periodicity 164nm due to the grating law mentioned above (kx=2mπ/Λ). The duty cycle of the grating is chosen to be 0.25 to decrease the influence of grating slits.

Since pattern contrast is a key parameter in the lithography process, we should pay attention to it. Theoretically, due to the existence of half wavelength shift of ExandEzcomponents for TM-polarized waves, the contrast can be calculated from the equation (only considering ± 1 diffraction order components from the grating mask):

Visibility=(ImaxImin)/(Imax+Imin)=(Ez2Ex2)/(Ex2+Ez2)=εprk02/(2kx2εprk02)
(5)

3. Discussion

3.1 Influence of the thickness of silver layer

Fig. 3 Optical transfer function (OTF) for the proposed DLSL structure as a function of the transverse wave number and (a) silver thickness when the thickness of the dielectric is fixed at 30nm; (b) dielectric thickness when the thickness of the silver is fixed at 30nm. Here the wavelength of the TM-polarized incident light is fixed at 442nm and other parameters are the same as those mentioned before.

3.2 Influence of the thickness of dielectric layer

On the other hand, when the wavelength of the incident light and the thickness of the silver layer are fixed at 442nm and 30nm, respectively, the OTF curves as a function of the thickness of Al2O3 layer and transverse wave number are depicted in Fig. 3(b). It can be clearly seen that the second peak of the OTF curves corresponding to the antisymmetric mode shifts to larger wave vector as the thickness of the Al2O3 layer increases. It indicates that employing thicker Al2O3 film and appropriate grating mask periodicity can result in smaller interference patterns. However, if the thickness of the Al2O3 layer increases beyond 50nm, the antisymmetric mode will disappear due to rapid decay of SPs away from metal-dielectric interfaces.

3.3 Influence of the periodicity of grating mask

As depicted by the red curve in Fig. 3(a) or Fig. 3(b), the transverse wave number of the second peak is 2.7k0, which corresponds to the transverse wave number of ±1 diffraction order components of the incident light according to the grating law mentioned above. If we change the periodicity of the grating to make the transverse wave number of ±2 diffraction order components correspond to that of the second peak, ±1 order components with transverse wave number about 1.35k0will also transmit through the DLSL structure with high amplitude and mix with ±2 order components to generate irregular patterns. That is the reason why we choose only ±1 order components to produce interference fringes in our analysis.

From above analysis, if we optimize the structural parameters such as thicknesses of silver and dielectric films, it is believed that this method could be used to produce interference fringes with different pitch sizes. Furthermore, when the wavelength and the thicknesses of the silver and Al2O3layers are fixed at 442nm, 30nm, and 30nm, respectively, it is clearly represented by red line in Fig. 3(a) or Fig. 3(b) that the evanescent components with wave vector changing from 2.2k0to 3k0, which varies in the vicinity of the second peak of the OTF curves, can be enhanced and transmitted through the DLSL structure. Therefore, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Feature size versus the mask periodicity and the intensity contrast (visibility). The inset depicts interference intensity distributions with different mask periodicities. The wavelength and the thickness of the silver and Al2O3layer are fixed at 442nm, 30nm, and 30nm, respectively.
, changing the periodicity of grating mask when other parameters are fixed could produce interference fringes with different feature sizes.

In Fig. 4, the green line, which represents the relation between the feature size and theoretical intensity contrast, is depicted from Eq. (5). It is shown that as the feature size decreases to 37nm, the pattern contrast reduces to 0.2 and can be difficultly used in lithography. On the other hand, when the wavelength and the thickness of the silver and Al2O3layer are fixed at 442nm, 30nm, and 30nm, respectively, the relation between the feature size and intensity contrast is calculated by two-dimensional RCWA method. The calculated relation based on electric field intensity distribution at the same cross section, which is described by red line, is a little different from the theoretical one due to the existence of wave vector noise and background field. Blue line shows the relation between the mask periodicity and feature size produced by the interference of evanescent components from ± 1 diffraction order. By considering the feasible intensity contrast (>0.2), employing masks with different periodicities when other parameters are maintained could yield periodical line patterns with feature sizes ranging from 40nm to 50nm.

3.4 Three factors that limit the minimum feature size

From the analysis above, conclusions could be made that the minimum pitch size of SP interference pattern here is mainly restricted by three factors. The first restriction comes from the intrinsic loss of metal. Theoretically, infinite small SP wavelength mode can be excited as we decrease silver film thickness. But the antisymmetric mode with large wave number suffers from the great loss in metal hence low transmission, which delivers decreased fringe visibility. The leakage transmission of the zero-order (DC) component through the DLSL structure is another restriction. As shown in the OTF curves in Fig. 3, transmitted light with zero-order component will not be completely filtered because of the finite layers of metal films. Due to the influence of these unwanted components, the interference fringes become less uniformity and the pattern contrast becomes lower, as shown in the inset of Fig. 4. Adding more layers of silver lens to the DLSL structure would reduce the unexpected zero-order component, but it is not practical considering the fabrication issues and accompanied influences.

The third restriction, which we think is dominant here, is in connection with the intrinsic TM polarization property of SPs. Theπ/2phase shift of ExandEzcomponents results in the greatly decreased interference fringe visibility as the feature size of interference pattern goes far beyond the diffraction limit with largerkx. In fact, the minimum fringe feature size is mainly and physically determined by polarization property of SPs, if we assume metal material with low loss and optimize the structure from the viewpoint of filtering unwanted components and fabrication. In this ideal situation (material without loss and no DC component), due to the TM polarization property of SPs the intensity contrast of the interference pattern is determined by Eq. (5) (Visibility=εprk02/(2kx2εprk02)). From this equation, it is clearly seen that when the permittivity of the photoresist (εpr) and incident wavelength (k0=2π/λ0) are fixed, intensity contrast decreases as the feature size of the interference pattern (kx=π/(2Δ), Δ represents the feature size of the interference pattern) reduces. If the minimum contrast 0.2 is required for feasible lithography, the theoretical resolution limit can be determined. Therefore, it is the polarization property of SPs that theoretically limits the minimum feature size of the interference pattern. For instance, considering the feasible intensity contrast (Visibility0.2), when the incident wavelength is fixed at 442nm the minimum feature size is about Δ=π/(2kx)=π/2(3εpr)1/2k037nm (~1/12wavelength). So, it is justified to give a theoretical resolution limit of about 1/12 wavelength to the surface plasmon interference lithography methods presented here and those in Ref [6

6. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004). [CrossRef]

,7

7. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. X. J. Jiao, P. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Tang, J. Xie, and H. Ming, “Numerical simulation of nanolithography with the subwavelength metallic grating waveguide structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4850–4860 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. And it is believed that much higher resolution can be obtained by employing negative refractive index materials, in which metal loss would be the dominating factor influencing resolution.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by 973 Program of China (No.2006-CB302900) and the Chinese Nature Science Grant (No.60507014).

References and links

1.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

R. S. Dhaliwal, W. A. Enichen, S. D. Golldaday, M. S. Gordon, R. A. Kendall, J. E. Lieberman, H. C. Pfeiffer, D. J. Pinckney, C. F. Robinson, J. D. Rockrohr, W. Stickel, and E. V. Tressler, ““PREVAIL- Electron projection technology approach for next generation lithography,” IBM,” J. Res. Dev. (Srinagar) 45, 615–638 (2001).

3.

E. B. Cooper, S. R. Manalis, H. Fang, H. Dai, K. Matsumoto, S. Minne, T. Hunt, and C. F. Quate, “Terabitper-square-inch data storage with the atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3566–3568 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

J. G. Goodberlet and H. Kavak, “Patterning sub-50 nm features with near-field embedded-amplitude masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1315–1317 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Naya, I. Tsuruma, T. Tani, A. Mukai, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Yasunami, “Near-field optical photolithography for high-aspect-ratio patterning using bilayer resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201113 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguide: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

X. J. Jiao, P. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Tang, J. Xie, and H. Ming, “Numerical simulation of nanolithography with the subwavelength metallic grating waveguide structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4850–4860 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials, CRC, Boston, (2003).

12.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

13.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

L. F. Li, “New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(10), 2758 (1997). [CrossRef]

15.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

D. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Experimental comparison of resolution and pattern fidelity in single- and double-layer planar lens lithography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 461 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC, Boca Raton, (2002).

18.

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068 (1995). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: July 1, 2009
Revised Manuscript: July 29, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: August 28, 2009
Published: September 4, 2009

Citation
Beibei Zeng, Xufeng Yang, Changtao Wang, and Xiangang Luo, "Plasmonic interference nanolithography with a double-layer planar silver lens structure," Opt. Express 17, 16783-16791 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16783


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References

  1. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. R. S. Dhaliwal, W. A. Enichen, S. D. Golldaday, M. S. Gordon, R. A. Kendall, J. E. Lieberman, H. C. Pfeiffer, D. J. Pinckney, C. F. Robinson, J. D. Rockrohr, W. Stickel, and E. V. Tressler, ““PREVAIL- Electron projection technology approach for next generation lithography,” IBM,” J. Res. Dev. (Srinagar) 45, 615–638 (2001).
  3. E. B. Cooper, S. R. Manalis, H. Fang, H. Dai, K. Matsumoto, S. Minne, T. Hunt, and C. F. Quate, “Terabitper-square-inch data storage with the atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3566–3568 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. J. G. Goodberlet and H. Kavak, “Patterning sub-50 nm features with near-field embedded-amplitude masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1315–1317 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Naya, I. Tsuruma, T. Tani, A. Mukai, S. Sakaguchi, and S. Yasunami, “Near-field optical photolithography for high-aspect-ratio patterning using bilayer resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201113 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780–4782 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmon slot waveguide: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. X. J. Jiao, P. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Tang, J. Xie, and H. Ming, “Numerical simulation of nanolithography with the subwavelength metallic grating waveguide structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4850–4860 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials, CRC, Boston, (2003).
  12. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. F. Li, “New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(10), 2758 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Experimental comparison of resolution and pattern fidelity in single- and double-layer planar lens lithography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3), 461 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC, Boca Raton, (2002).
  18. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068 (1995). [CrossRef]

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