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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 19 — Sep. 14, 2009
  • pp: 16898–16903
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4 Gbps Impulse Radio (IR) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Transmission over 100 Meters Multi Mode Fiber with 4 MetersWireless Transmission

Jesper Bevensee Jensen, Roberto Rodes, Antonio Caballero, Xianbin Yu, Timothy Braidwood Gibbon, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16898-16903 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016898


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Abstract

We present experimental demonstrations of in-building impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link consisting of 100 m multi mode fiber (MMF) and 4 m wireless transmission at a record 4 Gbps, and a record 8 m wireless transmission at 2.5 Gbps. A directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was used for the generation of the optical signal. 8 m at 2.5 Gbps corresponds to a bit rate - distance product of 20; the highest yet reported for wireless IR-UWB transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication is an emerging technology for short range and high speed communications, employing an extremely low power emission of less than -41.3 dBm/MHz over a wide bandwidth from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz in order to comply with the regulations for indoor wireless transmission as described in [1

1. Federal Communications Commission, “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems,” (2002)

] by the federal Communications Commission (FCC). Compliance with [1

1. Federal Communications Commission, “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems,” (2002)

] not only ensures non-problematic coexistence with other wireless technologies, such as GPS, WiMax and UMTS, but also facilitates the use of wireless communication in radio frequency (RF) sensitive environments, e.g. hospitals and airplane cabins. The low emitted RF-power, however, has so far limited transmission distances to e.g. 65 cm at 500 Mbps [2

2. M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “All-Optical 500-Mb/s UWB Transceiver: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2795–2802 (2008). [CrossRef]

] or 20 cm at 1.025 Gbps [3

3. M. Hanawa, K. Mori, K. Nakamura, A. Matsui, Y. Kanda, and K. Nonaka, “Dispersion tolerant UWB-IR-over-Fiber transmission under FCC indoor spectrum mask,” OFC/NFOEC2009, March 2009, California, USA, Paper: OTuJ3 (2008).

]. Moreover, due to the inability of the wireless UWB signals to penetrate walls, a fiber based in-home infrastructure is required for the distribution of the UWB signals around the house.

Various methods for photonic generation of UWB pulses have been investigated recently. Most these rely on either recombination of two Gaussian pulses with a π phase-offset, or on nonlinear signal processing. The first category includes [4

4. C. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, “All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137–139 (2007). [CrossRef]

], [5

5. Q. Wang and J. Yao, “An electrically switchable optical ultrawideband pulse generator,” J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3626–3633 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and [6

6. Q. Wang, F. Zeng, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Optical ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3083–3085 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] where fiber Bragg gratings have been used to control the delay between the two pulses, [7

7. H. Chen, M. Chen, C. Qiu, and S. Xie, “A novel composite method for ultra-wideband doublet pulses generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2021–2023 (2007). [CrossRef]

] where modules with differential group delay have been used, [8

8. J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Wu, J. Lin, M. Tang, and P. Shum, “Photonic ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation using a single electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 33, 288–290 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] where a dispersive medium provided the delay between the pulses. UWB pulse generation by nonlinear processing has been demonstrated using a microwave differentiator [9

9. W. P. Lin and J. Y. Chen, “Implementation of a new ultrawide-band impulse system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2418–2420 (2005). [CrossRef]

], using nonlinear pulse shaping of fiber Bragg gratings [10

10. M. Abtahi, J. Magné, M. Mirshafiei, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Generation of power-efficient FCCcompliant UWB waveforms using FBGs: Analysis and experiment,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 628–635 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and using nonlinear modulation of electroopic modulators [11

11. Q. Wang and J. Yao, “UWB doublet generation using nonlinearly biased electro-optic intensity modulator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1304–1305 (2006). [CrossRef]

], [12

12. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Ultra-wide-band radio signal generation using optical frequency-shift-keying technique,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 153–155 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Additionally, in [13

13. V. Torres-Company, K. Prince, and I. T. Monroy, “Fiber transmission and generation of ultrawideband pulses by direct current modulation of semiconductor lasers and chirp-to-intensity conversion,” Opt. Lett. 33, 222–224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] UWB generation using a directly modulated laser together with chirp to intensity modulation was demonstrated, in [14

14. T. B. Yu, X. Gibbon, and I. T. Monroy, “Photonic ultra-wideband 781.25 Mbit/s signal generation and transmission incorporating digital signal processing detectio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., accepted for publication (2009)

] the carrier dynamics of an uncooled distributed feedback laser was used to generate the UWB signal, a demonstration of optical generation and transmission with included wireless transmission is presented in [15

15. H. Shams, A. Kaszubowska-Anandarajeh, P. Perry, and L. P. Barry “Optical generation, fiber distribution and air transmission for Ultra Wide Band over fiber system,” OFC/NFOEC2009 March 2009, California, USA, post deadline paper (2009).

], a multi-hub system employing polymer fiber is demonstrated in [16

16. C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J-P. Vilcot, and N. Rolland, “A multi-hop UWB radio over polymer fibre system for 60-GHz hybrid network,” European workshop on photonic solutions for wireless, access, and in house networks, 35–36, May 2009, Duisburg, Germany (2009)

], and an analysis of UWB transmission in FTTH networks is presented in [17

17. M. Maria, J. Pérez, M. Beltran, R. Llorente, and J. Marti, “Integrated performance analysis of UWB wireless optical transmission in FTTH networks,” 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society LEOS 2008, 87–88 (2008)

].

The measured bit error ratio was below the limit for error free detection after forward error correction (FEC) after a record 8 m wireless transmission at 2.5 Gbps and after 4 m wireless transmission at a record 4 Gbps bit rate.

2. Experimental setup

Fig. 1. Schematic of the setup used in the experiment. AWG denotes the arbitrary waveform generator, VCSEL the vertical cavity surface emitting laser, MMF the multi mode fiber, PD the photo diode and DSP digital signal processing in the receiver.

A simplified schematic of the setup used in the experiment is shown in Fig. 1. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with a sampling rate of 24 GSamples/s was used to electrically generate the IR-UWB signal. The data-pattern was a pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) of wordlength 211-1. The pulse shape used in the experiment was a 5th derivative Gaussian pulse chosen for its excellent compliance with the FCC mask. The pulse shape is described by equation 1

y(t)=A2π[t5σ11+10t3σ915tσ7]·et22σ2,
(1)

where A is the amplitude, t is the time and σ is the standard deviation, which was 60 ps for 1 and 2.5 Gbps, and 55 ps for 4 Gbps. The latter was chosen to reduce overlap of leading and trailing edges of neighboring pulses.

After photodetection, the signal was high-pass filtered and amplified in order to comply with the FCC mask for indoor radiation, and fed to a SkyCross SMT-3TO10M-A omnidirectional antenna with a peak gain of 4.5 dBi at 4.5 GHz. After 4–8 m wireless transmission, the signal was received with a directional antenna directed at the transmitter. The receiving antenna was a bow-tie phased array with a gain varying from 4.65 dBi to 12.5 dBi in the frequency band 3.1–10.6 GHz, and with a gain of 8.8 dBi at the signal peak frequency of 5 GHz. This arrangement utilizes the high gain of a directional antenna at the receiver without compromising the excellent room coverage provided by an omnidirectional antenna at the transmitter. The received wireless signal was amplified using a two-stage low-noise electrical amplifier with a total gain of 49 dB. A digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) with a sampling rate of 40 GSample/s was used to digitize and store the signal.

Demodulation of the received signal after sampling was performed using digital signal processing (DSP). The demodulator consisted of the following steps: After initial high-pass filtering, the correlation with the original UWB pulse shape from equation 1 was calculated, and bit synchronization was performed. Based on the synchronized bits, the optimum decision thres-hold was determined, and bit error ratio (BER) was calculated on a bit-by-bit basis. 105 bits were analyzed in all cases.

Fig. 2. Measured electrical spectral densities at the antenna input, together with the FCC mask and the effective mask.

The electrical spectrum at the input to the transmitter antenna is shown in Fig. 2 for 1, 2.5 and 4 Gbps together with the FCC mask, and an ‘effective mask’, which takes into account the gain of the transmitter antenna. The effective mask was calculated from the transfer function of the transmission antenna according to the method described in [2

2. M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “All-Optical 500-Mb/s UWB Transceiver: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2795–2802 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The antenna transfer function was measured with a network analyzer. Two identical antennas was placed opposite each other and a sinusoidal signal was transmitted by one antenna and received by the other. The frequency of the sinusoidal signal was swept from 0 to 10 GHz. The transfer function of each antenna can be calculated as the square root of the frequency response of the two antennas. Absorbers was placed around the antennas in order to prevent reflections. From Fig. 2 it can be observed that the measured spectra are below the effective mask as required by the FCC regulation. The spikes at multiples of the bit rate exceed the effective mask by less than 20 dB in accordance with the FCC regulation [1

1. Federal Communications Commission, “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems,” (2002)

].

3. Results

Fig. 3. Eye diagrams of the purely electrical signal measured after 4 m wireless transmission and demodulation by correlation with the original 5th order Gaussian pulse.

Fig. 4. Errors in 100,000 bits after demodulation. Forward error correction (FEC) limit is also shown.

4. Conclusion

Using a combination of omnidirectional transmitting antenna and unidirectional (high gain) receiving antenna, we have succeeded in wireless transmission of impulse radio (IR) ultra wideband (UWB) signals over 8 meters @ 2.5 Gbps, and 4 meters @ 4 Gbps with a received BER below the FEC limit of 2·10-3. Prior to the wireless transmission, the signals were transmitted through a 100 m MMF based in-building fiber link, employing direct modulation of a VCSEL for a simple, low-cost solution for the optical link.

In the experimental demonstration, the UWB pulses were generated electronically using an AWG. For a commercial realization, this can be replaced by a more simple signal generator dedicated to producing 5th order Gaussian pulses for IR-UWB transmission. Using DSP in the receiver requires sampling of 20 GSamples/s in order to resolve the high-frequency content of the signal. Such high-speed analog to digital (A/D) converters are available today, but currently at a high cost. On the other hand, the development in this area is impressively fast, so high speed A/D converters are likely to be available at considerably lower cost in a few years. Moreover, if half-wave rectification and envelope detection of the received signal is employed, the A/D converters and DSP can be avoided.

Fig. 5. Part of the received signal corresponding to the pattern ‘000101001100’ at bit rates 1, 2.5 and 4 Gbps measured after 4, 6 and 8 m wireless transmission

We believe that the bit rate-distance product of 20 achieved in the 8 meters 2.5 Gbps case is the highest yet reported for IR-UWB signals. Moreover, through the simple solution for the optical link, we have demonstrated IR-UWB as a strong candidate for future in-building networks employing wireless connectivity and fiber-optic routing.

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) within the project ICT ALPHA. We would also like to acknowledge Nortelco and Tektronix for allowing us to use the arbitrary waveform generator.

References and links

1.

Federal Communications Commission, “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems,” (2002)

2.

M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “All-Optical 500-Mb/s UWB Transceiver: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2795–2802 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Hanawa, K. Mori, K. Nakamura, A. Matsui, Y. Kanda, and K. Nonaka, “Dispersion tolerant UWB-IR-over-Fiber transmission under FCC indoor spectrum mask,” OFC/NFOEC2009, March 2009, California, USA, Paper: OTuJ3 (2008).

4.

C. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, “All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137–139 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

Q. Wang and J. Yao, “An electrically switchable optical ultrawideband pulse generator,” J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3626–3633 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

Q. Wang, F. Zeng, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Optical ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3083–3085 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

H. Chen, M. Chen, C. Qiu, and S. Xie, “A novel composite method for ultra-wideband doublet pulses generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2021–2023 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Wu, J. Lin, M. Tang, and P. Shum, “Photonic ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation using a single electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 33, 288–290 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

W. P. Lin and J. Y. Chen, “Implementation of a new ultrawide-band impulse system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2418–2420 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Abtahi, J. Magné, M. Mirshafiei, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Generation of power-efficient FCCcompliant UWB waveforms using FBGs: Analysis and experiment,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 628–635 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

Q. Wang and J. Yao, “UWB doublet generation using nonlinearly biased electro-optic intensity modulator,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1304–1305 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Ultra-wide-band radio signal generation using optical frequency-shift-keying technique,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 153–155 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

V. Torres-Company, K. Prince, and I. T. Monroy, “Fiber transmission and generation of ultrawideband pulses by direct current modulation of semiconductor lasers and chirp-to-intensity conversion,” Opt. Lett. 33, 222–224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. B. Yu, X. Gibbon, and I. T. Monroy, “Photonic ultra-wideband 781.25 Mbit/s signal generation and transmission incorporating digital signal processing detectio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., accepted for publication (2009)

15.

H. Shams, A. Kaszubowska-Anandarajeh, P. Perry, and L. P. Barry “Optical generation, fiber distribution and air transmission for Ultra Wide Band over fiber system,” OFC/NFOEC2009 March 2009, California, USA, post deadline paper (2009).

16.

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J-P. Vilcot, and N. Rolland, “A multi-hop UWB radio over polymer fibre system for 60-GHz hybrid network,” European workshop on photonic solutions for wireless, access, and in house networks, 35–36, May 2009, Duisburg, Germany (2009)

17.

M. Maria, J. Pérez, M. Beltran, R. Llorente, and J. Marti, “Integrated performance analysis of UWB wireless optical transmission in FTTH networks,” 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society LEOS 2008, 87–88 (2008)

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: June 30, 2009
Revised Manuscript: August 20, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2009
Published: September 8, 2009

Citation
Jesper Bevensee Jensen, Roberto Rodes, Antonio Caballero, Xianbin Yu, Timothy Braidwood Gibbon, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy, "Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission," Opt. Express 17, 16898-16903 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-16898


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References

  1. Federal Communications Commission, "Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems," (2002)
  2. M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magne, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, "All-Optical 500-Mb/s UWB Transceiver: An Experimental Demonstration," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2795-2802 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hanawa, K. Mori, K. Nakamura, A. Matsui, Y. Kanda, and K. Nonaka, "Dispersion tolerant UWB-IR-over-Fiber transmission under FCC indoor spectrum mask," OFC/NFOEC2009, March 2009, California, USA, Paper: OTuJ3 (2008).
  4. C. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. P. Yao, "All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137-139 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Wang and J. Yao, "An electrically switchable optical ultrawideband pulse generator," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3626-3633 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Wang, F. Zeng, S. Blais, and J. Yao, "Optical ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 3083-3085 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Chen, M. Chen, C. Qiu, and S. Xie, "A novel composite method for ultra-wideband doublet pulses generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2021-2023 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Li, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Wu, J. Lin, M. Tang, and P. Shum, "Photonic ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation using a single electro-optic modulator," Opt. Lett. 33, 288-290 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. P. Lin and J. Y. Chen, "Implementation of a new ultrawide-band impulse system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2418-2420 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Abtahi, J. Magne, M. Mirshafiei, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, "Generation of power-efficient FCCcompliant UWB waveforms using FBGs: Analysis and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 628-635 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Wang and J. Yao, "UWB doublet generation using nonlinearly biased electro-optic intensity modulator," Electron. Lett. 42, 1304-1305 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, "Ultra-wide-band radio signal generation using optical frequencyshift-keying technique," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 153-155 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Torres-Company, K. Prince, and I. T. Monroy, "Fiber transmission and generation of ultrawideband pulses by direct current modulation of semiconductor lasers and chirp-to-intensity conversion," Opt. Lett. 33, 222-224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. B. Gibbon, X. Yu and I. T. Monroy, "Photonic ultra-wideband 781.25 Mbit/s signal generation and transmission incorporating digital signal processing detectio," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., accepted for publication (2009)
  15. H. Shams, A. Kaszubowska-Anandarajeh, P. Perry and L. P. Barry "Optical generation, fiber distribution and air transmission for Ultra Wide Band over fiber system," OFC/NFOEC2009 March 2009, California, USA, post deadline paper (2009).
  16. C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J-P. Vilcot and N. Rolland, "A multi-hop UWB radio over polymer fibre system for 60-GHz hybrid network," European workshop on photonic solutions for wireless, access, and in house networks, 35-36, May 2009, Duisburg, Germany (2009)
  17. M. Maria, J. Perez, M. Beltran, R. Llorente and J. Marti, "Integrated performance analysis of UWB wireless optical transmission in FTTH networks," 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society LEOS 2008, 87-88 (2008)

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