OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 20 — Sep. 28, 2009
  • pp: 17963–17969
« Show journal navigation

Changing the emission of polarized thermal radiation from metallic nanoheaters

Levente J. Klein, Snorri Ingvarsson, and Hendrik F. Hamann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 20, pp. 17963-17969 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.017963


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (345 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The polarization of the thermal radiation emitted from individual nanoheaters is investigated for nanoheaters with widths ranging from 500 nm to 2000 nm. The polarization is oriented along the long axis of the nanoheater for widths below 600 nm and rotates by 90° and becomes perpendicular for widths above 900 nm. For certain width nanoheaters the orientation of the polarization of the thermal emission can be rotated from parallel to perpendicular by changing the temperature of the nanoheater. The change in the direction of the emitted thermal radiation is explained by thermally excited transverse plasmon modes.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

There is an ongoing interest to control the emission and absorption of patterned surfaces using plasmon and surface polariton resonances to increase the performance of the photovoltaic devices [1

1. U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, New York, 1995).

3

3. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, plasmon resonances of small metallic particles deposited/patterned on the surfaces are most commonly utilized to enhance light absorption and scattering [1

1. U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, New York, 1995).

]. The plasmon resonances are controlled by the dimensions of the metallic nanoparticles, with small/large aspect ratio nanowires having resonances in the visible/mid-infrared region [2

2. M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jaochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self- assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

For surfaces supporting surface phonon polaritons or multilayer structures the thermal radiation becomes coherent and strongly polarized [4

4. F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, “Coherent spontaneous emission of light by thermal sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155412 (2004). [CrossRef]

8

8. N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Enhanced coherency of thermal emission: Beyond the limitation imposed by delocalized surface waves,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045427 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The same increased coherence and pronounced polarization of thermal radiation are also observed from sub-wavelength dimensions nanoheaters with an antenna-like angular radiation pattern [9

9. L. J. Klein, H. F. Hamann, Y. Y. Au, and S. Ingvarsson, “Coherence properties of infrared thermal emission from heated metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213102 (2008). [CrossRef]

,10

10. S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, Y.-Y. Au, J. A. Lacey, and H. F. Hamann, “Enhanced thermal emission from individual antenna-like nanoheaters,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11249–11254 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Specifically, these investigations showed that the coherence and polarization of the thermal radiation is more significant for narrow nanoheaters and vanishes for wider nanoheaters. The increased polarization can be explained by charge confinement and thus correlated charge fluctuations along the long axis of the nanoheater [11

11. Y.-Y. Au, H. S. Skulason, S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, and H. F. Hamann, “Thermal radiation spectra of individual subwavelength microheaters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085402 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Development of sub-wavelength coherent infrared radiation sources are actively explored for near-field and total reflection microscopy where a control of the polarization of the radiation source is highly desired.

In this article we investigate the change in direction of the emitted thermal radiation from metallic nanoheaters as function of lateral dimensions and temperature. It is demonstrated that the direction of the emitted thermal radiation can be rotated from parallel to perpendicular by changing the width/temperature of the nanoheater. Furthermore, we show that this polarization rotation is originated by thermally excited plasmon resonances of the nanoheater detected as peaks in the emission spectrum of the nanoheater.

2. Experiment

Metallic nanoheaters were fabricated by e-beam lithography with four contact pads for accurate resistance measurement and temperature control of the nanoheaters (Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup for measuring the polarized thermal radiation from individual nanoheaters using a rotating polarizer inserted in front of the InSb detector. Polarization traces (b) acquired for a 500 nm and 1000 nm wide nanoheater where the polarization changes from parallel to a perpendicular orientation.
) [10

10. S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, Y.-Y. Au, J. A. Lacey, and H. F. Hamann, “Enhanced thermal emission from individual antenna-like nanoheaters,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11249–11254 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The nanoheaters are scaled structures with widths ranging from 500 nm up to 2000 nm and lengths being ten times larger than the widths. For clarity, we will denominate the nanoheaters based on their widths while the experiments refer to the scaled structures. By passing an electrical current through the outer electrodes, the nanoheaters are resistively heated up to temperatures of 700° C and the thermal radiation is projected onto an InSb detector (sensitive in the 2 to 5 µm spectral region)(Fig. 1(a)). Before the radiation is captured by the detector, it passes through a rotating infrared polarizer. Typical polarization traces acquired for 500 nm and 1000 nm wide wires are shown in Fig. 1(b) as detected by the InSb detector over the 2-5 µm spectrum. For the 500 nm wide nanoheater the main polarization of the emitted thermal radiation is parallel while for the 1000 nm wide nanoheater the thermal radiation is perpendicular to the nanoheater long axis [11

11. Y.-Y. Au, H. S. Skulason, S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, and H. F. Hamann, “Thermal radiation spectra of individual subwavelength microheaters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085402 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

The polarized thermal radiation as function of the polarizer rotation angle θ can be represented as a sum of an unpolarized and polarized radiation signal, i.e. I(θ)=Iu+Ipsin2(θ), where Iu is the unpolarized background and Ip is the amplitude of the polarized signal. The ratio of polarized and unpolarized signal is defined as the extinction ratio [12

12. J. M. Bennet, “Polarization” in Handbook of Optics M.Bass, eds (McGraw-Hill, New-York 1995), Chap. 5.

], ε=Ip/Iu. In Fig. 2 (a)
Fig. 2 Change of the extinction ratio (a) as function of nanoheater width with polarization rotating for width~700nm and simulations of the degree of polarization for an infinite cylinder (b).
, the extinction ratio is plotted for nanoheaters with widths ranging from 500 nm up to 2000 nm for constant temperature (T = 400° C). In agreement with earlier observations [10

10. S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, Y.-Y. Au, J. A. Lacey, and H. F. Hamann, “Enhanced thermal emission from individual antenna-like nanoheaters,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11249–11254 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the extinction ratio is very large for narrow nanoheaters (Fig. 2(a)) and the emission is parallel to the long axis of nanoheater. The extinction ratio drops drastically for widths between 600 nm up to 900 nm and a change in orientation occurs. Upon increasing the width above 900 nm the extinction ratio increases while the emission becomes perpendicular to the long axis of nanoheater. Although the effect is small, Fig. 1(b) and Fig. 2(a) clearly show that the main polarization direction rotates from parallel to perpendicular as the width of the nanoheater is increased.

The thermal radiation emitted by metallic nanoheaters is quite different from Planck’s blackbody radiation [2

2. M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jaochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self- assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008). [CrossRef]

,11

11. Y.-Y. Au, H. S. Skulason, S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, and H. F. Hamann, “Thermal radiation spectra of individual subwavelength microheaters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085402 (2008). [CrossRef]

] as plasmon resonances associated with size effects change the emission/scattering. The thermal radiation absorbed/emitted by nanoheaters with absorption cross section σabs, at temperature T, and in the interval of angular frequency dω is given [13

13. C. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

] by dI=σabs(ω3)dω/(2π3c2(exp(ω/kBT)1)). For large aspect ratio structures, nanoheaters can be approximated as infinite cylinders in which case the absorption cross section can be analytically estimated. The absorption cross section for an infinite long cylinder with radius r, in vacuum is [13

13. C. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

]: σabs=2k0m=0[Re(am)+|am|2]  ,where k0=2π/λ0 is the wave vector for light in vacuum and am are the scattering coefficients. For incident radiation parallel to the cylinder axes, the scattering coefficient is:

am=k0Jm(k0r)Jm(kr)kJm(k0r)Jm(kr)k0Hm(1)(k0r)Jm(kr)kHm(1)(k0r)Jm(kr), where k is the wave vector inside the cylinder (k=k0ε and ε is the dielectric constant of metallic wire [14

14. M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, “Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W,” Appl. Opt. 24(24), 4493–4499 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], i.e. platinum in our case) and Jm and Hm(1)are the Bessel function and Henkel function of the first kind, respectively. In this case, the radiation is absorbed along the long axis of the cylinder (I||).

For incident radiation perpendicular to the cylinder axis, the scattering coefficient is: am=kJm(k0r)Jm(kr)k0Jm(k0r)Jm(kr)kHm(1)(k0r)Jm(kr)k0Hm(1)(k0r)Jm(kr), and the radiation is absorbed along the perpendicular direction (I). The degree of polarization [13

13. C. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

] is defined as: P=(I||I)/(I||+I) and its magnitude |P| changes from parallel to perpendicular direction at kr~1.5 (Fig. 2(b)) where k=2π/λ is the wave vector inside the nanoheater and the optical constants of Pt in the studied spectral window were considered [14

14. M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, “Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W,” Appl. Opt. 24(24), 4493–4499 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The data in Fig. 2(b) shows that both a change in cylinder radius (r) and the emission wavelength (λ) can change the main polarization. Although the nanoheaters investigated here have a rectangular shape, finite length, and are patterned on insulating substrates (SiO2) (thus the dielectric constant of the surrounding is different from vacuum), the simple scattering theory for an infinite cylinder still offers a qualitative prediction of the polarization change.

The increasing temperature of the nanoheaters should broaden and shift the spectral peaks associated with plasmon resonances to smaller wavelength and the relative weight of longitudinal and transversal emission in the detection window should determine the polarization. According to the calculations for infinite cylinder, the polarization should change back to longitudinal modes and then again to transversal modes (higher order plasmon modes being excited) at higher wavelength (radiation temperature) as higher longitudinal and transversal modes interchange [15

15. H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in thick semiconducting nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024314 (2006). [CrossRef]

,16

16. H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115308 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. We note that the relative weight of the radiation emitted along the two orthogonal directions may change in different spectral windows [18

18. R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,19

19. D. R. Ward, N. J. Halas, and D. Natelson, “Localized heating in nanoscale Pt constrictions measured using blackbody radiation emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 213108 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

A clear rotation of the polarized thermal radiation emitted by a 850 nm wide nanoheater is observed as the temperatures of the nanoheater is increased. Polarization traces similar to Fig. 1(b) are acquired for temperatures between 360° C and 640° C and combined in a two dimensional surface plot with axis defined by the rotation angle and temperatures (Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Surface plot (a) of the polarization traces for an 850 nm wide nanoheater as function of temperature. At lower temperatures parallel polarization is dominant and rotates towards a perpendicular direction at higher temperatures. Change in the extinction ratio for the 850 nm nanoheater as function of temperature (b).
). At temperatures below 550° C, thermal emission along the nanoheater axis dominates, while in-between 550° C to 600° C, the polarization starts rotating from a parallel to a perpendicular orientation. At even higher temperature the thermal radiation emission will be perpendicular to the nanoheater long axis. Around 580° C both the parallel and perpendicular emission are comparable in magnitude and the thermal radiation becomes almost unpolarized. The rotation is controlled by the thermally activated transverse surface plasmon modes that will enhance the thermal emission along the perpendicular direction to the nanoheater long axis. We note that in the regime where the polarization of the thermal radiation rotates, the polarized component of the total thermal radiation is small compared to the unpolarized background.

The extinction ratio for the 850 nm wide nanoheater varies as function of nanoheater temperature (Fig. 4(b)) in a very similar way to the extinction ratio as function of the nanoheater width (Fig. 2(a)). These two complimentary data sets demonstrate that the polarization of the thermal radiation can be rotated by either changing the dimensions of the nanoheater or its temperature and is consistent with Fig. 2(b) where a change in radius of the infinite cylinder or emission wavelength (determined by the temperature of the nanoheater) changes the polarization of the emitted thermal radiation.

The change of the polarization direction has been observed for nanoheater patterned on oxide thickness ranging from 90 nm to 110 nm and nanoheater width ranging from 750 nm to 900 nm. For these nanowire widths we observed changes in polarization both from a parallel to perpendicular and also from perpendicular to parallel orientation of the emitted thermal radiation. Once the nanowires width is above 900 nm the radiation direction will have the same orientation up to the 700° C (the highest temperature studied). We note that the polarization component of the thermal radiation is very small for nanoheaters with widths for which the polarization can be rotated. For such nanoheaters, both parallel and perpendicular components of the thermal radiation are comparable in magnitude and the radiation is almost unpolarized. The temperature where transition occurs is dependent on oxide thickness and also on the spectral detection window.

3. Conclusions

Plasmon resonances of metallic nanowires/waveguides are investigated as a possible route for optical information transmission and processing. Recent studies demonstrated the propagation of surface plasmons polaritons over a micron scale distances [20

20. K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications,” Opt. Express 14(1), 314–319 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. S.-Y. Yim, H.-G. Ahn, K.-C. Je, M. Choi, C. W. Park, H. Ju, and S.-H. Park, “Observation of red-shifted strong surface plasmon scattering in single Cu nanowires,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10282–10287 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] combined with significant nonlinear optical phenomena [22

22. J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, C. Torres-Torres, A. L. Santiago-Ramírez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. López-Suárez, and A. Oliver, “Anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical properties from anisotropy-controlled metallic nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12849–12868 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nanoheaters with polarization tunable by temperature will allow the development of local infrared plasmonic radiation sources for local characterization of molecules and quantum structures. Furthermore the nanogap formed in nanoheaters due to electromigrations is actively pursued for single molecule characterization [19

19. D. R. Ward, N. J. Halas, and D. Natelson, “Localized heating in nanoscale Pt constrictions measured using blackbody radiation emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 213108 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

In conclusion we investigated the polarization of the thermal emission from individual metallic nanoheaters. For very narrow nanoheaters the emission of the thermal radiation is more dominant along the long axis of the nanoheater and rotates to a perpendicular direction as the width is increased. The relative weight of the thermal radiation can be shifted from parallel to perpendicular orientation by increasing the nanoheater temperature. These metallic nanoheaters antennas could be employed as polarized infrared light sources or radiation absorber with enhanced emission/absorption tailored by the nanoheater temperature and plasmon resonances.

Acknowledgements

This research was funded in part by the Icelandic Research Fund and the University of Iceland Research Fund. The authors would like to thank Yat-Yin Au for the nanoheater spectral measurements.

References and links

1.

U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, New York, 1995).

2.

M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jaochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self- assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, “Coherent spontaneous emission of light by thermal sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155412 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

B. J. Lee and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission from modified periodic multilayer structures,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 17–26 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptugaa, V. Morozhenkoa, V. I. Pipaa, and E. F. Vengera, “Circular polarized coherent thermal radiation from semiconductor layers in an external magnetic field,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 131–134 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Enhanced coherency of thermal emission: Beyond the limitation imposed by delocalized surface waves,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045427 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

L. J. Klein, H. F. Hamann, Y. Y. Au, and S. Ingvarsson, “Coherence properties of infrared thermal emission from heated metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213102 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, Y.-Y. Au, J. A. Lacey, and H. F. Hamann, “Enhanced thermal emission from individual antenna-like nanoheaters,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11249–11254 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y.-Y. Au, H. S. Skulason, S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, and H. F. Hamann, “Thermal radiation spectra of individual subwavelength microheaters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085402 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

J. M. Bennet, “Polarization” in Handbook of Optics M.Bass, eds (McGraw-Hill, New-York 1995), Chap. 5.

13.

C. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

14.

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, “Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W,” Appl. Opt. 24(24), 4493–4499 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in thick semiconducting nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024314 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115308 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

D. R. Ward, N. J. Halas, and D. Natelson, “Localized heating in nanoscale Pt constrictions measured using blackbody radiation emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 213108 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications,” Opt. Express 14(1), 314–319 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S.-Y. Yim, H.-G. Ahn, K.-C. Je, M. Choi, C. W. Park, H. Ju, and S.-H. Park, “Observation of red-shifted strong surface plasmon scattering in single Cu nanowires,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10282–10287 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, C. Torres-Torres, A. L. Santiago-Ramírez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. López-Suárez, and A. Oliver, “Anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical properties from anisotropy-controlled metallic nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12849–12868 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(030.5620) Coherence and statistical optics : Radiative transfer
(230.6080) Optical devices : Sources

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: August 17, 2009
Revised Manuscript: September 17, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 17, 2009
Published: September 22, 2009

Citation
Levente J. Klein, Snorri Ingvarsson, and Hendrik F. Hamann, "Changing the emission of polarized thermal radiation from metallic nanoheaters," Opt. Express 17, 17963-17969 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-17963


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. U. Kreibig, and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, New York, 1995).
  2. M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jaochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self- assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Marquier, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, and Y. Chen, “Coherent spontaneous emission of light by thermal sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155412 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Lee and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission from modified periodic multilayer structures,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 17–26 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. O. G. Kollyukh, A. I. Liptugaa, V. Morozhenkoa, V. I. Pipaa, and E. F. Vengera, “Circular polarized coherent thermal radiation from semiconductor layers in an external magnetic field,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 131–134 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Dahan, A. Niv, G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Enhanced coherency of thermal emission: Beyond the limitation imposed by delocalized surface waves,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045427 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Klein, H. F. Hamann, Y. Y. Au, and S. Ingvarsson, “Coherence properties of infrared thermal emission from heated metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, Y.-Y. Au, J. A. Lacey, and H. F. Hamann, “Enhanced thermal emission from individual antenna-like nanoheaters,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11249–11254 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y.-Y. Au, H. S. Skulason, S. Ingvarsson, L. J. Klein, and H. F. Hamann, “Thermal radiation spectra of individual subwavelength microheaters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085402 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Bennet, “Polarization” in Handbook of Optics M.Bass, eds (McGraw-Hill, New-York 1995), Chap. 5.
  13. C. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  14. M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander Jr, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, “Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W,” Appl. Opt. 24(24), 4493–4499 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in thick semiconducting nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024314 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115308 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. R. Ward, N. J. Halas, and D. Natelson, “Localized heating in nanoscale Pt constrictions measured using blackbody radiation emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 213108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications,” Opt. Express 14(1), 314–319 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S.-Y. Yim, H.-G. Ahn, K.-C. Je, M. Choi, C. W. Park, H. Ju, and S.-H. Park, “Observation of red-shifted strong surface plasmon scattering in single Cu nanowires,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10282–10287 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, C. Torres-Torres, A. L. Santiago-Ramírez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. López-Suárez, and A. Oliver, “Anisotropic linear and nonlinear optical properties from anisotropy-controlled metallic nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12849–12868 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited