OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 22 — Oct. 26, 2009
  • pp: 20567–20574
« Show journal navigation

Coherent transfer of orbital angular momentum to excitons by optical four-wave mixing

Y. Ueno, Y. Toda, S. Adachi, R. Morita, and T. Tawara  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 22, pp. 20567-20574 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.020567


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (505 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate the coherent transfer of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the center of mass momentum of excitons in semiconductor GaN using a four-wave mixing (FWM) process. When we apply the optical vortex (OV) as an excitation pulse, the diffracted FWM signal exhibits phase singularities that satisfy the OAM conservation law, which remain clear within the exciton dephasing time (~1ps). We also demonstrate the arbitrary control of the topological charge in the output signal by changing the OAM of the input pulse. The results provide a way of controlling the optical OAM through carriers in solids. Moreover, the time evolution of the FWM with OAM leads to the study of the closed-loop carrier coherence in materials.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In this paper, we demonstrate the coherent OAM transfer from OV pulses to the center of mass momentum of excitons in semiconductor GaN. We show that the output signal from the four-wave mixing (FWM) process with OV pulse excitation is spatially coherent within the exciton dephasing time (~1ps) and exhibits phase singularities that satisfy the OAM conservation law. We also demonstrate the time evolution of OAM transfer in the emitting signal during the single input pulse, and optical gate control for the OAM by changing the input OAM. Our demonstrations represent a new type of coherent spectroscopy using OV pulses and provide a way of controlling sequential OV pulses through carriers in solids.

2. Experimental

In our experiments, we realize the coherent excitation of excitons with OAM via self-diffracted FWM using a pair of OV pulses (k 1, 1 and k 2, 2) with a delay time τ. Here, we consider the electric fields of the incident δ -function pulses with co-linear polarizations given by En(r,t)δ(t)ei(kn.rω0t)einφ(n=1,2),, where ω 0 is the center frequency of the pulse. An OV with a paraxial approximation is characterized by the Laguerre-Gaussian mode (LG0 , and hereafter denoted simply as LG) having a radial index of 0 with the form exp(iℓnφ). When =0, the beam is the fundamental Hermite-Gaussian (HG00, and hereafter denoted as HG) mode. The two incident pulses interfere via some nonlinearities of the sample and produce nonlinear polarization waves that contain P (3) 2k2-k1(P (3) 2k1-k2) in the direction 2k 2-k 1 (2k 1-k 2) [15

15. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).

]. For semiconductor materials, the manifestation of optical nonlinearity arises from the phase-space filling and Coulomb interactions, both of which are responsible for the anharmonicity of the exciton transitions. Within the framework of optical Bloch equations, one of the P (3) is described by

P2k2k1(3)(t,τ0)ih̅3Θ(tτ)E22E1*eiω0tei(2k2k1).rei(221)φα,
α=μx4ex(tτ)eiΩx*τ,Ωx=ωxiγx
(1)

Here µx, h̄ωx and γx are the exciton dipole matrix element, energy and relaxation rate, respectively, and Θ is the Heaviside step function. The equation clearly indicates that the output photons are characterized by the wavevector (k FWM=2k 2-k 1) and OAM ( FWM=2 2- 1). Within the paraxial approximation for OVs, these two parameters are independently controllable. As a result, we can generate OVs with an arbitrary OAM in the same direction by changing the OAM in the one of the incident pulses. In the resonance condition (ω 0=ωx), P2k2k1(3) is nonzero when tτ≥0 and it decays with τ. It is important to note that µx may exhibit spatial variations in terms of spatial coherence, which reflects the spatial phase relationship among excitons and with the electric fields creating them. If the spatial dephasing such as diffusion or spatially-dependent scattering is efficient, the magnitude of the total µx, i.e.,P (3) also decays with τ.

Figure 1 (a) shows a schematic of the FWM setup with OV pulses. The measurement was performed using a frequency-doubled mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a spectral width of 10 meV (~1.0 nm). Without spatial modulations to generate the OVs, the pulse duration is estimated to be ~130 fs. A center energy of ~3.495 eV (~354.8 nm) was selected for the GaN exciton transitions. The ultraviolet (UV) laser pulse is split into two collinearly polarized pulses with the same intensity. The delay time τ between the two pulses was determined by the variable spatial delay line.

The OV pulses were created from the HG laser beams by rotating the phase of the wavefront. Here, the mode conversion was realized by a computer generated holographic (CGH) technique using a two-dimensional (2D) spatial light modulator (SLM), in which all the optical elements are optimized for the UV wavelength. The phase patterns without fringes were used to gain a high conversion efficiency (upper part of Fig.1(b)). A conversion efficiency up to 70% was achieved in our measurements. Such phase patterns also enable us to avoid the spatial chirp induced by the diffraction [16

16. I. G. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. J. G. J. Uiterwaal, “Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 7599–7608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Figure 1(b) shows the intensity profiles of the incident OV pulse with various values of together with the corresponding phase patterns. The temporal chirp still remains but does not significantly affect the spatial and temporal profiles of the OV pulse owing to the relatively small spectrum bandwidth. The effect of the unmodified portion of the HG beams also remains and will be discussed in detail later.

Two pulses whose time-averaged powers just before focusing were ~300 µW/pulse were overlapped on the sample using a lens (f=200 mm), and the diffracted FWM signal was collected in the reflection geometry (Fig.1(c)). The sample was mounted on a cold finger of a liquid helium cryostat and all the data were obtained at 10 K. A simple evaluation of the phase singularity of the beams is realized by measuring the dark holes in the spatial intensity profile. The FWM signal was recorded using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with an image acquisition system. The total intensity was evaluated by the spatial integration of the beam profile. A more reliable way of checking the topological charge of the OV in FWM is to observe the interference pattern, which was realized by overlapping the output signal with a reference pulse with the HG mode generated by another frequency-doubling of the laser. For the spectrally-resolved FWM, the diffracted signal was introduced into a monochromator by a flipper mirror. The spectral resolution was better than 0.1 nm.

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic illustration of our experimental setup for degenerate FWM. Laser pulses whose center frequency satisfies the resonant condition of the free-exciton transitions of the sample are generated by the frequency doubling (SHG) of the mode-locked Ti:sapphire (ML:TiS). The output beam is split by the beam splitter (BS) into two beams labeled k 1 and k 2, both of which pass through a reflection-type spatial light modulator (SLM) which imposes the phase variation exp(iℓnφ) whose typical patterns together with the resulting beam profiles for =0 (left), 1 (middle), 2 (right) are shown in (b). The two beams with delay time τ are focused by a lens and the output FWM signals are obtained in the reflection geometry as shown in (c). The signals are observed by a monochromator or CCD camera. For the interferogram, one of the signals is superimposed on the third reference pulse with a delay denoted by t.

Fig. 2. (a) A typical FWM spectrum obtained at delay time τ=0 ps. The spectrum consists of XA and XB exciton transitions. (b) FWM signals in the direction 2k 2-k 1(2 2- 1=2) and 2k 1-k 2(2 1- 2=-1) as a function of τ between k 1 and k 2. The solid lines show the fit using Eq.(2). A positive time delay is defined as pulse k 2 arriving first. The plots are obtained by spatial integration of the beam profile as shown in Fig 3.

3. Results and discussions

Figure 2 (b) shows the time evolutions of FWM signals as a function of τ in the signal directions 2k 2-k 1 (blue solid circles) and 2k 1-k 2 (red open circles). Here a combination of the HG pulse ( 1=0) in the k 1 direction and LG1 ( 2=1) pulse in the k 2 direction was used for coherent excitation. The crossing point between two data indicates the zero position of the delay τ. Both data show a QB oscillation arising from the simultaneous excitation of XA and XB transitions, where the beating period (TQB) of 0.51 ps is consistent with the energy separation of 8.3 meV (Δν~THz). Figure 3(a) shows the two sets of spatial FWM images obtained at each QB oscillation peak in the signal directions 2k 1-k 2 (left) and 2k 2-k 1 (right). Each data set shows that the output FWM beam exhibits a characteristic intensity profile and its intensity decays with increasing |τ|.

We first focus on the difference between the beam profiles of the data sets; the FWM in the 2k 1-k 2 direction exhibits a single dark spot at the center while the FWM in 2k 2-k 1 exhibits two dark holes. From Eq.(1), the OAM of the FWM polarizations with 2k 1-k 2 and 2k 2-k 1 are 2 1(=0)- 2(=1)=-1 and 2 2(=1)- 1(=0)=2, respectively. The exact number of phase dislocations will be verified later using an interference measurement (see Fig. 4). Note that an LG beam with a charge , even with a higher ||>1, exhibits a single dark spot. The split of the dark spot with into || spots occurs when there is a weak perturbation of the HG component (HGbg), and this has widely been observed in LG beams generated by nonlinear processes [18

18. I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993). [CrossRef]

20

20. A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, V. Z. Kolev, S. Saltiel, M. Samoc, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear dynamics of two-color optical vortices in lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5406–5420 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To clarify the formation of the splitting, we display the results of theoretical calculations for the phase and intensity profiles of the LG2 with and without HGbg in Fig. 3(b) and (c), respectively. In Fig. 3(b), we assume that the fraction of HGbg to LG2 is 0.2. In the phase profile of LG2+HGbg (upper data in Fig. 3(c)), the phase dislocation splits into two dislocations with =1, and each dislocation shifts outwards in a radial direction. As a result, the single dark spot splits into two separate dark spots in the intensity profile (lower data in Fig. 3(c)), which agrees qualitatively with the results of FWM=2 (right part of Fig. 3(a)). The HG background mainly arises from the unmodified portion of the LG1 in k 2 pulse during the mode conversion process with SLM. Because of the difference of the mode profile between LG and HG beams, the FWM conversion efficiency between the remnant HG in k 2 and HG in k 1 is larger than that between the LG2 in k 2 and HG in k 1, giving rise to increase the fraction of HGbg to LG2 even if the unmodified portion of the incident LG (i.e. HG) is small. Another plausible origin is the imperfection of the phase-matching for FWM. It is important to remember that perfect phase-matching for two-pulse degenerate FWM can be realized in a signal produced in the vicinity of the sample surface [15

15. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).

]. The FWM in thick samples thus meet the imperfect phase matching condition. However, this effect should be small in our reflection geometry under resonant excitation condition. It is also important to note that the HGbg can be removed by introducing an additional HG pulse whose phase and amplitude are adjusted to cancel out the output HGbg [18

18. I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 3. (a) Output FWM profiles for (left) 2k 1-k 2, FWM=-1 and (right) 2k 2-k 1, FWM=2 at τ=±0.1, ±0.51, ±1.05, ±1.55 ps from top to bottom. The intensity scale is varied for each image to clearly show the dark hole(s). The split of the dark spot for FWM=2 indicates a weak contribution of the HG mode (HGbg). Simulation results for FWM=2 using (b) single LG2 and (c) LG2+HGbg for (upper) phase and (lower) intensity profiles.

We now consider the time evolutions of the OAM in FWM. The QB in Fig.2(b) shows a clear oscillation, whose visibility is almost unity, suggesting that the time resolution is much better than TQB/2~0.25 ps. From Eq.(1), the time integrated FWM signal is given by I FWM ∝∫dt|P (3)|2, as a function of τ. If we assume that we have homogeneously broadened excitons, the FWM signal with a QB oscillation can be expressed by

IFWM(τ)[1+cos(2πτTQB)]exp(2τT2),
(2)

where we neglect the Coulomb interactions between excitons [21

21. T. Aoki, G. Mohs, T. Ogasawara, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokam, “Polarization dependent quantum beats of homogeneously broadened excitons,” Opt. Express 12, 364–369 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. From the fitting to the data, we obtain a dephasing time of T 2=1.40 ps (T 2=2.80 ps for the inhomogeneous case), which is in good agreement with that obtained from the FWM without the mode conversion scheme (i.e., conventional excitation with HG pulses) [17

17. T. Ishiguro, Y. Toda, S. Adachi, T. Mukai, K. Hoshino, and Y. Arakawa, “Degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy of GaN films on various substrates,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 1560–1563 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. T. Aoki, G. Mohs, T. Ogasawara, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokam, “Polarization dependent quantum beats of homogeneously broadened excitons,” Opt. Express 12, 364–369 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. This consistency is quite reasonable because the contributions of spatial dephasing such as diffusion or spatially-dependent scattering are very small in such a short time region. Let us remember that µx in Eq.(1) is a position dependent function, and its magnitude reflects the spatial phase relationship between excitons and with the incident pulse. If the spatial dephasing is efficient, the magnitude of the total µx decays with τ. The dark spot(s) in Fig.3(a) are clearly visible within the dephasing time and the contrast between the dark and bright portions of the OV remains almost constant (compare the top and bottom signals in Fig.3(a)). Therefore, we conclude that the dephasing of OAM in the present study is limited by the T 2 of spatially-coherent excitons. We stress the importance of the fact that the short dephasing of OAM is useful for the fast switching applications. We also note that the application of the OAM memory can be developed by using exciton systems with a longer dephasing time, such as excitons in semiconductor quantum dots [22

22. O. Moriwaki, T. Someya, K. Tachibana, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Narrow photoluminescence peaks from localized states in InGaN quantum dot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2361–2363 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the OAM dephasing observed here is responsible for the spatial coherence characterized by the azimuthal direction. Coherent spectroscopy using OVs allow the spatially-dependent coherent properties of carriers in solids such as closed-loop electron coherence in quantum ring structures [13

13. S. Tanda, T. Tsuneta, Y. Okajima, K. Inagaki, K. Yamaya, and N. Hatakenaka, “Crystal topology: A Möbius strip of single crystals,” Nature 417, 397–398 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. A. Lorke, R. J. Luyken, A. O. Govorov, J. P. Kotthaus, J. M Garcia, and P. M. Petroff, “Spectroscopy of Nanoscopic Semiconductor Rings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223–2226 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Summary

In summary, we successfully demonstrated the OAM transfer from photons to the free excitons of GaN in coherent manner (in a time region of several picoseconds). The coherent transfer was realized with a FWM scheme, showing that the phase singularities in the output OVs follow the OAM conservation law and were clearly visible within the exciton dephasing time. Using the FWM process, we also demonstrated the optical gate control of OAM in the output OVs. If OVs are to be practically employed for optical communications and information processing, the time variable OVs must be sent subsequently. Our demonstrations thus mark progress in the generation and control of sequential OV pulses, and pave the way for the future optical communications using multiple OVs. Moreover, in terms of coherent spectroscopy, our time evolution measurement ofFWMsignals with OAMprovides a new way for studying the closed-loop coherence of carriers in solids, which should play an important role in the topological materials such as quantum rings.

Fig. 4. (a)–(c) The output FWM beam profiles in the 2k 2-k 1 direction at τ≈0 ps, where 2 is fixed at 1 while 1 varies with 0, 1, 2, resulting in FWM(=2 2- 1)=2,1,0, respectively. Some fringe patterns appeared in the images arise from the artifact of the optics and not from the signal. (d)–(f) The corresponding interference patterns with a tilted reference pulse. The delay time t between the FWM and reference pulse is fixed at the position showing the highest contrast of the interference. (g)–(h) Theoretically calculated interference patterns.

Acknowledgments

YT acknowledges the Sumitomo Foundation, the Foundation for Opto-science and Technology. RM acknowledges Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 2008-2010, No.20360025 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

References and links

1.

K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander Jr.“Optical vortex trapping of particles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 827–829 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, “Laser cooling and trapping of atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 887–908 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladè, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized Rotation of Atoms from Photons with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406-1-4 (2006) [CrossRef]

4.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

R. Cêlechovský and Z. Bouchal, “Optical implementation of the vortex information channel,” New. J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nature Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and S. Carrasco, “Digital spiral imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 873–81 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasfko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

W. Jiang, Q. Chen, Y. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, “Computation of topological charges of optical vortices via nondegenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 043811-1-4 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Vina, “Persistent currents and quantised vortices in a polariton superfluid,” cond-mat, arXiv:0907.2371 (2009).

13.

S. Tanda, T. Tsuneta, Y. Okajima, K. Inagaki, K. Yamaya, and N. Hatakenaka, “Crystal topology: A Möbius strip of single crystals,” Nature 417, 397–398 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

A. Lorke, R. J. Luyken, A. O. Govorov, J. P. Kotthaus, J. M Garcia, and P. M. Petroff, “Spectroscopy of Nanoscopic Semiconductor Rings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223–2226 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).

16.

I. G. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. J. G. J. Uiterwaal, “Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 7599–7608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. Ishiguro, Y. Toda, S. Adachi, T. Mukai, K. Hoshino, and Y. Arakawa, “Degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy of GaN films on various substrates,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 243, 1560–1563 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993). [CrossRef]

19.

L. Allen, M. J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, “The orbital angular momentum of light,” Prog. Opt. 39, 291–372 (1999). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, V. Z. Kolev, S. Saltiel, M. Samoc, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear dynamics of two-color optical vortices in lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 5406–5420 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. Aoki, G. Mohs, T. Ogasawara, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokam, “Polarization dependent quantum beats of homogeneously broadened excitons,” Opt. Express 12, 364–369 (1997). [CrossRef]

22.

O. Moriwaki, T. Someya, K. Tachibana, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Narrow photoluminescence peaks from localized states in InGaN quantum dot structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2361–2363 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(300.6240) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent transient
(300.6290) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, four-wave mixing
(050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 27, 2009
Revised Manuscript: September 11, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 12, 2009
Published: October 23, 2009

Citation
Y. Ueno, Y. Toda, S. Adachi, R. Morita, and T. Tawara, "Coherent transfer of orbital angular momentum to excitons by optical four-wave mixing," Opt. Express 17, 20567-20574 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-20567


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. T. Gahagan and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., "Optical vortex trapping of particles," Opt. Lett. 21, 827-829 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, "Laser cooling and trapping of atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 887-908 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, "Quantized Rotation of Atoms from Photons with Orbital Angular Momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406-1-4 (2006) [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons," Nature 412, 313-316 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Cêelechovský and Z. Bouchal, "Optical implementation of the vortex information channel," New. J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nature Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Torner, J. P. Torres, S. Carrasco, "Digital spiral imaging," Opt. Express 13, 873-81 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasfko, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Jiang, Q. Chen, Y. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, "Computation of topological charges of optical vortices via nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 74, 043811-1-4 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor and L. Vina, "Persistent currents and quantised vortices in a polariton superfluid," cond-mat, arXiv:0907.2371 (2009).
  13. S. Tanda, T. Tsuneta, Y. Okajima, K. Inagaki, K. Yamaya, N. Hatakenaka, "Crystal topology: A Möbius strip of single crystals," Nature 417, 397-398 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Lorke, R. J. Luyken, A. O. Govorov, J. P. Kotthaus, J. M Garcia, and P. M. Petroff, "Spectroscopy of Nanoscopic Semiconductor Rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223-2226 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
  16. I. G. Mariyenko, J. Strohaber, and C. J. G. J. Uiterwaal, "Creation of optical vortices in femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 13, 7599-7608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Ishiguro, Y. Toda, S. Adachi, T. Mukai, K. Hoshino, and Y. Arakawa, "Degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy of GaN films on various substrates," Phys. Stat. Sol.(b) 243, 1560-1563 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. I. V. Basistiy, V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Optics of light beams with screw dislocations," Opt. Commun. 103, 422-428 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Allen, M. J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, "The orbital angular momentum of light," Prog. Opt. 39, 291-372 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Dreischuh, D. N. Neshev, V. Z. Kolev, S. Saltiel, M. Samoc, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear dynamics of two-color optical vortices in lithium niobate crystals," Opt. Express 16, 5406-5420 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Aoki, G. Mohs, T. Ogasawara, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokam, "Polarization dependent quantum beats of homogeneously broadened excitons," Opt. Express 12, 364-369 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. O. Moriwaki, T. Someya, K. Tachibana, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, "Narrow photoluminescence peaks from localized states in InGaN quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2361-2363 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
 
Fig. 4.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited