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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 23 — Nov. 9, 2009
  • pp: 20938–20944
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Monolithic integration of elliptic-symmetry diffractive optical element on silicon-based 45° micro-reflector

Hsiao-Chin Lan, Hsu-Liang Hsiao, Chia-Chi Chang, Chih-Hung Hsu, Chih-Ming Wang, and Mount-Learn Wu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 23, pp. 20938-20944 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.020938


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Abstract

A monolithically integrated micro-optical element consisting of a diffractive optical element (DOE) and a silicon-based 45° micro-reflector is experimentally demonstrated to facilitate the optical alignment of non-coplanar fiber-to-fiber coupling. The slanted 45° reflector with a depth of 216 μm is fabricated on a (100) silicon wafer by anisotropic wet etching. The DOE with a diameter of 174.2 μm and a focal length of 150 μm is formed by means of dry etching. Such a compact device is suitable for the optical micro-system to deflect the incident light by 90° and to focus it on the image plane simultaneously. The measured light pattern with a spot size of 15 μm has a good agreement with the simulated result of the elliptic-symmetry DOE with an off-axis design for eliminating the strongly astigmatic aberration. The coupling efficiency is enhanced over 10-folds of the case without a DOE on the 45° micro-reflector. This device would facilitate the optical alignment of non-coplanar light coupling and further miniaturize the volume of microsystem.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Non-coplanar alignments for optical couplings between laser diodes (LDs), photo-detectors (PDs), and fibers (or waveguides) in miniaturized optical systems are important for applications of surface emitting light sources in optical communication [1

1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

,2

2. D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

], optical interconnects [3

3. E. Mohammed, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 115–128 ( 2004).

6

6. B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

], and optical pickup head [7

7. J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

]. For achieving a non-coplanar alignment along two optical axes perpendicular to each other, various 45° reflectors including glass micro-prisms [1

1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

,4

4. H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

], slanted thin film filters [2

2. D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

], silicon-based 45° micro-reflectors [3

3. E. Mohammed, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 115–128 ( 2004).

,7

7. J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

], 45° slanted facets on waveguides [5

5. Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

] or on fiber rods [6

6. B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

] are utilized. In order to improve the coupling efficiency, various focusing or collimating elements including UV-curable epoxy resin micro-lenses [5

5. Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

], silicon-based micro-lenses [1

1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

], and silicon diffractive optical elements (DOEs) [2

2. D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

,7

7. J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

] are applied. Moreover, for miniaturizing optical systems and improving volume production by wafer-level packages, a patterned and etched silicon substrate, so-called silicon optical bench (SiOB) [1~3, 7], is implemented as a assembly template for the integration of LDs, PDs, micro-reflectors, micro-lenses, fibers (or waveguides), and integrated electronics.

Althaus et al. [1

1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

] adopted micromechanical processes to realize fiberoptic modules by hybrid integrating edge-emitting lasers, glass micro-prisms, silicon ball lenses, and monitoring PDs on SiOBs. In such a micro-system, a glass micro-prism and a silicon micro-lens are applied to vertically deflect and collimate the laser beam, respectively, to a single-mode fiber (SMF). Mohammed et al. [3

3. E. Mohammed, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 115–128 ( 2004).

] proposed an optical-interconnect module consisting primarily of a SiOB for the integration of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), pin PDs, fibers, and integrated electronics. A 45° micro-reflector monolithically integrated in a SiOB is applied to eliminate assembling the glass micro-prism for passive alignment of the fiber to the optical axis. Since micro-sized ball lenses suffer from two drawbacks including accuracy of controlled ball sizes and compatibility of surface mount technology (SMT), the silicon-based DOE is one of potential approaches especially for SiOB-based microsystems. Shimura et al. [2

2. D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

,8

8. M. Uekawa, H. Sasaki, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, and T. Takamori, “Surface-mountable silicon microlens for low-cost laser modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 945–947 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

] introduced two surface-mountable silicon DOEs in a bidirectional fiberoptic module to enhance coupling efficiencies between a LD/PD and a SMF. However, straight tolerances of non-coplanar alignments between multiple devices in compact microsystems are inevitable.

In this study, a monolithically integrated micro-optical element consisting of a DOE and a silicon-based 45° micro-reflector is proposed to simplify the configuration of the conventional microsystem. As shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of non-coplanar optical configurations on SiOB. (a) Conventional type with hybrid integration of a micro-lens, micro-prism, and si-submount [1]. (b) Our proposed type with monolithic integration of the DOE on a si-based 45° micro-reflector. The DOE directly etched on the slant can deflect and focus light simultaneously.
, the DOE on a silicon-based 45° micro-reflector can deflect the incident light by 90° and focus it on the image plane simultaneously. Moreover, both the DOE and the micro-reflector can be fabricated and monolithically integrated via lithography process, which provides highly precise alignment tolerance. To verify the performance of this device, a coupler between two non-coplanar SMFs perpendicular to each other is experimentally demonstrated in this paper.

2. Design of silicon DOE on 45° micro-reflector

As mentioned above, the demonstrated microsystem includes two SMFs perpendicularly non-coplanar to each other, and a silicon DOE on the 45° micro-reflector. The distances from the DOE to the in-plane and out-of-plane SMFs are both 300 μm, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The focal length of DOE is designed to be 150 μm for the operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. In addition, the elliptic-symmetry DOE with an off-axis design is necessary for eliminating the huge astigmatic aberration since the light beam emitting from a SMF impinges upon a slanted surface. The DOE is designed to possess two distinctive refraction-powers in the tangential (y) and sagittal (x) directions. Therefore, it would well focus the light beam on a default image plane in both directions.

The setup of the proposed micro-optical element shown in Fig. 1(b) is designed by using the ZEMAX software based on the geometrical ray-tracing method. Ray-fan plots in the tangential (y) and sagittal (x) directions for the cases of 45° micro-reflectors with a circular DOE, and with an elliptic DOE are simulated and demonstrated in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Tangential (y) and sagittal (x) ray fan plots for the designed DOE on a 45° micro-reflector. The horizontal and vertical axes indicate the relative pupil height and the transverse ray aberrations scaled in micrometers, respectively.
. In this figure, the horizontal axes indicate the relative pupil heights (Py, Px), and the vertical axes stand for the transverse ray aberrations (Ey, Ex) scaled in micrometer units, i.e. the transverse displacement from the ideal image point to the real ray intersection with the ideal image plane. It is clearly observed from the circular DOE case that slight defocus offsets in both directions are introduced to balance the astigmatic aberration [9

9. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, 1998), Chap. 3.

]. The spot extending to 20 and 30 μm in the tangential (y) and sagittal (x) directions, respectively, are shown in the image plane. The DOE with circular-symmetry profile on a slanted surface would inevitably suffer from the strong off-axis astigmatic aberration. The DOE is therefore designed as an elliptic-symmetry profile to overcome the off-axis aberration. The refraction-powers of DOE in the tangential and sagittal directions can be arbitrarily adjusted by tuning its elliptic profile. It means the light beam impinges the elliptic DOE on a slanted 45° reflector can be deflected by 90° and be well focused on the image plane with a default working distance of 300 μm.

By using a proper optimization process, the phase sag equation of the elliptic DOE is formulated as below:
φ(x,y)=135.25x268.78y2,
(1)
where coefficients of x2 and y2 define the elliptic profile. The two coefficients are unequal and negative, which indicates this DOE is effectively equivalent to a concave mirror with an elliptic profile. The ray fan plots in Fig. 2 show that the optimized DOE would miniaturize the spot size to be nearly aberration-free. The Gaussian beam propagation method is further employed to simulate the wave phenomena in this microsystem, and the overlap integral is used for calculation of the SMF-to-SMF coupling efficiency. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Simulated coupling efficiency versus transverse displacements in both the tangential and sagittal direction, where 1dB-degradation tolerance is about ± 1.6 μm.
shows the simulated coupling efficiency versus transverse displacements in both the tangential and sagittal directions. The results in the two directions are coincident, which proves that the focused spot is really optimized as circular symmetry to match the SMF eigen-mode. The 1dB-degradation tolerance is about ± 1.6 μm, and the simulated coupling efficiency in this case is −5.41 dB, consisting of the mode mismatch of only −1.48 dB and the diffraction efficiency of −3.93 dB. For fabrication simplification of this device, the phase level of the DOE is adopted as only binary. Employing the DOE with higher-leveled or blazed profiles would increase the diffraction efficiency more than −1 dB [10

10. H. H. Sasaki, S. S. Takasaki, K. K. Kotani, and T. T. Takamori, “Compact bidirectional photonic circuit employing stacked multilayers of diffractive optical elements for fiber to the home applications,” Proc. SPIE 4437, 108–115 ( 2001). [CrossRef]

].

Finally, the designed phase profile is divided into contours with every 2π interval, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Elliptic-symmetry profile of the designed DOE. Its major (y) and minor (x) diameters are 174.2 and 123.2 μm, respectively, and its minimum line width is 0.71 μm.
. There are 20 rings for this DOE with major and minor diameters of 174.2 and 123.2 μm in tangential and sagittal axes, respectively. The minimum line width of the layout is about 0.7 μm, which can be easily achieved by using e-beam lithography.

3. Fabrication and evaluation of silicon DOE on 45° micro-reflector

As shown in Fig. 1(b), the silicon-based 45° micro-reflector is fabricated on {110} planes of the orientation-defined (100) silicon wafer by using anisotropic wet etching process in the solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The etching rate of {110} planes can be suppressed and is relatively slower than {111} planes in the KOH/IPA etchant [7

7. J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

,11

11. I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1–2), 116–125 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

]. The etching depth of 216 μm is set according to the divergent angle of SMF at the object distance of 300 μm. As shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) The side-view profile of the silicon-based 45° micro-reflector by scanning probe microscopy. The inset is the AFM measurement of the surface profile. (b) The SEM picture of the elliptic-symmetry DOE fabricated on a silicon-based 45° micro-reflector.
, the side-view profile of the 45° micro-reflector by scanning probe microscopy is used to demonstrate that its slanted angle is well-controlled within ± 1°. The inset in this figure shows the AFM measurement of surface profile, and the statistic result indicates the RMS surface roughness is less than 10 nm.

After preparation of the 45° micro-reflector, the e-beam lithography is employed to fabricate this elliptic DOE on the slant. Because the pattern on the inclined plane is not appropriate to the standard surface micromachining, the 45° micro-reflector is mounted onto a prism-like tooling to direct the slanted plane to face the normal throughout the whole processes including resist deposition, exposure, dry etching, and gold-film deposition. The e-beam resist ZEP-520A is spin-coated on the slant with a thickness of around 400 nm. Owing to the small surface area of this slant, the resist should be carefully deposited on the reflector surface with flat and smooth quality. Based on this prism-like mount, the following e-beam exposure and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching can be normally applied to fabricate this elliptic DOE on the reflector surface, as shown in Fig. 5(b). Finally, a gold film is deposited by E-gun for increasing the reflection efficiency.

With regard to the adopted fabrication process for the elliptic DOE on the slant, it is indeed not compatible to currently standard lithography techniques. Because the slant depth is few hundreds of micrometers, the resist deposition is not easy to form a flat and smooth quality on the whole slant area due to the edge effects, which might result in a non-uniform DOE pattern in the following exposure and etching processes. The focused ion beam (FIB) technique with direct etching on the slant might be an alternative solution.

A measurement setup is built for evaluating the evolution of the beam patterns around the designed focus position. The light source of 632.8 nm emitting from a coplanar SMF impinges upon the elliptic DOE on 45° micro-reflector with a working distance of 300 μm. In the image space of this device, an external optical system is inserted to magnify and capture the beam patterns. The measured beam patterns with their corresponding intensity distributions at the image planes of different working distances of 280, 300, and 320 μm are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The measured beam patterns at the image planes with different working distance of 280, 300, and 320 μm. The spot size at the best focus position is approximately 15 μm.
. In both of the defocus conditions, the images are still circular symmetry, proving the designed elliptic DOE is workable to eliminate the off-axis aberrations. At the best focus position, the spot size is measured of approximately 15 μm, which is larger than the SMF’s mode of around 9 μm and might affect the following coupling performance. This is due to the fabrication defects located at the outer elliptic rings of this DOE shown in Fig. 5(b). The structures at the outer rings dominate the high-spatial-frequency portions of the incident light, which would reduce the effective numerical aperture of the DOE and result in a larger spot size.

Figure 7
Fig. 7 Normalized coupling efficiency versus transverse displacements for comparison between the experimental and simulation results.
shows the normalized coupling efficiency versus transverse displacements for comparison between the experimental and simulation results. Because the spot size is larger than expected, the lateral alignment tolerance of 1dB power degradation is about ± 2.4 μm, which is slightly larger than the ideal simulation result of ± 1.6 μm. The coupling efficiency is enhanced by 10-folds compared to the case without a DOE on the 45° micro-reflector. In addition, the measured coupling efficiency is −9.67 dB, which has extra 4.26 dB loss compared to the original design results. It can be improved by eliminating the defects at outer radii and well controlling the etching depth of the DOE in the fabrication process.

4. Conclusion

The silicon-based micro-optical element monolithically integrated a DOE onto a 45° micro-reflector has been developed for the non-coplanar SMF-to-SMF coupling. The measured light pattern with spot size of 15 μm at the wavelength of 632.8 nm is highly consistent with the simulated result of the elliptic-symmetry DOE with an off-axis design. The coupling efficiency is enhanced by over 10-folds, compared to the case without a DOE on the 45° micro-reflector. The lateral alignment tolerance of 1dB power degradation is about ± 2.4 μm. A non-coplanar SMF-to-SMF coupling based on this device is demonstrated in this study. Actually, it is also suitable to the non-coplanar coupling between a SMF/waveguide and LDs, with elliptic-symmetry emitting mode [1

1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

6

6. B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

,12

12. S. Hiramatsu and T. Mikawa, “Optical design of active interposer for high-speed chip level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 927–934 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

,13

13. N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of cmos-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

] by properly modifying the shape of DOE to generate a spot matched to the requested mode for the output SMF/waveguide. As a result, the experimental results verify the proposed monolithically integrated micro-optical element can facilitate the optical alignment of multiple elements and simplifies the volume of optical system.

Acknowledgements:

This work was supported by Ministry of Economic Affair of the Republic of China under grant number 96-EC-17-A-07-S1-001.

References and links

1.

H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

3.

E. Mohammed, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 115–128 ( 2004).

4.

H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

6.

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Uekawa, H. Sasaki, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, and T. Takamori, “Surface-mountable silicon microlens for low-cost laser modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 945–947 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

9.

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, 1998), Chap. 3.

10.

H. H. Sasaki, S. S. Takasaki, K. K. Kotani, and T. T. Takamori, “Compact bidirectional photonic circuit employing stacked multilayers of diffractive optical elements for fiber to the home applications,” Proc. SPIE 4437, 108–115 ( 2001). [CrossRef]

11.

I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1–2), 116–125 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Hiramatsu and T. Mikawa, “Optical design of active interposer for high-speed chip level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 927–934 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

13.

N. Izhaky, M. T. Morse, S. Koehl, O. Cohen, D. Rubin, A. Barkai, G. Sarid, R. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Development of cmos-compatible integrated silicon photonics devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1688–1698 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.1380) Diffraction and gratings : Binary optics
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(230.4040) Optical devices : Mirrors
(050.1965) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive lenses

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: September 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 29, 2009
Published: November 2, 2009

Citation
Hsiao-Chin Lan, Hsu-Liang Hsiao, Chia-Chi Chang, Chih-Hung Hsu, Chih-Ming Wang, and Mount-Learn Wu, "Monolithic integration of elliptic-symmetry diffractive optical element on silicon-based 45° micro-reflector," Opt. Express 17, 20938-20944 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-20938


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References

  1. H. L. Althaus, W. Gramann, and K. Panzer, “Microsystems and wafer processes for volume production of highly reliable fiber optic components for telecom- and datacom-application,” IEEE Trans. on Compon., Packag., and Manufact. Technol. pt. B 21(2), 147–156 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Shimura, R. Sekikawa, K. Kotani, M. Uekawa, Y. Maeno, K. Aoyama, H. Sasaki, T. Takamori, K. Masuko, and S. Nakaya, “Bidirectional optical subassembly with prealigned silicon microlens and laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1738–1740 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Mohammed, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 115–128 (2004).
  4. H. Takahara, “Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 443–451 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Ishii, N. Tanaka, T. Sakamoto, and H. Takahara, “Fully SMT-compatible optical –I/O package with microlens array interface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 275–280 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H. H. Park, S. W. Ha, and B. H. Rhee, “PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2128–2134 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Y. Chang, C. M. Wang, C. C. Lee, H. F. Shih, and M. L. Wu, “Realization of free-space optical pickup head with stacked si-based phase elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 214–216 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Uekawa, H. Sasaki, D. Shimura, K. Kotani, Y. Maeno, and T. Takamori, “Surface-mountable silicon microlens for low-cost laser modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 945–947 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part I. Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, 1998), Chap. 3.
  10. H. H. Sasaki, S. S. Takasaki, K. K. Kotani, and T. T. Takamori, “Compact bidirectional photonic circuit employing stacked multilayers of diffractive optical elements for fiber to the home applications,” Proc. SPIE 4437, 108–115 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Zubel, “Silicon anisotropic etching in alkaline solutions III: On the possibility of spatial structures forming in the course of Si(100) anisotropic etching in KOH and KOH+IPA solutions,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1–2), 116–125 (2000). [CrossRef]
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