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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 23 — Nov. 9, 2009
  • pp: 21124–21133
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Surface microstructuring of Ti plates by femtosecond lasers in liquid ambiences: a new approach to improving biocompatibility

Yang Yang, Jianjun Yang, Chunyong Liang, Hongshui Wang, Xiaonong Zhu, and Nan Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 23, pp. 21124-21133 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.021124


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Abstract

Microstructuring of Ti plates with femtosecond laser pulses is investigated in three different liquids. In these ambiences, complex microstructures with voids and islands are produced on the sample surfaces, whose feature sizes are controlled by the laser parameters. Through adopting supersaturated Hydroxyapatite suspension with higher incident laser fluences, it is for the first time to observe the firm deposition of biocompatible elements Ca-P on the microstructures. At lower laser fluence, only porous structure is present but without additional elements deposition. Both plasma-related ablation under the confinement of liquids and micro-bubbles striking are employed to discuss such structures formation. Tight combining elements Ca-P onto the structured surfaces provide a new way to improve the biocompatibility of body-embedded devices.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Laser-induced surface microstructures on different materials have been attractive in recent years, not only because they benefit to exploring laser-matter interaction, but also provide great applications in the field of physics, chemistry and material science [1

1. Y. Yang, J. Yang, C. Liang, and H. Wang, “Ultra-broadband enhanced absorption of metal surfaces structured by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11259–11265 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. T. J. Webster and J. U. Ejiofor, “Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase metals: Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo,” Biomaterials 25(19), 4731–4739 ( 2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Ever since the first observation by Birnbaum in 1960s [6

6. M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 ( 1965). [CrossRef]

], surface microstructures formation under the radiation of intense laser beam has been reported on a variety of solid materials [7

7. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2164–2169 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 ( 2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although some mechanisms, including scattered light interference [11

11. F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser- melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 ( 1982). [CrossRef]

], self-organized plasma modification [12

12. P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40(11), S273–S282 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

], secondary bubbles ablation in liquids [13

13. M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

] and so on, have been proposed, no single theory can be commonly accepted for different structuring cases.

In fact, the ambient medium parameters have also an important influence on the quality of laser treatments. For instance, Mazur reported that in the presence of SF6 gases quasi-ordered arrays of conical spikes could be formed spontaneously on silicon under the irradiation of femtosecond lasers [16

16. T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

]. In water, high-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods were induced on silicon surface via femtosecond laser irradiation [17

17. M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

,18

18. M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These phenomena indicate that laser-induced surface structures formation also depends on the surrounding environments.

Generally, the current femtosecond laser-induced surface morphology experiment in liquids has mostly employed de-ionized water as the surrounding medium [17

17. M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

,19

19. K. Katayama, H. Yonekubo, and T. Sawada, “Formation of ring patterns surrounded by ripples by single- shot laser irradiation with ultrashort pulse width at the solid/liquid interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4244–4246 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

,20

20. G. Daminelli, J. Kruger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

]. During these experiments, nonlinear phenomena such as supercontinuum and plasma generation could be observed due to the interaction of water phase with the incoming high-fluence laser beam. Moreover, for the laser ablation at solid-liquid interface, spectroscopic study revealed that various chemical reactions between the species ablated from the solid target and the ambient liquid molecules could take place [21

21. T. Sakka, S. Iwanaga, Y. H. Ogata, A. Matsunawa, and T. Takemoto, “Laser ablation at solid–liquid interfaces: An approach from optical emission spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(19), 8645–8653 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

]. Namely, not only the species did come from the solid target, but also the species originated from the liquid are involved in the interface plasma. So some new phenomena could be expected if the laser ablation of targets in the presence of biocompatible solutions.

2. Experimental setup

In our experiments, a commercial chirped pulse amplification of Ti:sapphire laser system (HP-Spitfire, New Port Inc.) was employed as a light source, which operated at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and provided 50 fs laser pulse trains with the central wavelength of around 800 nm. The maximum energy of each amplified laser pulse was 2 mJ. The output laser beam was polarized horizontally and had a diameter of about 8 mm. A single shot auto-correlator (SSA, Positive Light Inc.) was used to monitor the time duration of the laser pulses in real time. Selection of pure titanium (Ti) plates as a sample in the experiments is due to their wide applications in space manufacturing, medical embedment and so on, wherein the modification of metal surface properties through generating microstructures is very important and much desirable.

After surfaces of the sample with a dimension of 10 × 10 × 1 mm3 were polished with SiC emery paper to remove the oxide layers, it was placed on the bottom of an open glass vessel filled with suspension. The height of the liquid layer above the targets was 2.5 mm. The vessel was mounted on a computer-controlled x-y-z translation stage (UTM100PPE1, New Port Inc.) to allow its displacement with pre-set scanning velocity. Alternatively, exposure of the Ti plate under the layer of liquid was performed by the stationary focal laser beam at the normal incidence angle through a 10×microscope objective with a numerical aperture of 0.25. The upper surface of the target was set 100 μm below the focal plane in air but about 760 μm above the focal plane in liquid, which was determined from a microscopic analysis of craters on the Ti plate. In this case, the diameter of laser spot on the target was estimated about 62 μm. A schematic diagram of our experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram for microstructuring of Ti plates with femtosecond lasers in liquids.
.

In order to investigate the influences of liquid media on the surface microstructuring of metals by femtosecond lasers, we adopted the distilled water and two different kinds of solutions, including supersaturated HA aqueous suspension and the admixture of CaCl2 and Na3PO4. The reason why we choose these two kinds of solutions is that their solutes have essential elements for human bones, so that the elements deposition on Ti surfaces might improve the biocompatibility of metals for the body embedment. In the supersaturated HA aqueous solution, the ions of Ca2+, PO4 3-, HPO4 2-, H2PO4 - as well as HA nanoparticles will dissolve in the solution, while in the admixture of CaCl2 and Na3PO4, Ca2+, Na+, PO4 3-, HPO4 2-, H2PO4 - and Cl- will dissolve in the solution.

All the experiments were carried out in a Class 1000 clean room. Before and after the experiments, the samples were cleaned by an ultrasonic cleaner with de-ionized water. The morphology of the laser-exposed metal surfaces was examined with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Hitachi S-4800). The deposition chemical elements and their structures were analyzed through the energy dispersive X-ray spectra and X-ray diffraction.

3. Experimental results

3.1 Formation of surface microstructures in distilled water

Firstly, we put some distilled water into the glass vessel to study the surface morphological evolution of the targets with varying femtosecond laser fluences and the sample scan speeds, the measured results are shown by SEM images in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Surface morphologies induced by femtosecond laser with different fluences at variation of the scan speeds in distilled water. The scale bar that applied to all six pictures is 5 μm.
. As it can be seen, for a given laser energy of 300 μJ, corresponding to the laser fluence of 9.9 J/cm2, numerous irregular-shaped small islands and tiny elliptical voids were generated on the laser-exposed Ti surface at the sample scan speed of 1.8 mm/s. In this case, the number of laser pulses partially overlapping on each spot reaches N = 35. The characteristic size of these islands, more or less connected spatially, ranges from 2.27 μm to 3.4 μm. And the average length of the void is about 880 nm. The estimated density of micro-islands on the Ti plate amounts to 3.4×107 cm−2. Particularly, the top surfaces of the micro-islands appear relatively flat and smooth.

When the sample scan speed was decreased to 0.8 mm/s with partially overlapped laser pulses of N = 80 at this given laser fluence, very similar microstructures could be observed on the laser-exposed surface. However, in this case the feature size of the micro-islands began to increase and the length of the elliptical voids is also enlarged to about 1.43 μm, which is bigger than those at 1.8 mm/s speed. Moreover, the estimated densities of micro-islands and micro-voids on the Ti plate also decreased at this time.

3.2 Formation of surface microstructures in HA suspension

In order to investigate the influence of ambient solutions on the generation of surface microstructures, we replaced the distilled water by the supersaturated HA suspension with different concentrations. To obtain a longer time of laser irradiation, we reduced the sample scan speed to 0.2 mm/s. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 SEM pictures of microstrutures on the Ti plate produced in supersaturated HA suspension with the concentration of 0.02 g/ml by femtosecond laser with energy fluence of (a) 9.9 J/cm2 and (b) 3.3 J/cm2.
shows surface microstructures generated in HA suspension with a concentration of 0.02 g/ml by the laser fluence of 9.9 J/cm2. Similar to the structures formation in distilled water, the laser-exposed Ti surface was also covered by irregular-shaped small islands. However, in this case the micro-islands formation turned much sharper with bigger feature sizes. Correspondingly, the spatial arrangement density of these micro-islands was reduced as well.

As shown clearly by the zoom-in pictures of in Fig. 4(a), the entire surface of the micro-islands is studded with many tiny solid grains, which is different from the flat micro-islands generated in the case of distilled water. Interestingly, there are some deposition among the surface grains and the valleys. It should be noted that such deposited substances could still be observed even after 30 minutes’ washing by an ultrasonic cleaner, which suggests the bound force between these depositions and the microstructures is relatively high. Further analysis of these depositions will be given in the coming section 4. On the other hand, when the laser fluence was decreased to 3.3 J/cm2, such spikes could not be seen any more on the laser-exposed Ti surfaces within ambience of HA suspension. Instead, porous surface structures with the diameter of around 910 nm could be generated under this condition, which is similar to the observations in distilled water. However, as shown by Fig. 4(b), the generated pores seem to be smaller than those in distilled water. Particularly, the deposition of substances on the structured area was not found in this case, which indicates the higher laser energies should be very necessary for the substances deposition among the surface microstructures.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Porous surface microstructure formation on the Ti plate sample in HA solution with the larger concentration of 0.04 g/ml by femtosecond laser with fluence of 3.3 J/cm2.
shows surface microstructures formation in HA suspension with a larger concentration of 0.04 g/ml, where the incident fluence of femtosecond laser was 3.3 J/cm2 and the sample was scanned at moving speed of 0.2 mm/s. Expectably, the generated porous surface is similar to the structure in Fig. 4(b), which suggests that the concentration of the solution has little influence on the microstructures formation. Moreover, the size of micro-cavity was found to remain about 910 nm even with different solute concentrations. Comparing with the results in Fig. 2, we can understand that the size of the micro-cavity on the targets is rather influenced by the incident laser fluence than by the solution concentration. Remarkably, although the higher concentration of the solution was employed, deposition of the particular substances could not be found in the regime of low laser fluence.

3.3 Formation of surface microstructures in the mixed solution of CaCl2 and Na3PO4

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Surface microstructuring of the Ti plate in the mixture solution of CaCl2 and Na3PO4 with concentration of 0.018 g/ml by femtosecond laser fluence of (a) 9.9 J/cm2 and (b) 3.3 J/cm2.
shows the typical surface structures on the Ti plate in the mixed solution of CaCl2 and Na3PO4 with a concentration of 0.018 g/ml, when the sample was scanned at the speed of 0.2 mm/s under the irradiation of femtosecond lasers with two different fluences. When the laser fluence was 9.9 J/cm2, the micro-islands structures were evidenced again, but with better-organized spatial distribution, and the shape of the micro-islands turns to be more regular. At the laser fluence of 3.3 J/cm2, micro-cavity structures could also be produced on the sample surfaces. Compared with the structures in Fig. 5, micro-cavities in this case had almost the same size of 910 nm. However, the deposition substances could not be found at this concentration, even with higher laser fluence of 9.9 J/cm2.

If the solution concentration was reduced to 0.008 g/ml and the sample was scribed by femtosecond laser with less fluence of 3.3 J/cm2, the porous surface microstructures on the laser-exposed region can be observed with the void size of 910 nm, which confirms that the size of micro-voids is insensitive to the variation of the solution concentration.

3.4 Chemical element deposition on the microstructured metal surfaces

In order to investigate chemical evolution of the metal surfaces structured by femtosecond lasers in the suspension of HA, we produced several large areas of these structures on different Ti plates, each of which has an area of 10 × 10 mm2. After the laser-structured samples were washed by the ultrasonic cleaner, their surface compositions were analyzed through EDX and XRD measurements. The obtained results are depicted by Fig. 7
Fig. 7 EDX (a) and XRD (b) measurement results for the micro-islands (9.9 J/cm2, green curve) and micro-cavities (3.3 J/cm2, red curve) surface structures shown in Fig. 4, respectively.
, where two different laser fluences were employed. In the case of EDX measurements with peak signals corresponding to chemical components, multiple peaks standing in the case of laser treatment with the higher fluence of 9.9 J/cm2 suggests that two important chemical elements Ca and P have been deposited during the laser treatment. While for the laser fluence of 3.3 J/cm2, as shown in Fig. 7(a), only peaks of Ti and Oxygen elements are displayed in the curve, and signals relevant to both Ca and P elements seem to disappear, which indicates that little additional elements Ca-P are deposited on the micro-structured sample surfaces under this situation .

In the case of XRD measurement, distinct narrow peak signals represent diffraction intensities at different angles from the structured sample. Among them, information about Ti and CaHPO4 materials are marked by the solid cycles and squares, respectively. As shown in Fig. 7(b), the measured peaks at θ = 35°, 40° and 53° coincide in the position with Ti peaks, which cannot be employed to identify the production of CaHPO4 crystals. However, for the laser fluence of 9.9 J/cm2, there are three other distinct peaks appearing at the diffraction angles of θ = 27°, 33° and 59°. Through comparing them with the JCPDS (Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards) data sheet, we can identify such signals from CaHPO4 rather than HA and other crystals. While for the laser fluence of 3.3 J/cm2, all diffraction peaks coincide in the position with Ti peaks, so that we could not recognize the existence of CaHPO4 crystal. These measurements provide another proof that the deposition of elements Ca-P in the form of CaHPO4 crystal could take place at the higher laser fluence of 9.9 J/cm2, while no elements Ca-P could be found to deposit into the structured surfaces at the lower laser fluence of 3.3 J/cm2. This result is consistent with the observations in Fig. 7(a).

4. Discussion of underlying mechanisms

On the other hand, if the incident laser fluence becomes much higher, such as 9.9 J/cm2 in our experiment, the ablation of material was accompanied by the formation of hot plasma, which promotes the strong vaporization of water [13

13. M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

,30

30. J. Noack, D. Hammer, G. Noojin, B. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

]. Under this circumstance, apart from the cavitation bubbles formation and collapse, the recoil pressure induced by the surrounding liquid vaporization began to play a dominant role [31

31. P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4457–4461 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

], which results in the material expelling from the molten surface to form a pit. Since the scan speed of the sample is relatively small, the laser radiation is captured efficiently by the pit through its side walls reflection. In our experimental condition the average number of laser shots delivered into each laser spot is about 320 at the scan speed of 0.2 mm/s. Similar to the situations in Ref. 31

31. P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4457–4461 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

, the formation of the adjacent pit is therefore inhibited until the laser spot crosses the first pit, and the cycle repeats. After the melt solidifies the micro-island in Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 6(a) can be created.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No.10874092 and 60637020), RFDP of China (Grant No. 20070055066), Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (Grant No. 09JCYBJC13900), and Research Plan of Hebei Education Department (Grant No. Z2008305).

References and links

1.

Y. Yang, J. Yang, C. Liang, and H. Wang, “Ultra-broadband enhanced absorption of metal surfaces structured by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11259–11265 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

W. Q. Han, L. Wu, R. F. Klie, and Y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical absorption induced by dense nanocavities inside titania nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2525–2529 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. B. Gerbig, S. I. U. Ahmed, D. G. Chetwynd, and H. Haefke, “Topography-related effects on the lubrication of nanostructured hard surfaces,” Tribol. Int. 39(9), 945–952 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

5.

T. J. Webster and J. U. Ejiofor, “Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase metals: Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo,” Biomaterials 25(19), 4731–4739 ( 2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 ( 1965). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2164–2169 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1932–1934 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 ( 2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser- melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 ( 1982). [CrossRef]

12.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40(11), S273–S282 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Yang, J. Yang, C. Liang, H. Wang, X. Zhu, D. Kuang, and Y. Yang, “Sub-wavelength surface structuring of NiTi alloy by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(3), 635–642 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

15.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Periodic ordering of random surface nanostructures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 034903 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

16.

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Shen, C. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. Katayama, H. Yonekubo, and T. Sawada, “Formation of ring patterns surrounded by ripples by single- shot laser irradiation with ultrashort pulse width at the solid/liquid interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4244–4246 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

20.

G. Daminelli, J. Kruger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

21.

T. Sakka, S. Iwanaga, Y. H. Ogata, A. Matsunawa, and T. Takemoto, “Laser ablation at solid–liquid interfaces: An approach from optical emission spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(19), 8645–8653 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

22.

S. Bharati, M. K. Sinha, and D. Basu, “Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy using concentrated SBF,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 28(6), 617–621 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

23.

X. L. Zhu, J. Chen, L. Scheideler, R. Reichl, and J. Geis-Gerstorfer, “Effects of topography and composition of titanium surface oxides on osteoblast responses,” Biomaterials 25(18), 4087–4103 ( 2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Aparicio, J. M. Manero, F. Conde, M. Pegueroles, J. A. Planell, M. Vallet-Regí, and F. J. Gil, “Acceleration of apatite nucleation on microrough bioactive titanium for bone-replacing implants,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 82A(3), 521–529 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

25.

J. P. Sylvestre, A. V. Kabashin, E. Sacher, and M. Meunier, “Femtosecond laser ablation of gold in water: influence of the laser-produced plasma on the nanoparticle size distribution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(4), 753–758 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

26.

R. M. Tilaki, A. Irajizad, and S. M. Mahdava, “The effect of liquid environment on size and aggregation of gold nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 9(5), 853–860 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

27.

D. Grojo, J. Hermann, and A. Perrone, “Plasma analyses during femtosecond laser ablation of Ti, Zr, and Hf,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063306 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

28.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanocavitation in water: implications for optical breakdown threshold and cell surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

30.

J. Noack, D. Hammer, G. Noojin, B. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

31.

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4457–4461 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: September 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 25, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 27, 2009
Published: November 5, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 13 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Yang Yang, Jianjun Yang, Chunyong Liang, Hongshui Wang, Xiaonong Zhu, and Nan Zhang, "Surface microstructuring of Ti plates by femtosecond lasers in liquid ambiences: a new approach to improving biocompatibility," Opt. Express 17, 21124-21133 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21124


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References

  1. Y. Yang, J. Yang, C. Liang, and H. Wang, “Ultra-broadband enhanced absorption of metal surfaces structured by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11259–11265 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Q. Han, L. Wu, R. F. Klie, and Y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical absorption induced by dense nanocavities inside titania nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2525–2529 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. B. Gerbig, S. I. U. Ahmed, D. G. Chetwynd, and H. Haefke, “Topography-related effects on the lubrication of nanostructured hard surfaces,” Tribol. Int. 39(9), 945–952 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. T. J. Webster and J. U. Ejiofor, “Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase metals: Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo,” Biomaterials 25(19), 4731–4739 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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