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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 24 — Nov. 23, 2009
  • pp: 22031–22040
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THz photomixing synthesizer based on a fiber frequency comb

Gaël Mouret, Francis Hindle, Arnaud Cuisset, Chun Yang, Robin Bocquet, Michel Lours, and Daniele Rovera  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 24, pp. 22031-22040 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.022031


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Abstract

A frequency doubled erbium doped modelocked fiber frequency comb is used to implement a THz photomixing synthesizer. The useful THz linewidth is in order of 150 kHz and has been assessed along with the frequency accuracy by spectroscopic measurements demonstrating a relative accuracy of 10−8 at frequencies around 1 THz. The THz synthesizer is used to implement a THz spectrometer to study the rotational absorption spectrum of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement of the principal transitions between 813 GHz and 1283 GHz allowed the properties of the THz spectrometer to be compared with competing techniques, and demonstrates the potential of the THz photomixing synthesizer as an alternative means to explore the THz domain.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Optoelectronic conversion techniques have become the basis of a powerful approach with which the THz frequency gap can be explored. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy is well known and has been extensively used for many years to study various samples. Its popularity is due to its large spectral coverage and the associated coherent detection which allow the refraction and absorption properties to be obtained in the THz spectral band where no versatile tools previously existed. In a similar manner to Fourier transform spectroscopy the resolution is determined by the temporal delay of the probe pulse and is typically limited to values in the region of 1 GHz. With the exception of linear molecules where free induction decay can be observed, THz Time Domain Spectrometers are mainly used to the study of low quality factor resonance phenomena such as those of liquids or solids [1

1. D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).

]. When a higher resolution is required the use of optical heterodyning or photomixing is more appropriate. It consists of the conversion of an optical beat into the THz domain by using the non-linearity of an ultrafast photodetector and was first demonstrated by Brown et al. in 1995 [2

2. E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 ( 1995). [CrossRef]

]. Photomixing is now a realistic solution for pure rotational or rovibrational spectroscopy, but up until present it has mainly been confined to the characterization of absorption profiles due to the difficulties encountered when determining the frequency of the THz radiation with sufficient accuracy for high resolution spectroscopy [3

3. C. Yang, J. Buldyreva, I. Gordon, F. Rohart, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, and F. Hindle, “Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(17-18), 2857–2868 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

8

8. S. Matton, F. Rohart, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, and G. Mouret, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high-J lines of OCS,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239(2), 182–189 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

]. Standard interpolation techniques can be used with one or several absorption lines, this however severely limits the useful tunability of the instrument. Matsuura et al. proposed a brilliant solution determining the frequency of previously unobserved transitions of NH3 and H2O [9

9. S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable cavity-locked diode laser source for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(3), 380–387 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

11

11. P. Chen, J. C. Pearson, H. M. Pickett, S. Matsuura, and G. A. Blake, “Measurements of 14NH3 in the ν2=1 state by a solid-state, photomixing, THz spectrometer, and a simultaneous analysis of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared transitions between the ground and ν2 inversion–rotation levels,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 236(1), 116–126 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

]. Two lasers are locked to different orders of a single Fabry Perot interferometer while the fine tunability is obtained by a third diode phase locked loop to one the two first diode lasers. A similar approach has recently been realized by Abaellea et al. [12

12. L. Aballea and L. F. Constantin, “Optoelectronic difference-frequency synthesiser: terahertz-waves for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2), 21201 ( 2009). [CrossRef]

]. In such implementations, the inherent sensitivity of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to acoustic noise, thermal drift and refractive index fluctuations require a careful design where different elements are often placed in vacuum chamber to preserve optical performance and optimise the stability of the THz source. Good beam pointing stabilities are needed to preserve the alignment of laser beams to the fundamental mode of the FP cavity. The calibration and stability of the free spectral range of this high Fabry Perot cavity governs the ultimate frequency accuracy of the spectrometer. Well-known molecular transitions are usually used to measure and calibrate the FSR. Such measurements may be considered to measure wavelength rather than measuring frequency, since such a procedure is used to determine the optical length of the FP cavity [13

13. S. T. Cundiff, and L. Hollberg, “Absolute Optical Frequency Metrology”, Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, 82–90 (2004).

]. In this paper, we propose to exploit the significant breakthrough in optical metrology measurement by using a frequency comb (FC) obtained from a mode-locked femtosecond laser with a stabilized repetition rate [14

14. T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

,15

15. J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

]. This frequency comb is used like a ruler, to measure or/and to stabilized the difference frequency between two lasers and benefit of the perfect cancellation of any carrier-envelope phase offset that may be present in the original frequency comb. In contrast to Q. Quraishi et al., we propose to use latest developments in the frequency metrology based on femtosecond fiber lasers which form a turnkey system and avoiding the use of expensive and bulky femtosecond Ti:Sa lasers and the associated maintenance [16

16. Q. Quraishi, M. Griebel, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and R. Bratschitsch, “Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3231–3233 ( 2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Compactness, power efficiency of such technologies are an attractive proposition to implement a THz synthesizer.

2. Experimental configuration and principle of operation

The experimental setup is presented on the Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the synthesised THz source. A first beam splitter (BS1) is used to overlap the two laser beams from the two External Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL) and seed them to Tapered Amplifier (TA). At the output, optical beat note is divided by a second beam splitter (BS2). A first part is used to produce the THz radiation collected at the backside of the photomixer by a silicon lens. Two Off axis Parabolic Mirrors (OPM) are used to collimate and focus the THz beam through an absorption cell to a cryogenic bolometer. The frequency comb (FC) is overlap with optical beat note by means of a third beam splitter (BS3). Two grating (G) disperse the FC and two lasers to ensure an heterodyne measurement between each ECDL and FC detected by two different photodiodes (PD1- PD2). The heterodyne signals are feed to two Phase Lock Loop (PLL) to synthesized the difference frequency between two ECDL to a synthesizer. A 10 MHz crystal oscillator is used as reference signal for synthesizers, counters and spectrum analyzers required. Solids lines show optical signal, and dashed lines indicate electronic signal.
. A two-colour continuous wave optical source was composed of a tapered semiconductor amplifier simultaneously seeded by two commercial extended cavity diode lasers (ECDL) nominally operating around 780nm (DL100, TOPTICA Photonics AG). The two-colour beam was divided into two parts; the first was used to generate cw-THz radiation by photomixing while the second was mixed with the frequency comb to synthesize the difference frequency between the ECDL. A standard 5 × 5 μm2 interdigited electrode photomixer deposed onto a Low Temperature Grown GaAs semiconductor loaded by a broad band spiral antenna was used to generate the THz radiation. Each 0.2μm width fingers are separated by 0.8 μm as described in ref. 5

5. F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Continuous -wave THz by photomxing: application to gas pollutant detection and quantification,” Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciences 9, 262–275 ( 2008).

. The total optical power was in order of 60 mW to produce a DC photocurrent around 1 mA ensuring a microW THz power in the low frequency region of the spectrum and the hundreds of nanoW around 1 THz. The THz radiation produced was propagated through a sample cell before being detected by a composite Si bolometer cooled by liquid He with a loss around 3db compared to the maximum emitted power, allowing a useful dynamic range of around 30dB to be obtain routinely at 1 THz [5

5. F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Continuous -wave THz by photomxing: application to gas pollutant detection and quantification,” Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciences 9, 262–275 ( 2008).

]. The optical beat note at the output of the optical amplifier is intensity modulated around 300 Hz by a mechanical chopper allowing a synchronous detection of the emitted THz radiation. A frequency doubled erbium doped modelocked fiber laser (Menlosystems, C-Fiber) provided the FC with a stabilized repetition rate phase-locked onto a synthesizer and can be tuned from 99.790 MHz to 100.200 MHz. Assuming a Gaussian shape, the pulse width of the second harmonic is around 130 fs, associated with a full spectral width of 6 nm large enough to cover several THz. The mean output power of the FC is in order of 90 mW. After mixing with the two-colour beam, it was dispersed by a grating to allow a photodiode to select a small number of FC modes and an ECDL. The beatnote between the ECDL and the nearest FC mode was isolated and phase locked to a local oscillator at 20 MHz, coherently locking the diode to the FC. The locking of the second ECDL to a different FC mode allows the difference frequency between the ECDLs to be synthesised with an accuracy dependent on the FC repetition rate and the local oscillators used in the beatnote phase locked loops. The feedback correction signal produced by a hybrid digital-anolog PLL is applied to the ECDL current by a field effect transistor connected directly to the laser diode. The difference of frequency between the diode lasers can be expressed in Eq. (1) as:
fTHz=nfrr±fs±fs
(1)
where n is an integer, frr is the repetition rate of the femtosecond laser phase locked onto a synthesizer itself referenced onto a low phase noise 10 MHz quartz crystal oscillator (Blue Top Ultra LowNoise Oscillators from Wenzel). fs is the frequency of the synthesizer used to phase lock the beat signals, and the quantity ( ± fs ± fs) is subsequently named offset frequency. A classical commercial wavemeter is used to remove the ambiguty of the integer. The need to determine the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency introduced into the laser cavity has limited the use of FC techniques, however in our case as the ECDL difference frequency is required the measurement of the CEO is avoided.

3. Results

3.1 Measurements onto THz synthesizer

The frequency accuracy and the stability of the repetition rate is measured and checked by use of a counter, also referenced to the same 10 MHz reference oscillator. A frequency repetition rate around 100 MHz associated with a standard deviation of 5 × 10−3 Hz for a gate time of 1s and for a measurement time of 18 minutes was routinely obtained. Similar measurements of the two beat notes between ECDL and FC signal typically yielded mean values around 20 MHz associated with standard deviations of 2 Hz. An example of a locked beat note between one of the diode lasers and a FC mode and associated frequency histogram measurement are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Phase locked beat note between FC and a ECDL.
and Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histogram of the frequency measurement of the phase locked beat note between FC and a ECDL
respectively. The absolute frequency accuracy of the THz synthesizer is then determined by the accuracy of the 10 MHz reference oscillator. In these preliminary experiments, a commercial frequency counter calibrated against Cs etalon is used to check the reference oscillator. The full width of the beat note, shows on Fig. 2, at −3dB is less than 100 kHz and represents the convolution of the ECDL and FC linewidths which currently exhibit broader optical comb lines than those of Ti:Sa based comb generator [17

17. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Elimination of pump-induced frequency jitter on fiber-laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1997–1999 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The limited PLL bandwidth, the inherent noise of the fiber based laser system and intrinsic noise of our ECDL current sources may explain the observed spectral purity compared to that Hz level obtained by Q. Quraishi et al. [16

16. Q. Quraishi, M. Griebel, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and R. Bratschitsch, “Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3231–3233 ( 2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the present system the PLL bandwidth was estimated to be around 100 kHz. From those measurements we estimate the present useful spectral linewidth of the THz synthesizer better than 200 kHz. This value is well suited to Doppler limited absorption linewidths of small polar molecules, which never exceeds 10 MHz at room temperature. In free running operation, ECDLs exhibit a full width at −3db of around 5 MHz on the timescale of a few seconds, highlighting the efficiency of our PLL.

3.2 spectroscopic measurements

ΔfTHzfTHzΔfoptfopt
(2)

4. Application to spectroscopy

5. Conclusions

The photomixing technique associated to new developments in optical metrology based on the fiber frequency comb is now a powerful solution to effectively cover a large part of the THz frequency gap. Relatively good linewidth, large bandwidth associated with a versatile means of high accuracy frequency measurement are relevant requirements of such optoelectronic conversion. THz radiation can be produced with a 10 MHz tuning range around any desired frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of OCS have been performed and compared to high accuracy Doppler free data confirming the consistence of the present spectrometer based on a THz synthesizer. Despite that useful frequency accuracy is more affect by the line profile than absolute accuracy of arrangement, we plan to lock our reference crystal oscillator onto a well controlled GPS signal to avoid any systematic error in future studies. The good reproductibility observed in the preliminary spectroscopic experiments should also improve the sensitivity of the THz spectrometer for trace gas detection [24

24. D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy. Comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

,25

25. D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2356–2358 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Indeed, frequency instabilities are often a tedious problem to normalize absorption spectra due to large fluctuations in the base line, and so prevent the measurement of small transitions. While studies under 1 THz can benefit to formidable progress in the harmonics generation, developed for astronomy purpose, since the different elements are now commercially available up to 800 GHz, explorations above one THz are still hampered by the lack of coherent sources. So photomixing technique has strong potential in the high part of the frequency gap since some demonstrations has been reported up to 3.2 THz [3

3. C. Yang, J. Buldyreva, I. Gordon, F. Rohart, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, and F. Hindle, “Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(17-18), 2857–2868 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

]. Although many solutions can be applied to improve specifications of a classical photomixing spectrometer from the point of view of the optical part, the maximum output power is still limited in the nW range around 1.5 THz and so hamper its use outside the laboratory. Future progress in the photomixer to push up the emitted power will govern the viability of this technique. On this point some progress are expected mainly by use of new UniTravellingCarrier (UTC) photodiodes which working at telecom wavelength and so open new possibilities to develop fiber based portable instrumenst [26

26. H. Ito, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, and T. Ishibashi, “Continuous THz-wave generation using antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S191–S198 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

,27

27. A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, “High-efficiency uni-travelling-carrier photomixer at 1.55 µm and spectroscopy application up to 1.4 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1320–1322 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

]. Distributed photomixer using large area of semiconductor to prevent thermal failure is also a possible alternative to increase the THz emitted power [28

28. M Mikulics M, EA Michael, M. Marso, M. Lepsa, A. van der Hart, H. Luth, A. Dewald, S. Stancek, M. Mozolik, and P. Kordos, “Travelling-wave photomixers fabricated on high energy nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071103 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgements

This work was partially funded by Agence De l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie (ADEME), the region of Nord Pas-de-Calais, the European Commission, and the Délégation Générale pour l’Armement (projet de Recherche Exploratoire et Innovation n°06.34.037). The Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l'Atmosphère and the Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules participate in the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (CERLA).

References and links

1.

D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).

2.

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 ( 1995). [CrossRef]

3.

C. Yang, J. Buldyreva, I. Gordon, F. Rohart, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, and F. Hindle, “Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(17-18), 2857–2868 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

4.

I. Park, C. Sydlo, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Generation and spectroscopic application of tunable continuous-wave terahertz radiation using a dual-mode semiconductor laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(6), 065305 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

5.

F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Continuous -wave THz by photomxing: application to gas pollutant detection and quantification,” Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciences 9, 262–275 ( 2008).

6.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-Resolution Terahertz Spectroscopy by a Compact Radiation Source Based on Photomixing with Diode Lasers in a Photoconductive Antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 ( 1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. S. Pine, R. D. Suenram, E. R. Brown, and K. A. McIntosh, “A Terahertz Photomixing Spectrometer: Application to SO2 Self Broadening,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 175(1), 37–47 ( 1996). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Matton, F. Rohart, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, and G. Mouret, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high-J lines of OCS,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239(2), 182–189 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable cavity-locked diode laser source for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(3), 380–387 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

10.

P. Chen, J. C. Pearson, H. M. Pickett, S. Matsuura, and G. A. Blake, “Submillimeter-wave measurements and analysis of the ground and v(2)=1 states of water,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 128(1), 371–385 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

11.

P. Chen, J. C. Pearson, H. M. Pickett, S. Matsuura, and G. A. Blake, “Measurements of 14NH3 in the ν2=1 state by a solid-state, photomixing, THz spectrometer, and a simultaneous analysis of the microwave, terahertz, and infrared transitions between the ground and ν2 inversion–rotation levels,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 236(1), 116–126 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Aballea and L. F. Constantin, “Optoelectronic difference-frequency synthesiser: terahertz-waves for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2), 21201 ( 2009). [CrossRef]

13.

S. T. Cundiff, and L. Hollberg, “Absolute Optical Frequency Metrology”, Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, 82–90 (2004).

14.

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

15.

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1279–1295 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

16.

Q. Quraishi, M. Griebel, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and R. Bratschitsch, “Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3231–3233 ( 2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Elimination of pump-induced frequency jitter on fiber-laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1997–1999 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Fayt, R. Vandenhaute, and J. G. Lahaye, “Global rovibrational analysis of carbonyl sulfide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 119(2), 233–266 ( 1986). [CrossRef]

19.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Muller, “Submillimeter, Millimeter, and Microwave Spectral Line Catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 883–890 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

20.

P. Helminger, F. C. De Lucia, and W. Gordy, “Extension of microwave absorption spectroscopy to 0.37 –mm wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(20), 1397–1399 ( 1970). [CrossRef]

21.

G. Y. Golubiatnikov, A. V. Lapinov, A. Guarnieri, and R. Knöchel, “Precise Lamb-dip measurements of millimeter and submillimeter wave rotational transitions of 16O12C32S,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234(1), 190–194 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

22.

H. M. Pickett, “The fitting and predictions of vibration-rotation spectra with spin interactions,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 148(2), 371–377 ( 1991). [CrossRef]

23.

D. L. Albritton, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and R. N. Zare, “An introduction to the Least-Squares Fitting of Spectroscopic Data”, in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, K.N. Rao, ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1976).

24.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy. Comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

25.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, E. Fertein, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2356–2358 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

H. Ito, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, and T. Ishibashi, “Continuous THz-wave generation using antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S191–S198 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Beck, G. Ducournau, M. Zaknoune, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. F. Lampin, F. Mollot, F. Hindle, C. Yang, and G. Mouret, “High-efficiency uni-travelling-carrier photomixer at 1.55 µm and spectroscopy application up to 1.4 THz,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1320–1322 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

28.

M Mikulics M, EA Michael, M. Marso, M. Lepsa, A. van der Hart, H. Luth, A. Dewald, S. Stancek, M. Mozolik, and P. Kordos, “Travelling-wave photomixers fabricated on high energy nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071103 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: September 10, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 26, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 26, 2009
Published: November 17, 2009

Citation
Gaël Mouret, Francis Hindle, Arnaud Cuisset, Chun Yang, Robin Bocquet, Michel Lours, and Daniele Rovera, "THz photomixing synthesizer based on a fiber frequency comb," Opt. Express 17, 22031-22040 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-22031


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References

  1. D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).
  2. E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(3), 285–287 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Yang, J. Buldyreva, I. Gordon, F. Rohart, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, and F. Hindle, “Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(17-18), 2857–2868 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. I. Park, C. Sydlo, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Generation and spectroscopic application of tunable continuous-wave terahertz radiation using a dual-mode semiconductor laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(6), 065305 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, and G. Mouret, “Continuous -wave THz by photomxing: application to gas pollutant detection and quantification,” Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciences 9, 262–275 (2008).
  6. S. Matsuura, M. Tani, H. Abe, K. Sakai, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito, “High-Resolution Terahertz Spectroscopy by a Compact Radiation Source Based on Photomixing with Diode Lasers in a Photoconductive Antenna,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187(1), 97–101 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. S. Pine, R. D. Suenram, E. R. Brown, and K. A. McIntosh, “A Terahertz Photomixing Spectrometer: Application to SO2 Self Broadening,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 175(1), 37–47 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Matton, F. Rohart, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, and G. Mouret, “Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high-J lines of OCS,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239(2), 182–189 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Matsuura, P. Chen, G. A. Blake, and H. M. Pickett, “A tunable cavity-locked diode laser source for terahertz photomixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(3), 380–387 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Chen, J. C. Pearson, H. M. Pickett, S. Matsuura, and G. A. Blake, “Submillimeter-wave measurements and analysis of the ground and v(2)=1 states of water,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 128(1), 371–385 (2000). [CrossRef]
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