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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 24 — Nov. 23, 2009
  • pp: 22081–22095
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A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system

Denis Donlagic  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 24, pp. 22081-22095 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.022081


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Abstract

This paper presents a high bend tolerant multimode optical fiber transmission system that is compatible with standard 50 µm graded index multimode fiber, in terms of achievable bandwidth and interconnectivity losses. When the 10 loops of the proposed bend resistive multimode fiber were wrapped around a cylinder of 1.5 mm radius, bend losses below -0.2 dB were achieved in case of experimentally produced fiber. Furthermore, when the section of the proposed bend resistive fiber was inserted between two sections of a standard 50 µm graded index multimode fiber, the total experimental measured loss proved to be below -0.15 dB.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Bend loss has been one of the major concerns when manufacturing fiber, cable and photonic devices. There are increasing numbers of applications where optical fibers need to be routed through constrained spaces or where fibers or fiber cables need to be matched, packaged or mounted tightly to structures having arbitrary shapes and forms. In such environments, a significant number of tight bends can be expected along the fiber’s path. Fibers with high bend tolerance are therefore required in such environments. Typical examples are house, building or various vehicles wiring systems. The packaging size, and thereby cost of many practical photonic devices, is often limited by allowable fiber bend diameters.

To date, significant works relating to the understanding and improvement of bend-loss sensitivity have been carried on for single-mode fibers and fiber systems [1

1. D. Marcuse, “Curvature loss formula for optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216–220 ( 1976). [CrossRef]

12

12. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, Y. S. Yoon, Y. S. Lee, and W. T. Han, “Design of a trenched bend insensitive single mode optical fiber using spot size definitions,, Opt. Express 16, 13545–13551 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and multimode fibers [13

13. D. Gloge, “Bending Loss in Multimode Fibers with Graded and Ungraded Core Index,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2506–2513 ( 1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18]. Achieving high bend tolerance in multimode fibers without compromising other properties such as bandwidth, and other compatibility with existing standard telecommunication fibers has however, proved to be a challenging problem.

There are several serious limitations that restrict design opportunities for bend resistive multimode fibers. Since multimode fibers support a large number of modes and each mode bears individual bend-loss characteristics, it is difficult to control bend-loss and other waveguide properties of all propagating modes simultaneously. This becomes a particularly challenging problem in high bandwidth transmission multimode fibers, where even minor intervention into the optimum shape of the graded index profile inevitably leads to serious degradation of transmission fiber bandwidth. Finally, bend resistive multimode fibers should also exhibit good compatibility with existing standard multimode fibers and terminal equipment, to allow for effective and economical interconnectivity.

This paper presents an optical fiber transmission system that exhibits very high tolerance to bend induced losses, while achieving low-loss connectivity with standard 50 µm multimode fiber. Modeling also shows that the proposed system can achieve and even exceed the bandwidth of the standard 50 µm multimode fiber.

2. The design of bend resistive multimode fiber transmission system

2.1 Identifying major parameters that affect bend-loss characteristics in multimode fibers

Microbend loss in standard multimode fibers, therefore, does not present usually a significant concern unless the fiber core displacement amplitude is large over longer spans of fiber (for example in squeezed or improperly designed cable).

Fig. 1. Bend loss of the mode in curved fiber.

βc(r)Rrβ
(1)

k0nc=βc(rc)Rrcβ
(2)

where k0 is the free space propagation number and nc is the refractive index of the cladding. The loss per unit length in the curved fiber is thus determined by mode field amplitude at dissociation caustic, e.g. by mode field amplitude at radial distance rc. The rc can be expressed from (2) as (3):

rcβk0Rnc=neffncR
(3)

where neff is effective refractive index of the observed mode. Since the mode field roll-off is approximately exponential in the cladding, the loss per unit is fast (non-linear) function of the curvature radius R and neff/nc ratio. From this simple qualitative description, one can see that neff/nc ratio plays a profound role in fiber mode bend-loss sensitivity. A straightforward way for increasing bend-loss tolerance of a fiber mode is to increase its neff/nc ratio.

The experimental support for the above conclusion can be also found for example in reference [24

24. D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Propagation of the fundamental mode in curved graded index multimode fiber and its application in sensor systems”, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 334–342 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

] (in Fig. 12), where standard GI MMF was selectively excited by the single mode fiber that was offset across the GI MMF fiber core. When the lowest order modes were excited (e.g. modes with high neff/nc ratio) the bend loss tolerance of tested GI MMF fiber was also high. The bend loss however quickly increased when the significant offset of the launching fiber was introduced and the modes with low neff/nc were selectively launched into the tested GI MMF.

2.2 A general approach to multimode bend resistive fiber design

An ideal multimode bend resistive fiber profile would only support the existence of modes that have high values of neff/nc ratio. In such a hypothetical case, all the modes would be well separated from the cladding level and would, therefore, exhibit high macrobend tolerance – Fig. 2(a). Unfortunately, such profiles are unknown in practice (at least not in terms of conventional index graded fibers) as the modes in multimode fibers always (more or less) evenly fill-up the entire available phase constant space that is determined by cladding and maximum core refractive indexes – Fig. 2(b).

The following approach can be applied to overcome this limitation: a multimode bend resistive transmission fiber is designed in such a way that the excitation system like, for example, standard multimode fiber or optical source selectively only excites those modes in the transmission fiber that have high effective refractive index, while the modes with lower values of propagation constants remain unexcited and thus do not participate in signal transmission - Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. The phase constant space of a) hypothetical bend resistive multimode fiber phase; b) parabolic multimode fiber (each arrow represents a fiber mode; the position of the arrow on the x-axis indicates the mode phase constant; nmax is maximum core index).
Fig. 3. Modal structure and excitation in a bend resistive transmission system (each short arrow represents a fiber mode; the position of the arrow on the x-axis indicates the mode phase constant; tall arrows indicate excited modes used for signal transmission)

The transmission bend resistive fiber will therefore support a large set of fiber modes, for example significantly larger set of modes than encountered in exciting fiber, while only part of these modes is used for signal transmission. The basic configuration of the proposed multimode bend resistive system is shown in Fig. 4 and consists of an optical source coupled to lead-in excitation fiber that can be of any desired length (for example standard GI MMF that is bend intolerant), arbitrary length of multimode transmission fiber that is bend tolerant and can be subjected to severe bending while exhibiting low optical loss, and optical receiver.

Fig. 4. Bend resistive multimode system

The transmission fiber profile shall be tailored to the excitation fiber (or source) in order to achieve selective excitation of modes that have high effective refractive index values in the bend resistive transmission fiber. The transversal distribution of electric field for each individual mode of the excitation (lead-in) fiber is closely matched to the transversal electric field distribution of the mode having high value of the phase constant in the transmission fiber. Each individual mode of excitation fiber, thereby, obtains a matching pair with high value of effective refractive index in the transmission fiber. In an optimum case, the number of modes with high values of effective refractive index in transmission fiber matches the total number of modes in the lead-in (excitation) fiber.

The transversal field distributions of lead-in (excitation) fiber modes and high effective index modes of transmission fiber can be matched by implementing the same relative refractive index profile shape in both fibers within the region that has the same radial dimensions as the lead-in (excitation) fiber core (this assumption is valid for weekly guided approximation). However, to achieve high neff/nc ratio of the launched modes in the transmission fiber, the absolute index values of the transmission fiber core, cladding or both should be substantially different when compared to the excitation fiber (e.g. the absolute core index shuld be higher and/or the cladding index should be lower than in the lead-in fiber). An example of matching lead-in and transmission fiber profile pair is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. a. Lead-in fiber; b example of transmission fiber matched to lead-in fiber: Local matching of relative graded index profile shapes of transmission fibers to lead-in and can assure selective launch of individual modes with high neff/nclad ratio in transmission fiber.

The fiber with the profile shown in Fig. 5(b) will already provide high bend tolerance if excited by the fiber having the profile shown in Fig. 5(a). However, additional consideration should be given to the possible adverse effects of additional modes, which are created by incensed core to cladding index difference in such profile. Besides the high effective refractive index modes, the transmission fiber described above will support propagation of other modes having lower values of refractive index with reduced or even high bend loss sensitivity. Depending on the fiber profile, this set of modes can be large and is usually confined within an entire transversal plane of transmission fiber core. Therefore, the phase constant differences (Δβ) among those modes can be quite small, resulting in a high susceptibility of these modes to coupling by relatively mild microbending. It is, therefore, necessary to prevent coupling of these modes with modes excited by the lead-in fiber (e.g. high effective refractive index modes), otherwise the optical power coupled in the transmission fiber can leak out from the fiber through combined micro and macro-bend effects.

Table 1. Summary of bend resistive GI-MMF design parameters

table-icon
View This Table

2.3 Bend resistive fiber profile design that is fully compatible with 50 µm standard telecommunication multimode fibers

Figure 6 shows a typical profile of standard 50 µm core telecommunication graded index multimode fiber at 1300 nm. The refractive index in the core’s center is typical around 1.4615. The cladding is made of pure silica with a refractive index of about 1.4469 at 1300 nm. The relative difference between the core and the cladding is 1%, and the alpha profile parameter is around α=2.08 (optimized for operation at 850 nm).

Fig. 6. Basic approach to bend resistive fiber design that is compatible with 50 µm GI MMF
Fig. 7. Practical producible (truncated) bend resistive fiber profile

The transmission bend resistive fiber profile is tailored to 50 µm standard fiber using the following steps: The standard 50 µm multimode fiber profile, shown in Fig. 6, is used as a template for determining the transmission fiber’s profile shape in the region between the fiber center and the radial distance of 25 µm (e.g. in the area that corresponds to 50 µm multimode fiber core). In order to obtain the desired profile shape of the transmission fiber, the original 50 µm multimode fiber profile is shifted “upwards”, as shown in Fig. 5, until the core center reaches maximum practical refractive index value. In the particular design example, we chose this as 1.4765, which corresponds to about 2% relative difference when compared to the pure silica level (higher index is also possible with germanium doping, but the production process difficulties and stress build-up in the preform makes a higher doping level less convenient for practical fiber production). The graded profile is also extended in the area that is larger than lead-in core size, e.g. in the area beyond 25 µm measured from the fiber core center. In this region the refractive index profile shape is a continuation of the graded (nearly parabolic) profile that extends between 0 and 25 µm. This graded profile extension can continue until the lowest practical value for refractive index is achieved (for example -1%), as indicated by “tailored profile” in Fig. 6.

The transmission fiber profile obtained by the procedure described above, provides a set of modes with high effective indices that closely match the transversal mode field distributions of all propagating modes of standard 50 µm multimode fiber. As an example, the upper row in Fig. 8 shows calculated intensity distribution for modes LP(0,1), LP(5,4) and LP(9,2) of the transmission fiber profile described in Fig. 7. For comparison, intensity distributions for the same modes of the standard 50 µm multimode profile are shown in the bottom row. Figure 8 clearly shows the identical transversal mode field distribution in both cases. When standard 50 µm fiber is spliced to the transmission fiber, the lowest order mode of the 50 µm standard GI MMF very selectively excites the lowest order mode in transmission fiber. The same applies for all other higher-order modes of the 50 µm standard fiber that excite highly selectively their counterparts in the transmission fiber. Since the number of modes supported by standard 50 µm fiber is considerably lower than in the transmission fiber, only the limited set of modes having the highest effective indices is excited in the transmission fiber.

Fig. 8. Comparison of optical intensities in standard 50 µm GI MMF and bend resistive fiber for a few arbitrary selected modes (LP(0,1), LP(5,3) and LP(9,5)). The modes with the same designation in standard and bend- resistive fibers have identical transversal power distributions, but considerably different effective indexes (calculation was performed at 1300 nm).

Fig. 9. Effective refractive index space of standard 50 um GI MMF and bend resistive fiber (at 850 nm). Each dot in the graph represents one LP mode.

Identical field distributions (as shown in examples of Fig. 8) and mode distribution in refractive index space (Fig. 9) indicate that when the 50 µm GI MMF is connected (for example spliced) to the bend resistive fiber, all modes of 50 µm GI MMF will be “up-converted” into the highest order modes of bend resistive fiber, thus assuring high neff/nc ratio for all excited modes in the transmission fiber. This mode conversion is indicated by the arrow (f) in Fig. 9 and is fully reversible, e.g. when selectively-excited bend resistve transmission fiber is connected to standard fiber, a lossless “down-conversion” of modes can be expected. At the same instance, separation in β space (neff space) between the last excited and the first unexcited mode (modal group) of the transmission fiber is maintained at the same level as in 50 µm GI MMF. A high neff/nc ratio of excited modes and considerable separation between excited and unexcited modes in the β space thus assures low macro bend loss susceptibility and acceptable micro bend performance.

Fig. 10. Group delay of bend resistive fiber modes at 850 nm (α parameter is optimized for 850 nm and corresponds to α=2.087). Each dot in the graph presents one LP mode. Around the first 100 LP modes exhibit very low differential group delay (theoretically less than 50 ps/km).

3. Experimental results

Experimental transmission bend resistive fiber (BRF), having the profile shown in Fig. 7, was produced and tested for bend loss performance. Modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) was used to cerate germanium doped nearly parabolic region core and plasma-assisted vapor deposition process (PCVD) to form fluorinated low refractive index cladding (core was deposited into low refractive index substrate tube prepared by PCVD by independent supplier). In total, a refractive index difference close to 2.7% was achieved. The profile was measured by the preform analyzer, as shown in Fig. 11. Fine tuning of the fiber profile for the purpose of achieving high bandwidth was not performed due to limited access to fiber production and a need for the extensive production process optimization usually required to achieve high performance MMF fiber production.

Fig. 11. Preform analyzer data for the practically produced bend resistive fiber

The macrobend performance of the proposed system was extensively tested over various experimental configurations as shown in Fig. 12. In all cases 1 and 10 loops of fiber were warped around smooth cylinders having different diameters. Optical powers were measured at the output of all setups when the fiber was straight (Pstright) and wrapped around the cylinders (Pwraped). The ratio of these powers Pwraped/Pstright (i.e. transmission) versus cylinder diameter is reported in Figs. 13 and 14.

Fig. 12. Experimental setups used for macrobend evaluation.

In Configuration C, a Finisar VCSEL was connected through a standard 50 µm GI-MMF to BRF. In Configuration D Optek VCSEL was directly connected (no launching fiber used) to the BRF, but the standard 50 µm MMF was added between the BRF and power meter to perform mode filtering at the output. In configuration D, BRF was connectorized with an ST connector to allow direct coupling of BRF to OPV214AT ST receptacle package.

In Configuration E both Optek and Finisar VCSEL were directly (no launching fiber) connected to the BRF. Again BRF was connectorized with an ST connector to allow direct connection to OPV214AT ST receptacle and 8HFE4391-541 TOSA case. Reference measurements using 50 µm standard GI-MMF were also performed for both VCSEL’s (Configuration F).

Fig. 13. Transmission of the fiber versus bend diameter for a single fiber loop
Fig. 14. Transmission of the fiber versus bend diameter for ten fiber loops

Direct coupling of Optek OPV214AT VCSEL to BRF (Configuration E) showed considerably improved bend loss performance of BRF when compared to bend loss obtained in standard fiber, but it is also apparent that this loss is significantly higher than in the case of configurations using launching fibers. It can be concluded that Optek VCSEL launched a significant fraction of the total power into the higher order modes of BRF. When filtering or launching 50 µm standard GI-MMF fiber was added in-between Optek OPV214AT VCSEL and BRF or between BRF and detector (Configuration E), the bend loss characteristics became even better than when LED sources were used in rich over field launches. Ten loop Configuration D also exhibited minor transmission fluctuations over 100%, which can be attributed to mode interference effects at BRF to standard fiber splice. These fluctuations, however, did not exceed 2.5% of total transmitted power.

The behavior of Finisar 8HFE4391-541 VCSEL was quite different from the Optek OPV214AT VCSEL. Direct coupling of Finisar VCSEL to BRF resulted immediately in a high-bend tolerant system with performance very close to those cases using launching GI-MMF fiber. While minute (few percent) power drop can be observed at bend diameters below 8 mm, the bend loss is not significantly higher from configurations using lunching fibers at low-bending diameters (e.g. at a bend-diameter of 3 mm BRF launched by Finisar VCSEL demonstrated about the same loss as in the case of an LED using launching fiber). Apparently Finisar VCSEL does not launch any significant power outside 50 µm diameter spot and therefore could likely be directly coupled to BRF without serious bandwidth and bend-loss impairments. Properly design VCSEL therefore, eliminates the need for launching/filtering fiber.

The highest bend loss tolerance was, however, achieved when launching or filtering fiber was used in combination with VCSEL (Configurations E or D). In the latter cases no bend loss was observed in single loop tests and maximum one percent (-0.05 dB) of optical power loss was detected at 2.5 mm loop diameter in ten loop test configuration.

Fig. 15. a. Microbend test set-up and b. comparison of microbend performance for standard 50 µm fiber multimode and the proposed bend resistive system.

The microbend performance of the proposed system was evaluated using the sandpaper test. The experimental setup used in the tests is shown in Fig. 15(a) and includes 850 nm and 1300 nm LED sources, launching fiber (standard 50 µm GI MMF), mode mixer, BRF under test, and filtering fiber at the output. The filtering fiber at the output removed power coupled into the modes that are not bend resistive and not well-balanced in terms of group delays. Four loops of fiber under test were placed between 35 cm long and 5 cm wide flat steel plates covered by sandpaper with grades P600 and P1000. Both sandpapers assert a broad spectrum of spatial perturbation frequencies to the tested fibers. The steel plate set-up was gradually loaded by weights while observing optical power transmission through the fiber. A similar test was also performed (Configuration B in Fig. 12) on the standard 50 µm GI MMF for comparison purposes. The results are shown in Fig. 15(b). As expected, both fibers demonstrated practically identical microbend response. Small difference among both fibers (bend resistive transmission fiber appears slightly less microbend sensitive) probably arises from the differences in coatings (different manufacturers and coating conditions) and differences in local numerical apertures (e.g. the refractive index difference of the core that is excited in bend resistive fiber and delta of standard 50 µm fiber were not perfectly matched, and as we used for the reference off the shelf standard 50 µm fiber multimode - Δβ could be slightly different in both fibers).

Finally it should be stressed that extensive optimization of the experimental BRF was not performed and the experimental BRF profile only approximately matched the profile of standard GI MMF. The profile mismatch should result in a certain degree of mode conversion at the splices and shall be particularly reflected in the second splice losses (e.g. in transition from BRF to GI MMF). Further optimization of BRF profile would likely lead to even lower GI MMF-BRF-GI MMF structure losses.

4. Conclusion

A high-bend resistive multimode fiber transmission system was presented. The system is based on properly designed bend resistive multimode fiber that supports a set of high-bend resistive modes that are closely matched to all existing modes of standard 50 µm multimode fiber. The experimentally-produced fiber system under worst case conditions demonstrated (LED excitation using additional mode mixing) losses of -0.2 dB when 10 loops of the bend-resistive fiber were wrapped around a cylinder with radius of only 1.25 mm. Even lower bend loss was achieved by combined application of VCSEL and launching fiber where loss as low as -0.05 dB was achieved when 10 loops of fiber were wrapped around cylinder with 1.25 mm radius. This is considerably better bend-loss performance that previously reported even for most single-mode fibers.

The microbend sensitivity of the proposed transmission fiber is comparable to standard 50 µm GI MMF. Furthermore, the proposed fiber transmission system can, theoretically, achieve comparable or even higher bandwidth than standard 50 µm GI MMF, however this was verified only by numerical simulations due to the limited access to the fiber production and ability to perform lengthily and expensive fine-tuning of the production process required for high bandwidth MMF production (however extensive experimental investigation was performed to confirm predicted absence of any significant mode coupling due to the macrobending that could eventually compromise presented modeling results).

While sources like LED’s require a short section of standard 50 µm multimode fiber to launch bend resistive and in terms of group delay well-balanced modes, direct launching by already commercially existing VCSELs of the transmission BRF can also be achieved.

The proposed bend resistive multimode fiber is compatible with current fiber manufacturing technology and it is easy to splice or otherwise using with standard GI-MMF.

The potential drawback of the proposed approach might be however in stricter requirements for launching conditions and microbend environment. Inappropriate direct launch by source, bad splice or bad connector might lead to the excitation of modes having high DMD that can lead to system bandwidth degradation. Similarly, the system bandwidth might be degraded by pronounced microbend events, like for example local, strong lateral depression of optical cable.

The proposed concept overcomes limitations imposed by the bend loss sensitivity of standard MMFs and allows the use of cost-effective multimode transmission systems in constrained spaces and similar applications requiring tight fiber bending.

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Borut Lenardic from OptaCore d.o.o. for producing an experimental BRF prototype and to Marko Kezmah for his help during BRF testing.

References and Links

1.

D. Marcuse, “Curvature loss formula for optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216–220 ( 1976). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Marcuse, “Field deformation and loss caused by curvature of optical fibres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 311–320 ( 1976). [CrossRef]

3.

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, and R. A. Sammut, “Measurement of radiation loss in curved singlemode fibres,” Microwaves, Opt. Acoust. 2, 134–140 ( 1978). [CrossRef]

4.

E. G. Neumann and W. Richter, “Sharp bends with low losses in dielectric optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1016–1022 ( 1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, “Bend Loss Measurements on High Numerical Aperture Single-Mode Fibres as a Function of Wavelength and Bend Radius,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34–40 ( 1986). [CrossRef]

6.

R. C. Gauthier and C. Ross, “Theoretical and experimental consideration for single-mode fibre optic bend-type sensors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6264–6273 ( 1997). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Faustini and G. Martini, “Bend loss in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671–679 ( 1997). [CrossRef]

8.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standard telecommunication fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3911–3913 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

9.

N. Healy and C. D. Hussey, “Minimizing bend loss by removing material inside the caustic in bent single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4219–4222 ( 2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. B. Ren, P. Shum, P, L. R. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, “Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2560–2562 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

11.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, Y. S. Yoon, Y. S. Lee, and W. T. Han, “Design of a trenched bend insensitive single mode optical fiber using spot size definitions,, Opt. Express 16, 13545–13551 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. Gloge, “Bending Loss in Multimode Fibers with Graded and Ungraded Core Index,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2506–2513 ( 1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Y. Loke and J. N. McMullin, “Simulation and measurement of radiation loss at multimode fiber macrobends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1250–1256 ( 1990). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Skorobogatiy, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial coupled mode theory for the evaluation of macro-bending loss in multimode fibers. application to the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 14945–14953 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

G. Ning, T. Katsuhiro, I. Katsuaki, A. Kazuhiko, and H. Kuniharu, “Hole-assisted holey fiber and low bending loss multimode holey fiber,” US Patent. 7,292,762 ( 2007).

17.

K. Yasushi, T. Katsuhiro, and H. Kuniharu, “Low bending loss multimode fiber,” JP Patent Appl. Publ. JP2006047719 ( 2006).

18.

http://www.corning.com/opticalfiber/products/clearcurve_multimode_fiber.aspx

19.

D. Marcuse, “Derivation of Coupled Power Equations,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229–237, ( 1972).

20.

D. Marcuse, “Coupled Mode Theory of Round Optical Fiber,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 817–842 ( 1973).

21.

R. Olshansky, “Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 14, 935–945 ( 1975). [PubMed]

22.

N. Lagakos, J. H. Cole, and J. A. Bucaro, “Microbend fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2171–2180 ( 1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Microbend sensor structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1856–1868 ( 1999). [CrossRef]

24.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Propagation of the fundamental mode in curved graded index multimode fiber and its application in sensor systems”, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 334–342 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

25.

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, and P. Pleunis “Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-um multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1256–1275 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

26.

P. Pepeljugoski, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, and A. Risteski, “Modeling and simulation of next-generation multimode fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1242–1255 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

27.

D. Donlagic, “Opportunities to enhance multimode fiber links by application of overfilled launch, Journal of Lightwave Technology,” 23, 2526–3540 ( 2005).

28.

“Encircled Flux Testing,” Advanced Optical Components (Finisra), Internal Technical Report, 8/29/2000.

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 9, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 7, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 25, 2009
Published: November 18, 2009

Citation
Denis Donlagic, "A Low Bending Loss Multimode Fiber Transmission System," Opt. Express 17, 22081-22095 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-22081


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References

  1. D. Marcuse, "Curvature loss formula for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216-220 (1976). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Marcuse, "Field deformation and loss caused by curvature of optical fibres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 311-320 (1976). [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, and R. A. Sammut, "Measurement of radiation loss in curved singlemode fibres," Microwaves, Opt. Acoust. 2, 134-140 (1978). [CrossRef]
  4. E. G. Neumann and W. Richter, "Sharp bends with low losses in dielectric optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 22, 1016-1022 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend Loss Measurements on High Numerical Aperture Single-Mode Fibres as a Function of Wavelength and Bend Radius," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34-40 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. Gauthier and C. Ross, "Theoretical and experimental consideration for single-mode fibre optic bend-type sensors," Appl. Opt. 36, 6264-6273 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Faustini and G. Martini, "Bend loss in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 671-679 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standard telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77,3911-3913 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Healy and C. D. Hussey, "Minimizing bend loss by removing material inside the caustic in bent single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 45, 4219-4222 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. B. Ren, P. Shum P, L. R. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, and J. Luo, "Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2560-2562 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, "Bend loss in structured optical fibres," Opt. Express 15,17639-17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, Y. S. Yoon, Y. S. Lee, and W. T. Han, "Design of a trenched bend insensitive single mode optical fiber using spot size definitions, Opt. Express 16, 13545-13551 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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