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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 24 — Nov. 23, 2009
  • pp: 22260–22270
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Reduction of chromatic dispersion due to coupling for synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using multiple-input arrayed waveguide grating

Koichi Maru and Yusaku Fujii  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 24, pp. 22260-22270 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.022260


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Abstract

An approach to reducing the chromatic dispersion due to coupling between input waveguides before the input slab for a synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using a multiple-input arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is proposed. The proposed method uses phase compensation at the waveguide array of the AWG by correction of waveguide lengths. The characteristics of the flat-passband filter that consists of a multiple-input AWG combined with cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) are simulated using a theoretical model of the multiple-input AWG based on Fourier optics and the coupled-mode theory. The simulation result reveals that the chromatic dispersion within the passband can be significantly reduced by using phase compensation and additional dummy waveguides at the input just before the slab.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

In metropolitan and access area wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks, multi/demultiplexers should have a flat and wide spectral response to allow the concatenation of many filters. Various techniques have been proposed to flatten the passband of multi/demultiplexers [1

1. K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 43–45 ( 1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, and L. L. Buhl, “Wideband arrayed waveguide grating with three low-loss maxima per passband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2308–2310 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

] in the last decade. The techniques can be basically divided in two types, i.e. obtaining a rectangular focusing field profile or combining two synchronized routers. The latter type using a combination of two synchronized routers [4

4. C. Dragone, “Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(10), 1895–1906 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

,5

5. G. H. B. Thompson, R. Epworth, C. Rogers, S. Day, and S. Ojha, “An original low-loss and pass-band flattened SiO2 on Si planar wavelength demultiplexer,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’98), p. 77.

,8

8. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 56–58 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

13

13. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, and L. L. Buhl, “Wideband arrayed waveguide grating with three low-loss maxima per passband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2308–2310 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

] is a promising approach to obtain low-loss and wide-passband characteristics. Synchronized-router-based filters using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) or a three-arm interferometer for the input of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) have been reported [8

8. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 56–58 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

,12

12. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, and L. T. Gomez, “Low-loss rectangular-passband multiplexer consisting of a waveguide grating router synchronized to a three-arm interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2334–2336 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

,13

13. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, and L. L. Buhl, “Wideband arrayed waveguide grating with three low-loss maxima per passband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2308–2310 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

] to obtain low-loss and wide-passband in a small chip. To analyze the performance of synchronized routers efficiently and comprehensively, we have developed a theoretical model of a multiple-input AWG [14

14. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Modeling of multi-input arrayed waveguide grating and its application to design of flat-passband response using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 544–555 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

,15

15. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Flat-passband arrayed waveguide grating employing cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of 11th Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC2006), 5B2–5.

] by extending the model based on Fourier optics [16

16. C. Dragone, “Efficient N x N star couplers using Fourier optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(3), 479–489 ( 1989). [CrossRef]

18

18. P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, and J. Capmany, “Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(4), 661–674 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

]. We have also demonstrated a flat-passband multi/demultiplexer that consists of a multiple-input AWG combined with a cascaded MZI structure as an input router with steep passband and small intrinsic loss [19

19. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2187–2197 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

,20

20. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Super-high-Δ silica-based flat-passband filter using AWG and cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of 12th Optoelectronics and Communications Conf./16th International Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC2007), 12E4–3.

].

Meanwhile, small chromatic dispersion as well as low-loss and wide-passband is desirable for typical filter applications, especially for high bit-rate transmission systems. We found that if the input waveguides just before the input slab have narrower core and gap widths, then this is better in terms of insertion loss [14

14. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Modeling of multi-input arrayed waveguide grating and its application to design of flat-passband response using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 544–555 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

,19

19. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2187–2197 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

]. However, narrower core and gap widths lead to larger coupling between the input waveguides, which can affect the amplitude and phase characteristics of the circuit. The coupling can cause the increase of chromatic dispersion due to the phase shift in coupled light.

In this paper, we propose an approach to reducing the chromatic dispersion of a synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using a multiple-input AWG by phase compensation at the waveguide array of the AWG. Doerr et al. [21

21. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, A. Paunescu, E. Laskowski, L. Buhl, H. K. Kim, and S. Chandrasekhar, “An automatic 40-wavelength channelized equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1195–1197 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

] have reported the improvement of the port-to-port passband shape for the dynamic gain equalizer by appropriately changing the length of waveguides in the array. We apply the similar method to reducing the chromatic dispersion due to coupling between input waveguides before the input slab for flat-passband filter using a multiple-input AWG. In this paper, the principle of the phase compensation for the optical circuit consisting of a multiple-input AWG combined with a cascaded MZI structure is described and its characteristics are simulated using a theoretical model of the multiple-input AWG based on Fourier optics and the coupled-mode theory.

2. Principle

2.1 Structure

The optical circuit of a flat-passband filter that consists of a multiple-input AWG combined with a cascaded MZI structure is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical circuit of flat-passband filter consisting of multiple-input AWG combined with cascaded MZI structure.
. It consists of a multiple-input AWG with a free spectral range (FSR) of ΔfFSR and a cascaded MZI structure [22

22. N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 ( 1988). [CrossRef]

24

24. C. K. Madsen, and J. H. Zhao, Optical filter design and analysis (John Willey & Sons, New York, 1999), pp. 171–177.

] connected to the AWG input waveguides. The multiple-input AWG has M input waveguides and a waveguide array consisting of 2I + 1 waveguides. Here, the length of the waveguides in the waveguide array is slightly changed for phase compensation from the normal design.

2.2 Phase compensation

Suppose there is uniform coupling to only adjacent input waveguides and the relative amplitude of coupled light is δ. The field distribution at the edge of the input slab illuminated by the m-th output of the cascaded MZI structure is expressed as
uin(xxm)=jδuino(xxm+Δx)+χuino(xxm)jδuino(xxmΔx),
(1)
where uoin(x) is the mode field without coupling, xm is the position of the m-th input waveguide along the edge of the input slab, Δx is the constant interval between two adjacent input waveguides, and χ is the relative amplitude of path-through light.

Here, the length of the i-th waveguide (IiI) in the waveguide array is slightly changed from the normal design of the AWG by li for phase compensation as
Li=L0iΔL+li,
(2)
where ΔL is the constant difference in length between adjacent waveguides in the array and L 0 is the length of the 0th waveguide without phase compensation. The phase delay of the i-th waveguide for phase compensation, θi, is expressed as
θi=2πnaliλ0,
(3)
where na is the effective refractive index of the waveguides in the array and λ 0 is the central wavelength. Here, the contribution of the phase compensation Θ(y) is defined as
Θ(y)=i=ejθiej2πiyΔy,
(4)
where Δy is defined as Δy = λ 0 z/(nsd) and ns is the effective refractive index of the slab waveguide.

Equation (10) is based on the assumption that all the input waveguides to the input slab have two adjacent waveguides. It implies that dummy waveguides are needed on both sides of input waveguides for entire compensation. The characteristics of the structure with dummy waveguides, as well as those without dummy waveguides, will be discussed in Section 4.

3. Model for coupling before input slab

When dummy waveguides are used on both sides of the input waveguides, the amplitude at the interface to the input slab after coupling is expressed as
[E(x1;f)E(x0;f)E(xM1;f)E(xM;f)]=T[E(x0;f)E(x1;f)E(xM1;f)],
(17)
where x -1 and xM are the positions of the dummy waveguides along the edge of the input slab. In this case, the dimension of the transfer matrix T becomes (M + 2) x M. When κL is assumed to be as small as that in the derivation of Eq. (16), the transfer matrix T for M = 4 with the dummy waveguides is given by

T=ejβL[jκL0001jκL00jκL1jκL00jκL1jκL00jκL1000jκL].
(18)

4. Simulation results and discussion

Design parameters for the simulation are summarized in Table 1

Table 1. Design parameters

table-icon
View This Table
. We set the simulation parameters for good performance in terms of flatness, minimum transmittance and crosstalk from the numerical analysis [14

14. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Modeling of multi-input arrayed waveguide grating and its application to design of flat-passband response using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 544–555 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

]. Here, 2IP + 1 is defined as the number of waveguides in an array perfectly occupies one Brillouin zone [28

28. C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic wavelength equalizer in silica using the single-filtered-arm interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 581–583 ( 1999). [CrossRef]

,29

29. I. Kaminow, and T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVA (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002), pp. 424–427.

] as
2IP+1=ΔyΔx.
(19)
For simplicity, we treat only fundamental modes with Gaussian approximation as input and output modes uoin(y) and uout(y) as
uino(y)uout(y)=ηe(ywu)2,
(20)
where wu is the spot size and η is the coupling efficiency between uoin(y) and uout(y).

We calculated the characteristics with phase compensation. The phase delay for the phase compensation, calculated from Eq. (11), is plotted in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase delay for phase compensation calculated from Eq. (11).
. The peak-to-peak values of the phase delay of 0.79 and 1.52 rad for κL = 0.2 and 0.4 correspond to the changes in the optical path lengths of about 0.19 and 0.38 μm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, respectively. It implies that the fabrication resolution in optical path length of the order of a few tens of nanometers would be required. The transmittance and chromatic dispersion of the flat-passband filters with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.2 and 0.4 are plotted in Figs. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated performance for structures with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.2. (a) Spectral response and (b) chromatic dispersion.
and 5
Fig. 5 Calculated performance for structures with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.4. (a) Spectral response and (b) chromatic dispersion.
. The chromatic dispersion within the passband can be significantly reduced by using phase compensation. The chromatic dispersion within the passband of ± 0.35 x ΔfMZI becomes –9.4 to 0.5 ps/nm by using phase compensation, whereas that is –19.7 to 5.4 ps/nm without phase compensation when κL = 0.2. The chromatic dispersion near the edge of the passband is still larger than that around the center of the passband. This is because the coupling is asymmetrical when the light mainly propagates either side of the four input waveguides (i.e., the 0th or 3rd waveguide) and it leads to the deviation of the phase distortion from the compensated values. The amount of chromatic dispersion below 10 ps/nm may be allowable for some applications such as point-to-point communications with a bit rate below 10 Gb/s. However, when the filter is used for applications in which many multi/demultiplexers are cascaded (e.g., optical cross-connect), this amount of chromatic dispersion may be not allowable, especially, for high bit-rate signals such as 40 Gb/s.

To further reduce the chromatic dispersion near the edge of the passband, we also investigated the structure in which additional dummy waveguides on both sides of four input waveguides were arranged just before the slab as shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Input waveguide structure with dummy waveguides before input slab.
. The transmittance and chromatic dispersion of the flat-passband filters with the dummy input waveguides with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.2 and 0.4 are plotted in Figs. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated performance for structures with dummy waveguides with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.2. (a) Spectral response and (b) chromatic dispersion.
and 8
Fig. 8 Calculated performance for structures with dummy waveguides with and without phase compensation for κL = 0.4. (a) Spectral response and (b) chromatic dispersion.
. Compared with the result in Figs. 4 and 5, the chromatic dispersion around the edge of the passband can be further reduced to –0.3 to 0.1 ps/nm by using the additional dummy waveguides when κL = 0.2.

In the simulation, we considered the coupling between parallel and identical input waveguides for simplicity. Actually, the use of the waveguides with varying distance as shown in Fig. 6 is inevitable. Nevertheless, the chromatic dispersion would be reduced also for the structure using input waveguides with varying distance by taking the varying distance into account in simulating the chromatic dispersion and optimizing the parameters δ and χ in Eq. (11) as far as the coupling at this portion is small.

In some cases, phase errors induced by fabrication imperfections also become an issue. The amount of phase errors arising from fabrication imperfections depends on the fabrication process to be used. The proposed method using correction of waveguide lengths would be effective for the fabrication process in which small phase errors arising from fabrication imperfection are expected, such as silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. The distortion in phase delay due to coupling would also be compensated by changing optical path lengths in the waveguide array in post-fabrication process using ultraviolet irradiation [30

30. K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Abe, T. Yanagisawa, M. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, “Beam-adjustment-free crosstalk reduction in a 10 GHz-spaced arrayed-waveguide grating via photosensitivity under UV laser irradiation through metal mask,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 60–61 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

], instead of changing predetermined waveguide lengths. The optical-path-length compensation in the post-fabrication process would be applicable to compensating for both phase errors arising from fabrication imperfections and the phase distortion due to coupling if the phase errors due to fabrication imperfections are large.

5. Conclusion

An approach to reducing the chromatic dispersion due to coupling between input waveguides before the input slab for a synchronized-router-based flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using a multiple-input AWG has been proposed. The proposed method uses phase compensation at the array by correction of waveguide lengths. The principle of the phase compensation for the optical circuit consisting of a multiple-input AWG combined with a cascaded MZI structure is described and its characteristics are simulated. The chromatic dispersion within the passband of ± 0.35 x ΔfMZI can be significantly reduced to –9.4 to 0.5 ps/nm by using phase compensation, whereas that is –19.7 to 5.4 ps/nm without phase compensation when κL = 0.2. The chromatic dispersion can be further reduced to –0.3 to 0.1 ps/nm by using additional dummy waveguides.

Acknowledgment

This work in part was supported by a research-aid fund of the Foundation for Technology Promotion of Electronic Circuit Board, a research-aid fund of the Suzuki Foundation and a research-aid fund of the Asahi Glass Foundation.

References and links

1.

K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 43–45 ( 1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 ( 1996). [CrossRef]

3.

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 ( 1996). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Dragone, “Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(10), 1895–1906 ( 1998). [CrossRef]

5.

G. H. B. Thompson, R. Epworth, C. Rogers, S. Day, and S. Ojha, “An original low-loss and pass-band flattened SiO2 on Si planar wavelength demultiplexer,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’98), p. 77.

6.

T. Kamalakis and T. Sphicopoulos, “An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1716–1725 ( 2001). [CrossRef]

7.

J.-J. He, “Phase-dithered waveguide grating with flat passband and sharp transitions,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1186–1193 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

8.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 56–58 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Kohtoku, H. Takahashi, I. Kitoh, I. Shibata, Y. Inoue, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings realised by first-order mode assistance method,” Electron. Lett. 38(15), 792–794 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Dragone, “Theory of wavelength multiplexing with rectangular transfer functions,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1168–1178 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

11.

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, and L. W. Stulz, “Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1088–1090 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

12.

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, and L. T. Gomez, “Low-loss rectangular-passband multiplexer consisting of a waveguide grating router synchronized to a three-arm interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2334–2336 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

13.

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, and L. L. Buhl, “Wideband arrayed waveguide grating with three low-loss maxima per passband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2308–2310 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Modeling of multi-input arrayed waveguide grating and its application to design of flat-passband response using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 544–555 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Flat-passband arrayed waveguide grating employing cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of 11th Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC2006), 5B2–5.

16.

C. Dragone, “Efficient N x N star couplers using Fourier optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(3), 479–489 ( 1989). [CrossRef]

17.

H. Takenouchi, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Analysis of optical-signal processing using an arrayed-waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 6(6), 124–135 ( 2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, and J. Capmany, “Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(4), 661–674 ( 2002). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 2187–2197 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, and H. Uetsuka, “Super-high-Δ silica-based flat-passband filter using AWG and cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of 12th Optoelectronics and Communications Conf./16th International Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC2007), 12E4–3.

21.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, A. Paunescu, E. Laskowski, L. Buhl, H. K. Kim, and S. Chandrasekhar, “An automatic 40-wavelength channelized equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1195–1197 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

22.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 ( 1988). [CrossRef]

23.

B. H. Verbeek, C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, K. J. Orlowsky, R. F. Kazarinov, and B. H. Johnson, “Integrated four-channel Mach-Zehnder multi/demultiplexer fabricated with phosphorous doped SiO2 waveguides on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(6), 1011–1015 ( 1988). [CrossRef]

24.

C. K. Madsen, and J. H. Zhao, Optical filter design and analysis (John Willey & Sons, New York, 1999), pp. 171–177.

25.

H. Dym, and H. P. McKean, Fourier series and integrals (Academic Press, New York, 1972), Chap. 1, pp. 31–32.

26.

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 ( 1973). [CrossRef]

27.

E. Kapon, J. Katz, and A. Yariv, “Supermode analysis of phase-locked arrays of semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 9(4), 125–127 ( 1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic wavelength equalizer in silica using the single-filtered-arm interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 581–583 ( 1999). [CrossRef]

29.

I. Kaminow, and T. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVA (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002), pp. 424–427.

30.

K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Abe, T. Yanagisawa, M. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, “Beam-adjustment-free crosstalk reduction in a 10 GHz-spaced arrayed-waveguide grating via photosensitivity under UV laser irradiation through metal mask,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 60–61 ( 2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(080.1238) Geometric optics : Array waveguide devices
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides
(130.7408) Integrated optics : Wavelength filtering devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 5, 2009
Revised Manuscript: November 6, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: November 17, 2009
Published: November 20, 2009

Citation
Koichi Maru and Yusaku Fujii, "Reduction of chromatic dispersion due to coupling for synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using multiple-input arrayed waveguide grating," Opt. Express 17, 22260-22270 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-22260


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References

  1. K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 43–45 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Dragone, “Efficient techniques for widening the passband of a wavelength router,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(10), 1895–1906 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. G. H. B. Thompson, R. Epworth, C. Rogers, S. Day, and S. Ojha, “An original low-loss and pass-band flattened SiO2 on Si planar wavelength demultiplexer,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC ’98), p. 77.
  6. T. Kamalakis and T. Sphicopoulos, “An efficient technique for the design of an arrayed-waveguide grating with flat spectral response,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1716–1725 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-J. He, “Phase-dithered waveguide grating with flat passband and sharp transitions,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1186–1193 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, and S. Shunk, “Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 56–58 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kohtoku, H. Takahashi, I. Kitoh, I. Shibata, Y. Inoue, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings realised by first-order mode assistance method,” Electron. Lett. 38(15), 792–794 (2002). [CrossRef]
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