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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 25 — Dec. 7, 2009
  • pp: 23344–23349
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High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser

Angela Pirri, Daniele Alderighi, Guido Toci, and Matteo Vannini  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 25, pp. 23344-23349 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.023344


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Abstract

We present a high-power, high-efficiency and low threshold laser prototype based on doped ceramic Yb3+:YAG. We achieved an output power of 9 W with a slope efficiency of 73% and a threshold of 1 W at 1030 nm in quasi-Continuous Wave (QCW). Moreover, we obtained an output power 7.7 W with a slope efficiency of 60% in Continuous Wave (CW). Finally, a characterization of a low losses tunable cavity for several laser wavelengths with an output power exceeding 5 W is reported.

© 2009 OSA

1. Introduction

Since 2003 when the first laser oscillations was demonstrated [9

9. K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, A. Skirakawa, K. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, “Yb3+doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics a new solid-state laser material,” Phys. Status Solid A 200(1), R5–R7 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

], several relevant experimental results have been obtained with ytterbium doped ceramics such as Y2O3 [10

10. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 1–3 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

,11

11. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, C. C. Chan, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “High-efficiency 1040 and 1078 nm laser emission of a Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with 976 nm diode pumping,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 247–249 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Lu2O3 [12

12. M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, S. Hosokawa, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 65 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb(3+):Lu(2)O(3) and nondoped Y(2)O(3) combined ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1380–1382 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or YAG. To focus on YAG ceramic, with a transversely pumped, composite microchip laser, Tsunekane et. al [13

13. M. Tsunekane and T. Taira, “High-power operation of diode edge-pumped, composite all-ceramic Yb:Y3Al5O12 microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121101–121103 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

] have been achieved a power level of 520 W in QCW operation and 414 W in CW operation, at fixed wavelength. Concerning the longitudinally pumped, Nakamura et al. [14

14. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Efficient tunable Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4411–4414 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

] have been obtained an output power of 6.8 W with a slope efficiency of 72%. Until now, the largest tuning range reported in literature spans from 990 to 1110 nm, with a maximum output power of 163 mW at 1033.42 nm [15

15. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Broadly Tunable Yb3+-Doped Y3Al5O12 Ceramic Laser at Room Temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 1–3 ( 2009). [CrossRef]

]. With regard to the generation of short pulses, 237 ps of pulse duration was achieved from Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip ceramic laser [16

16. J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Composite Yb:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14516–14523 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] while the shortest pulse, that is 286 fs at 1033.5 nm [17

17. H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Okawa, and S. Wada, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8919–8925 ( 2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], was reached so far with a mode-locked oscillator.

This paper is devoted to explore the overall potentiality of a laser prototype based on a 9.8% doped ceramic Yb3+:YAG pumping in QCW and in CW operation mode at room temperature. Moreover an in-depth characterization of a low losses tunable cavity was carried out. The effects on the laser performance due to the thermally-induced load by the laser pump are studied by setting different Duty Factors (DF). We performed systematic measurements of the ceramic absorption dependence on the pump intensity, whose knowledge allows for an unambiguous definition of the slope efficiency. Finally, we have explored the tunability range of the gain medium.

2. Experimental set-up

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the experimental set-up. EM: end mirror (flat); FM: folding mirror (ROC=150 mm); OC: output coupling grating at the Littrow angle; C denotes the crystal. The untunable cavity is obtained by substituting the grating with a flat output coupler mirror.
shows the experimental setup. The laser cavity is V-shaped with a folding half angle of 10° and with an arm length of 78 mm between the high reflectivity end-mirror (EM) and the folding mirror (FM), while the distance between the mirror FM and the output coupler (OC) is 540 mm, setting the cavity within the stability limit. The FM curvature radius is 150 mm while several flat OC, with a transmission ranging from 1.5% to 20%, are used. To remove the heat due to pump beam, the 2-mm uncoated ceramic sample (9.8% at.) is brazed with Indium on a copper heat sink, which is cooled by a Peltier device at 18°C. The gain material is longitudinally pumped by a fiber coupled laser diode emitting at 940 nm.

The fiber has 200 μm core diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.22. The focused pump beam inside the sample has an almost Gaussian intensity distribution with 150 μm of radius at 1/e2. The laser was tuned by replacing the output coupler by a gold coated ruled grating (1800 grooves/mm) used at the Littrow’s angle. The zeroth-order (m=0) was used for the output coupling, while the first order (m=1) provided the feedback to the cavity. The wavelength selection action was provided by the superimposition of the diffracted beam with the pumped area in the sample, without any further limiting aperture into the cavity.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Grating efficiency curve for the TM polarization. At 1030 nm the diffraction efficiency is 85.8% (m=1) and 5.9% (m=0) while at 1050 nm the efficiency is 84.5% (m=1) and 8.8% (m=0).
reports the measured grating efficiency for the TM polarization at the zeroth and the first-order. The measured losses due to the absorption and scattering are around 5%. The incidence angle ranges from 63.0° at 990 nm to 74.4° at 1070 nm. The emission wavelength was measured with a fiber coupled, 60 cm focal length spectrometer equipped with a multichannel detector (spectral resolution of 0.4 nm).

3. Experimental results

We have measured the output power as a function of the absorbed pump power (Pabs) in quasi-Continuous Wave and in Continuous Wave for three output couplers with a transmission spanning from T=1.5% to T=20%, see Fig. 3(a)-(b)
Fig. 3 Slope efficiency obtained in QCW (a) and CW (b), with different output coupler mirrors.
.

The shift of the laser wavelength, i.e. from 1030 nm to 1050 nm, observed when a mirror with a lower transmittance is used, independently on the pumping operation mode, is due to the Ytterbium quasi three-level system behavior. For increasing losses, the increased inversion population fraction needed to reach the lasing threshold determines a shift toward shorter wavelengths in the peak of the effective gain spectrum [18

18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 ( 1999). [CrossRef]

].

The slope efficiency here reported, were estimated by taking into account the absorption from the gain material under lasing condition. This was carried out by measuring the residual pump power when the laser was active or switched off. For this purpose, the cavity was rearranged by adding a flat auxiliary mirror between the FM and OC, with high reflectivity over the whole laser emission band and with high transmission around 940 nm. The residual pump emission transmitted by the auxiliary mirror was collected by a power-meter placed behind it. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Fraction of absorbed pump power from the ceramic. The output coupler is T=1.5%.
reports the fraction of the absorbed pump power (ABS) as a function of the pump power (Pp) by using the output coupler with a transmission of 1.5%. Measurements performed by employing other OC show similar trends. According to the theory [19

19. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal Lensing in Diode-Pumped Ytterbium Lasers—Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

], in non-lasing conditions the absorption of the ceramic decreases from 76% to 64% when the pump power increases from 1.4 W to 21 W, due to the saturation of the absorption at the pump wavelength. A less pronounced decrease of the absorption (about 3% with respect to the low pump power level) is expected across the same pump power interval when the laser is active, because of fast recycling of the population from the upper laser level to the lower level due to the stimulated emission. In the measurements shown here, a further increase of the absorption (up to a level slightly higher than the unsaturated absorption) at the highest pump power levels, is due to a small shift in the emission wavelength of the pump laser (i.e. 4 nm in the used pump power range). Solid curve represents the theoretical result which takes into account all experimental conditions, including the pump wavelength shift.

The sample heating determined by the absorption of the pump power can significantly influence the laser performance in terms of a decrease of the output power and deterioration of the beam quality; this results from an interplay of several thermo-mechanical effects, such as a thermal lens effect into the sample, the absorption at the laser wavelength and a decrease of the thermal conductibility of the ceramic. We probed these effects by measuring the behavior of the laser output power in CW and in QCW pump condition with DF of 20%. We have found that the laser behavior, both in terms of the output power and laser threshold, is almost unaffected as it can be seen by comparing the graphs reported in Fig. 3 (a) and 3 (b). The measured threshold was 1 W.

The usefulness of a laser system in different physical applications, from spectroscopy to pollution monitoring, is strictly connected to the possibility to buildup a high-efficient and high-power tunable cavity. As described above, the tunable cavity was built up by substituting the flat output coupler by a gold coated ruled grating (1800 grooves/mm) placed at the Littrow angle (see Fig. 2). We obtained a tuning range as wide as 67 nm, see Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Tuning curve obtained by means of a Littrow-grating-mount as output coupler.
, with a peak output power slightly exceeding 5 W. The laser line width is about 1.4 nm across the whole tuning range. The output beam was found linearly polarized along the grating TM polarization direction.

We have further characterized the laser performance with the grating tuned cavity by measuring the output power at several wavelengths as a function of the absorbed pump power in CW and QCW (DF 20%). Figure 6(a)-(b)
Fig. 6 Laser peak power as a function of the absorbed pump power with a Littrow-grating-mount as output coupler in QCW (a) and in CW (b) operation mode.
report the results obtained at four selected wavelengths, 1016 nm, 1030 nm, 1050 nm and 1055 nm.

The maximum output power of 4.7 and 5.1 W was found in the correspondence of the two main emission peaks, i.e. 1030 nm and 1050 nm, in QCW. The slope efficiency is 33% and 36% respectively. A high-efficiency laser emission is also obtained in CW where output power values of 4.5 W and 3.7 W were found. Finally, output power values of 2.1 W and 3.4 W with a slope efficiency of 16% and 25% were measured at 1016 nm and 1055 nm.

4. Conclusion

We present our recent achievements in the development of a laser prototype based on a 9.8% doped ceramic Yb3+:YAG pumped in QCW and CW operation mode at room temperature. The output power was investigated by using three output couplers with a transmission of Toc=1.5%, 12%, 20%. The maximum output power of 9 W with a slope efficiency of 73% at 1030 nm has been achieved in QCW while 7.7 W with a slope efficiency of 60% has been obtained in CW. The ceramic absorption dependence on the pump intensity, which knowledge allows for an unambiguous definition of the slope efficiency, was measured under lasing condition. Moreover, we have investigated the influence of the thermally-induced population and the thermal lens effect on the laser performance, by setting different duty factor. In CW or QCW pumping regimes, the slope efficiency results almost independent from the thermal load, while the threshold is completely independent from it. Finally, we report a systematic characterization of a low losses tunable cavity at four different laser emission, i.e. 1016 nm, 1030 nm, 1050 nm, 1055 nm, and the overall tunability range of the gain medium. Further improvements in laser performances can be expected by using an antireflection coated ceramic.

Acknowledgements

This research has been partially supported by the project “ICT-ONE: Sistema integrato su piattaforma ICT per l’alta formazione, la ricerca e l’innovazione industriale nei settori Ottica, Nanotecnologie ed Energia”, funded by Regione Toscana under the program P.O.R. Ob. 3 Toscana 2000/2006. It was also supported by the project “Ricerca Spontanea a Tema Libero (RSTL) ID 959 CNR”.

References and links

1.

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 ( 2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

U. Griebner, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, M. Weyers, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Passively mode-locked Yb:KLu(WO4)2 oscillators,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3465–3470 ( 2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

V. E. Kisel, N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morrier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Spectroscopy and femtosecond laser performance of Yb3+:Gd0.64Y0.36VO crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 581–584 ( 2006). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Vannini, G. Toci, D. Alderighi, D. Parisi, F. Cornacchia, and M. Tonelli, “High efficiency room temperature laser emission in heavily doped Yb:YLF,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7994–8002 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. Coluccelli, G. Galzerano, L. Bonelli, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:YLF laser,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2922–2927 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Dong, P. Deng, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Chen, and X. Xie, “Passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4303–4307 ( 2001). [CrossRef]

7.

G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, M. P. Kullberg, M. Graf, M. Moser, E. Mix, G. Huber, C. Harder, and U. Keller, “A passively Q-switched Yb:YAG microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 285–287 ( 2001).

8.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gainutdinov, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakava, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Microhardness and Fracture Toughness of Y2O3- and Y3Al5O12-Based Nanocrystalline Laser Ceramics,” Crystallogr. Rep. 50(5), 869–873 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, A. Skirakawa, K. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, “Yb3+doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics a new solid-state laser material,” Phys. Status Solid A 200(1), R5–R7 ( 2003). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 1–3 ( 2005). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, C. C. Chan, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “High-efficiency 1040 and 1078 nm laser emission of a Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with 976 nm diode pumping,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 247–249 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, S. Hosokawa, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 65 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb(3+):Lu(2)O(3) and nondoped Y(2)O(3) combined ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1380–1382 ( 2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Tsunekane and T. Taira, “High-power operation of diode edge-pumped, composite all-ceramic Yb:Y3Al5O12 microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121101–121103 ( 2007). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Efficient tunable Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4411–4414 ( 2008). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Broadly Tunable Yb3+-Doped Y3Al5O12 Ceramic Laser at Room Temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 1–3 ( 2009). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Composite Yb:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14516–14523 ( 2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Okawa, and S. Wada, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8919–8925 ( 2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 ( 1999). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal Lensing in Diode-Pumped Ytterbium Lasers—Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 ( 2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: September 16, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 22, 2009
Published: December 4, 2009

Citation
Angela Pirri, Daniele Alderighi, Guido Toci, and Matteo Vannini, "High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser," Opt. Express 17, 23344-23349 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-23344


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References

  1. A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Griebner, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, M. Weyers, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, “Passively mode-locked Yb:KLu(WO4)2 oscillators,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3465–3470 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. E. Kisel, N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, M. I. Kupchenko, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morrier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Spectroscopy and femtosecond laser performance of Yb3+:Gd0.64Y0.36VO crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 581–584 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Vannini, G. Toci, D. Alderighi, D. Parisi, F. Cornacchia, and M. Tonelli, “High efficiency room temperature laser emission in heavily doped Yb:YLF,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7994–8002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Coluccelli, G. Galzerano, L. Bonelli, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:YLF laser,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2922–2927 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Dong, P. Deng, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Chen, and X. Xie, “Passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser with Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4303–4307 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Spühler, R. Paschotta, M. P. Kullberg, M. Graf, M. Moser, E. Mix, G. Huber, C. Harder, and U. Keller, “A passively Q-switched Yb:YAG microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 285–287 (2001).
  8. A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, R. V. Gainutdinov, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakava, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Microhardness and Fracture Toughness of Y2O3- and Y3Al5O12-Based Nanocrystalline Laser Ceramics,” Crystallogr. Rep. 50(5), 869–873 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, A. Skirakawa, K. Ueda, and T. Yanagitani, “Yb3+doped Y3Al5O12 ceramics a new solid-state laser material,” Phys. Status Solid A 200(1), R5–R7 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “9.2-W diode-end-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 1–3 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, C. C. Chan, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “High-efficiency 1040 and 1078 nm laser emission of a Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with 976 nm diode pumping,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 247–249 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, S. Hosokawa, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 65 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb(3+):Lu(2)O(3) and nondoped Y(2)O(3) combined ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1380–1382 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Tsunekane and T. Taira, “High-power operation of diode edge-pumped, composite all-ceramic Yb:Y3Al5O12 microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121101–121103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Efficient tunable Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4411–4414 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nakamura, H. Yoshioka, Y. Matsubara, T. Ogawa, and S. Wada, “Broadly Tunable Yb3+-Doped Y3Al5O12 Ceramic Laser at Room Temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 1–3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Dong, K. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Tagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Composite Yb:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics picosecond microchip lasers,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14516–14523 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Yoshioka, S. Nakamura, T. Okawa, and S. Wada, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8919–8925 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal Lensing in Diode-Pumped Ytterbium Lasers—Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Wavefront Measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

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