## Method for effectively utilizing tunable one-pump fiber parametric wavelength converters as an enabling device for WDM routers

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp. 1454-1465 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.001454

Acrobat PDF (320 KB)

### Abstract

In this paper a method is proposed to maximize the bandwidth of the WDM router based on one-pump fiber parametric wavelength converters. It is proved that for such converters there exists an optimum signal (idler) frequency at which the output (input) tuning range can be maximized. Analytical expressions of the optimum frequency and the maximal tuning range are deduced. Then a two-stage bidirectional wavelength conversion method is proposed. With this method the bandwidth of the WDM router based on such a converter can be significantly improved compared to the one-stage ones by 252% if ordinary highly nonlinear fibers are used or 390% if fibers with optimal fourth order dispersion are used.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

2. M. Westlund, H. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Transparent wavelength conversion in fibre with 24nm pump tuning range,” Electron. Lett. **38**, 85–86 (2002). [CrossRef]

8. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Wavelength conversion bandwidth in fiber based optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express **11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Systematic analysis of wavelength conversion in a fiber optical parametric device with a single, tunable pump,” Opt. Express **12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*λ*,

_{s}*λ*) space (

_{i}*λ*are the respective wavelengths of signal and idler), and the maximal bandwidth can be obtained by maximizing the side length the square [8

_{s,i}8. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Wavelength conversion bandwidth in fiber based optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express **11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Systematic analysis of wavelength conversion in a fiber optical parametric device with a single, tunable pump,” Opt. Express **12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Wavelength conversion bandwidth in fiber based optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express **11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. R. W. McKerracher, J. L. Blows, and C. M de Sterke, “Systematic analysis of wavelength conversion in a fiber optical parametric device with a single, tunable pump,” Opt. Express **12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Optimization theory

*κ*is given by

*P*

_{0}is pump power,

*γ*is the fiber nonlinear coefficient and the linear phase mismatch Δ

*β*is given by

*β*are the respective propagation constants of signal, idler and pump. For a tunable pump it is more convenient to expand

_{s,i,p}*β*in a Taylor series about the zero dispersion frequency

_{s,i,p}*ω*

_{0}than

*ω*. Considering up to the fourth order dispersion, Δ

_{p}*β*can be rewritten as [8

**11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*β*= (

_{m}*d*/

^{m}β*dω*)ω=ω

^{m}_{0}. Eqs. (1–3) show that exponential gain occurs while g is real. This is true when -4

*γ*

*P*

_{0}≤ Δ

*β*≤ 0. When Δ

*β*= -2

*γ*

*P*

_{0},

*G*=

*G*

_{max}= sinh

^{2}(

*γ*

*P*

_{0}

*L*). When Δ

*β*= -4

*γ*

*P*

_{0},0,

*G*=

*G*= (

_{c}*γ*

*P*

_{0}

*L*)

^{2}. From Eq. (5) Δ

*β*is a fourth order function of

*ω*. Thus the real solutions of equations Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) = 0, -4

_{p}*γ*

*P*

_{0}are called cutoff frequencies and

*G*is called cutoff gain [8

_{c}**11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*is equal to the cutoff frequency difference Δ

_{p}*ω*. Obviously the tuning range of 1P-FPWC with a fixed input wavelength is equal to 2Δ

_{p}*ω*, because

_{p}*ω*= 2

_{i}*ω*-

_{p}*ω*. Next we will discuss how to maximize Δ

_{s}*ω*. Note that for a fiber parametric amplifier signal tuning range with a fixed pump wavelength (amplification bandwidth) should be maximized instead. A well-known conclusion is that for a given pump power there exists an optimal pump wavelength at which the signal tuning range can be maximized [11

_{p}11. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T. K. Chiang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. **21**, 573–575 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. M. Yu and C. J. McKinstrie, “Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers,” Physical Review E , **52**, 1072–1080 (1995). [CrossRef]

*β*

_{4}is very small or the tuning range is limited, the effects of

*β*

_{4}can be neglected and Eq. (5) is simplified as

*β*(

*ω*) is a third order function of

_{p}*ω*with a S-type profile and two extrema occurring at

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) when

_{p}*ω*<

_{s}*ω*

_{0}and

*ω*>

_{s}*ω*

_{0}. As seen in Fig. 1, with the same pump power, Δ

*ω*is much larger when

_{p}*ω*<

_{s}*ω*

_{0}[13

13. T. Yamamoto and M. Nakazawa, “Highly efficient four-wave mixing in an optical fiber with intensity dependent phase matching,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. **9**, 327–329 (1997). [CrossRef]

*ω*<

_{s}*ω*

_{0}is taken as a premise in the following discussion. Considering a cutoff at Δ

*β*(

*ω*) = 0 , from Eq. (6), the cutoff frequencies are found to be

_{p}*ω*≈

_{p}*ω*

_{p2}-

*ω*

_{p1}=

*ω*

_{0}-

*ω*when Δ

_{s}*β*(

*ω*

_{e2})≥-4γ

*P*

_{0}. Because Δ

*β*(

*ω*

_{e2}) decreases with decreasing

*ω*and when Δ

_{s}*β*(

*ω*

_{e2}) becomes smaller than -4

*γ*

*P*

_{0}, the exponential gain region is broken into several narrower segments. Thus Δ

*ω*reaches its maximum when Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*

_{e2}) = -4

*γ*

*P*

_{0}. Solving Δ

*β*(

*ω*

_{e2}) = -4

*γ*

*P*

_{0}the optimum

*ω*is found to be

_{s}*ω*=

_{s}*ω*, from Eq. (6), the cutoff frequencies for Δ

^{opt}_{s}*β*(

*ω*) = -4

_{p}*γ*

*P*

_{0}are found to be

*ω*should be in the range of

_{p}*ω*for a fixed input wavelength equals

_{p}*β*

_{4}≠ 0, Δ

*β*is a fourth order function of

*ω*. Considering the cutoff at Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) = 0, cutoff frequencies are found to be

_{p}*ω*

_{p3,4}are real when

*ω*satisfies the following inequality

_{s}*β*

_{4}> 0, Δ

*β*(

*ω*) has a W-type profile as seen in Fig. 2. So if inequality (15) is not satisfied Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) ≥ 0. Thus Δ

_{p}*ω*= 0. Otherwise the outmost cutoff frequencies are determined by Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) = 0 and Δ

_{p}*ω*is found to be (see Appendix)

_{p}*ω*reaches its maximum

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) = -4

_{p}*γ*

*P*

_{0}, with

*ω*=

_{s}*ω*, the cutoff frequencies are found to be

^{opt}_{s}*β*

^{4}

_{3}-336

*P*

_{0}

*β*

^{3}

_{4}. If Φ ≥ 0,

*ω*

_{p5,6,7,8}are real and fall inside the range given by Eq. (19). In this case the exponential gain region is broken into several narrower segments as seen in Fig. 2(c). Thus to obtain the maximal Δ

*ω*, the following inequality must be satisfied,

_{p}*β*

_{4}takes the minimum (or optimum) value

*ω*

^{max}

_{p}reaches its global maximum value

*β*

_{4}< 0, Δ

*β*(

*ω*) has a M-type profile. The outmost cutoff frequencies are determined by Δ

_{p}*β*(

*ω*) = -4

_{p}*γ*

*P*

_{0}. Because this equation is an inhomogeneous one, simple analytical expressions of the outmost cutoff frequencies cannot be obtained. Nevertheless we can get the inexplicit expression as follows

*β*

_{4}/2)(

*ω*-

_{p}*ω*

_{0})

^{2}+

*β*

_{3}(

*ω*-

_{p}*ω*

_{0}). With Eqs. (24) and (14), we can easily draw the contours of the cutoff gain. From these contours, we can find the optimum signal frequency numerically. For example, Assuming

*λ*

_{0}= 1550nm,

*γ*= 0.02W

^{-1}m

^{-1},

*P*

_{0}= 0.5W,

*β*

_{4}= -2.58 × 10

^{-55}

*s*

^{4}

*m*

^{-1},

*β*

_{3}= 5.04 × 10

^{-41}

*s*

^{3}

*m*

^{-1}, we can get the contours as plotted in Fig. 3. The red and blue contours are obtained respectively from Eq. (14) and (24). Converts inside the gray region have exponential gain. Thus the optimum signal wavelength

*λ*corresponding to the maximal tuning is found to be 1572.5nm.

^{opt}_{s}2. M. Westlund, H. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Transparent wavelength conversion in fibre with 24nm pump tuning range,” Electron. Lett. **38**, 85–86 (2002). [CrossRef]

*γ*= 10

*W*

^{-1}

*km*

^{-1},

*λ*

_{0}= 1562.0nm and dispersion slope S=0.03

*ps*/

*nm*

^{2}/

*km*(

*β*

_{3}= 5.03 × 10

^{-41}

*s*

^{3}/

*m*). The other parameters are listed in Table 2. The blue lines in Fig. 4 (a) and (b) show the changes of Δ

*β*and G against pump wavelength

*λ*reported in Ref. [2

_{p}2. M. Westlund, H. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Transparent wavelength conversion in fibre with 24nm pump tuning range,” Electron. Lett. **38**, 85–86 (2002). [CrossRef]

*β*

_{4}= 0 is denoted as result1. To make the increase of pump tuning range more explicit

*λ*

_{0}is assumed to be 1535.5nm in order to align the tuning range before and after optimization. From Eq. (10), by setting

*λ*=

_{s}*λ*=1559.9nm, the tuning range increases 10nm with the same pump power and fiber length. Moreover the average gain increases 1.5dB, while the gain ripples drop by more than 2dB. The optimization result with optimal

^{opt}_{s}*β*

_{4}is denoted as result2. Here

*λ*

_{0}is assumed to be 1533.6nm to align the tuning range with that of result1. From Eqs. (18) and (22) by setting

*β*

_{4}=

*β*

^{opt}_{4}= 2.20 × 10

^{-54}

*s*

^{4}

*m*

^{-1},

*λ*=

_{s}*λ*=1562.7nm, the tuning range increases by another 18.5nm and retains the same gain ripple as result1 after optimization.

^{opt}_{s}*λ*and

_{s}*β*

_{4}a larger part of the curve representing Δ

*β*(

*ω*) vs.

_{p}*ω*can be retained in the exponential gain region, resulting an increase in Δ

_{p}*ω*. Note that in this region the gain ripple is always equal to

_{p}*G*

_{max}/

*G*= sinh

_{c}^{2}(

*γ*

*P*

_{0}

*L*)/(γ

*P*

_{0}

*L*)

^{2}, which keeps the same as long as

*γ*

*P*

_{0}

*L*is not changed.

## 3. A method to maximize the bandwidth of the WDM routers based on 1P-FPWCs

*G*in the (

^{c}*λ*,

_{s}*λ*) space given in Ref. [9

_{i}**12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*γ*= 2.2

*W*

^{-1}

*km*

^{-1},

*λ*

_{0}= 1549.25nm and

*β*

_{3}= 1.2 × 10

^{-40}

*s*

^{3}/

*m*. As seen from Fig. 5 (a) the maximal tuning range occurs near

*λ*= 9nm (

^{n}_{s}*λ*is the renormalized signal wavelength). From Eq. (10)

^{n}_{s}*λ*= 1558.5nm when

^{opt}_{s}*P*

_{0}= 760mW and the renormalized

*λ*=9.25nm. From Eq. (12) the maximal idler tuning range is from 1540.11nm to 1564.73nm (

^{n}_{s}*λ*is from −9.8nm to 16.6nm). As seen in Fig. 5 (a) the theoretical predications agree very well with the experimental data.

^{n}_{i}**11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*= 2(4

*γP*

_{0}/

*β*

_{3})

^{1/3}when

*β*

_{4}= 0. Obviously this method leaves a large part of the exponential gain region not utilized. Substituting

*ω*= 2

_{s}*ω*-

_{p}*ω*into Eq. (5), one can find that the equation remains unchanged except the subscript

_{i}*s*is changed into

*i*. Therefore the equations and conclusions derived for ω

_{s}in the above section are also applicable to

*ω*. In other words there also exists an optimum idler frequency

_{i}*ω*at which the input wavelength range can be maximized. Therefore a novel two-stage bidirectional conversion method is proposed, as seen in Fig. 6. Because wavelength conversion (FWM) only occurs in the direction of the pump [14

^{opt}_{i}14. G. Kalogerakis and M. E. Marhic, “Methods for full utilization of the bandwidth of fiber optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Lightwave Tech. **24**, 3683–3691 (2006). [CrossRef]

*ω*and

_{s}*ω*

_{p1}, are input in the forward direction. Note that the optimal idler (output) wavelength of 1P-FPWC-1

*ω*

^{opt}_{i1}is determined after the pump power and media fiber are chosen. Thus by tuning

*ω*

_{p1}to

*ω*

_{p1}= (

*ω*+

_{s}*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1})/2, a forward converted wave

*ω*=

_{i}*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}can be obtained and the input bandwidth of 1P-FPWC-1 is maximized.

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}is then reflected by the FBG and acts as the signal wave in 1P-FPWC-2. If the pump power is the same,

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}=

*ω*

^{opt}

_{s2}. Thus output bandwidth of 1P-FPWC-2 is maximized. So the bandwidth of the WDM router can be presented by the side length of the red square in Fig. 5 (b). From Eq. (13), the bandwidth Δ

*ω*= 2Δω

^{max}

_{p}= 8(

*γ*

_{P}

_{0}/

*β*

_{3})

^{1/3}, which is increased by 4

^{2/3}(252%) compared to the one-stage ones [8

**11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}will not limit the bandwidth, because the backward pump will not be blocked except when

*ω*

_{p2}=

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}. But

*ω*

_{p2}=

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}the expected converted wavelength is ω

_{i2}= 2

*ω*

_{p2}-

*ω*

_{s2}= 2

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}-

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}=

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}. Noting that

*ω*

^{opt}

_{i1}has already been obtained in the first-stage, so one can still get the expected

*β*

_{4}are used the bandwidth of the WDM router is increased to Δω = 2Δ

*ω*= 8(96/7)

_{p}^{1/6}(

*γ*

*P*

_{0}/

*β*

_{3})

^{1/3}. The bandwidth is 390% larger compared with the one-stage one without fourth order dispersion [8

**11**, 1002–1007 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*β*

_{4}=

*β*

^{opt}_{4}= 1.492 × 10

^{-53}

*s*

^{4}/

*m*. Compared to Fig. 5(b) the bandwidth of the WDM router is increased from 26.4nm (−9.8nm to 16.6nm) to 38.5nm (−8.7nm to 29.8nm).

*β*

_{4}is close to 1~2 (2~3) orders of magnitude smaller than the

*β*

^{opt}_{4}obtained above [9

**12**, 2810–2815 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*β*

_{4}= 0 because the fourth order dispersion has very little effect on the bandwidth. In this case the optimization method with

*β*

_{4}= 0 should be adopted. The method involving optimization of

*β*

_{4}is supported by some special kinds of HNLFs, like the ones demonstrated in Ref. [16]. The W-type index profile HNLF has a higher

*γ*(25.1

*W*

^{-1}

*km*

^{-1}) and smaller

*β*

_{3}(

*β*

_{3}= 2.15 × 10

^{-41}

*s*

^{3}/

*m*,

*S*=0.0 13ps/

*nm*

^{2}/

*km*). Using it

*β*

^{opt}_{4}is decreased to 5.70 × 10

^{-55}

*s*

^{4}/

*m*when

*P*

_{0}= 760

*mW*. This value is stated as a typical value for such HNLFs [16]. From Eq. (22) β

_{4}

^{opt}is proportional to (

*β*

^{4}

_{3}/

*γ*)

^{1/3}. So other novel kinds of HNLFs like chalcogenide fiber and bismuth-oxide fiber with much higher

*γ*may also support the second method [4

4. K. K. Chow, K. Kikuchi, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and N. Sugimoto, “Four-wave mixing based widely tunable wavelength conversion using 1-m dispersionshifted bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express **15**, 15418–15423 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. M. R. E. Lamont, B. T. Kuhlmey, and C. M. D. Sterke, “Multi-order dispersion engineering for optimal four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express **16**, 7551–7563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*β*

_{4}obtained by numerical method. The bandwidth (in nm) is normalized by that of the one-stage one without fourth order dispersion effects. As we can see, when

*β*

_{4}≥

*β*

^{opt}_{4}the bandwidth is inversely proportional to

*β*

_{4}as predicted by Eq. (17). When

*β*

_{4}becomes a little smaller than

*β*

^{opt}_{4}a sharp decrease in bandwidth occurs. This is because when

*β*

_{4}<

*β*

_{opt}_{4}the exponential gain region is broken into several discontinuous parts as seen in Fig. 2(c) and the insets of Fig. 8.

## 4. Discussions and conclusions

*ω*

_{0}. Thus one can make the degree of the overlap between the pump frequencies and the bandwidth of EDFAs as large as possible by choosing fibers with appropriate

*ω*

_{0}, so that this limitation can be reduced. Another problem is that the fiber fabrication process inevitably results in undesirable variation of

*ω*

_{0}along the fiber, which will then cause a reduction of conversion gain and bandwidth [20

20. M. Karlsson, “Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , **15**, 2269–2275 (1998)
[CrossRef]

21. M. Farahmand and M. de Sterke, “Parametric amplification in presence of dispersion fluctuations,” Opt. Express **12**, 136–142 (2003)
[CrossRef]

22. K. Inoue, “Arrangement of fiber pieces for a wide wavelength conversion range by fiber four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. **19**, 1189–1191 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. K. K. Chow, K. Kikuchi, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and N. Sugimoto, “Four-wave mixing based widely tunable wavelength conversion using 1-m dispersionshifted bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express **15**, 15418–15423 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. M. R. E. Lamont, B. T. Kuhlmey, and C. M. D. Sterke, “Multi-order dispersion engineering for optimal four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express **16**, 7551–7563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*β*

_{4}is set a little larger than

*β*

^{opt}_{4}, in order to avoid the sharp drop of bandwidth at

*β*

_{4}=

*β*

^{opt}_{4}in case fiber dispersion changes. Polarization dependent gain (PDG) also has significant impact on the system performance. Schemes such as pump depolarization [25

25. T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, “Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express **13**, 5409–5415 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26. F. Yaman, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “A novel design for polarization-independent single-pump fiberoptic parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. **18**, 2335–2337 (2006). [CrossRef]

## Appendix: The analytic expression of Δ*ω*_{p} when Φ < 0

_{p}

*d*Δ

*β*(

*ω*)/

_{p}*dω*= 0, the three extrema can be found occurs at

_{p}*ω*satisfy the following inequality

_{s}*ω*is not in this range, Δ

_{s}*β*(

*ω*) exhibits a V-type profile with only one extremum at

_{p}*ω*

_{e1}=

*ω*. From Eqs (14) and (26), noting

_{s}*ω*

_{e1}=

*ω*

_{p1,2}=

*ω*, one can get the results as shown in Table 3 and the schematics of the profiles can be drawn as Fig. 9. As seen in Fig. 9, the tuning range is always equal to Δ

_{s}*ω*=

_{p}*ω*

_{p3}-

*ω*

_{p4}.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

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5. | J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “Wavelength conversion of 40-Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2005, paper PDP23, Anaheim, USA (2005). |

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21. | M. Farahmand and M. de Sterke, “Parametric amplification in presence of dispersion fluctuations,” Opt. Express |

22. | K. Inoue, “Arrangement of fiber pieces for a wide wavelength conversion range by fiber four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. |

23. | M. E. Marhic, F. S. Yang, Min-Chen Ho, and L. G. kazovsky, “High-nonlinearity fiber optical parametric amplifier with periodic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Tech. |

24. | J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-Band Continuous-Wave-Pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier with 49-dB Gain and Wavelength-Conversion Efficiency,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. |

25. | T. Yang, C. Shu, and C. Lin, “Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express |

26. | F. Yaman, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “A novel design for polarization-independent single-pump fiberoptic parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. |

27. | Z. Wang, N. Deng, C. Lin, and C. K. Chan, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength conversion based on four-Wave mixing using dispersion-flattened high-nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber with residual birefringence,” in Proc. of ECOC 2006, Cannes, France, Paper We3.P.18 (2006). |

28. | A. S. Lenihan and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using birefringent nonlinear fiber,” in Proc. Of CLEO 2007, Baltimore, USA, paper CThAA2 (2007) |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications

(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices

(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

**ToC Category:**

Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 22, 2008

Revised Manuscript: December 4, 2008

Manuscript Accepted: January 12, 2009

Published: January 26, 2009

**Citation**

Sheng Cui, Deming Liu, Ying Wang, and Feng Tu, "Method for effectively utilizing tunable one-pump fiber parametric wavelength converters as an enabling device for WDM routers," Opt. Express **17**, 1454-1465 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1454

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