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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 3 — Feb. 2, 2009
  • pp: 1970–1975
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Hybrid sol-gel planar optics for astronomy

A. Ghasempour, A.M.P. Leite, F. Reynaud, P.V.S. Marques, P.J.V. Garcia, D. Alexandre, and P.J. Moreira  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp. 1970-1975 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.001970


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Abstract

Hybrid sol-gel planar optics devices for astronomy are produced for the first time. This material system can operate from the visible (0.5 μm) up to the edge of astronomical J-band (1.4 μm). The design, fabrication and characterization results of a coaxial three beam combiner are given as an example. Fringe contrasts above 94% are obtained with a source with spectral bandwidth of 50 nm. These results demonstrate that hybrid sol-gel technology can produce devices with high quality, opening the possibility of rapid prototyping of new designs and concepts for astronomical applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Guided optics is a key domain in modern astronomical instrumentation. Multi-mode fibers are common place in single object, multi-object and integral field spectrographs. Mono-mode fibers are used as spatial filters in the focal instrumentation of optical interferometers (e.g. [1

1. R. G. Petrov, F. Malbet, and G. Weigelt, et. al., “AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1–12 (2007). [CrossRef]

]), and as couplers in interferometers [2

2. V. Coude du Foresto, P. J. Borde, A. Merand, C. Baudouin, A. Remond, G. S. Perrin, S. T. Ridgway, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and H. A. McAlister, “FLUOR fibered beam combiner at the CHARA array,” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 280–285 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Photonic crystal fibers can be used to transport the laser light to the launch telescope of laser guide stars [3

3. D. Bonaccini Calia, E. Allaert, and J. L. Alvarez, and 23 coauthors, “First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, Proc. SPIE 6272,627207-1–627207-11 (2006).

], or to build interferometers [4

4. S. Vergnole, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, “Three-beam photonic crystal fiber imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6712–6717 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Aperiodic Bragg gratings on fibers were proposed for atmospheric OH emission suppression [5

5. J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12, 5902–5909 (2004).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5902. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Recent developments in integrated optics devices for astronomy in the near-infrared are upward frequency conversion and spectroscopy. The use of Ti-diffused periodically poled lithium-niobate waveguides to upward frequency conversion from 1.5 μm to 0.63 μm was demonstrated [16

16. S. Brustlein, L. Del Rio, A. Tonello, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, “Laboratory Demonstration of an Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Interferometer for Spatial Coherence Analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153903-1–153903-4 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The main advantage of upward frequency conversion is the possibility of using the superior properties of optical detectors, especially their low-read-out noise and high quantum efficiency, when compared to near-infrared arrays. The SWIFTS-Lipmann concept opens the possibility of optical spectroscopy with an integrated optics chip [17

17. E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Photonics 1, 473–478 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

2. Methods

2.1. Hybrid sol-gel technology

Hybrid sol-gel uses a low temperature process which results in thick optical layers in a single deposition. This technique allows the fabrication of channel waveguides and devices, using MAPTMS-ZrO2 and UV laser patterning, without recourse to photo-initiator, as demonstrated in our group [19

19. P. Moreira, P. Marques, and A. Leite, “Hybrid sol-gel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399–401 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The steps involved in the waveguide fabrication are as follows: after substrate cleaning, a uniform layer of sol-gel (n core = 1.5096) is deposited by spin-coating; after drying, the layer is exposed through a photomask and by chemical development, the unexposed area is removed. A cladding consisting of sol-gel (n clad = 1.4998) matching the substrate refractive index is then deposited in the last step of the fabrication process. The refractive index profile of the channeled waveguides is nearly square and uniform (step-index waveguide). The propagation loss measured on single mode sol-gel channel waveguides is typically 0.4 dB/cm at 1.300 μm [19

19. P. Moreira, P. Marques, and A. Leite, “Hybrid sol-gel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399–401 (2005). [CrossRef]

], which is acceptable from the frame of rapid prototyping. The waveguides have high transmission from 0.5 μm to the edge of the astronomical J-band (1.4 μm), except for an absorption band from C-H overtone at 1.15 μm [19

19. P. Moreira, P. Marques, and A. Leite, “Hybrid sol-gel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399–401 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The photomask was produced in a fused silica substrate using standard photolithographic methods and wet-etching.

2.2. Design considerations

The design of the all-in-one coaxial three beam combiner for the astronomical J-band was done using BPM-CAD commercial software packages (Optiwave and Rsoft). The separation between each of the three telescope inputs was set to 0.25 mm. Channel waveguides were designed with a square core (typically 4×4 μm2) to guide a single mode. Elements such as S-bends, X-junctions, Y-junctions and waveguide tapers were individually studied and optimized. In the design of the beam combiner it was ensured that all the interfering optical paths have the same length in order to achieve correct broadband operation.

Fig. 1. Layout of the all-in-one coaxial three beam combiner. Ti are the telescope inputs, I the interferometric output and Pi the photometric outputs.

Figure 1 shows the design of the all-in-one coaxial three beam combiner following the layout given by [20

20. P. Haguenauer, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, J.-P. Berger, Y. Duchene, M. Lacolle, P. Y. Kern, F. Malbet, and P. Benech, “Planar optics three-telescope beam combiners for astronomical interferometry,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Léna and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1107–1115 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Ti are the telescope inputs, I the interferometric output and Pi the photometric outputs. In an all-in-one combiner all the baselines are multiplexed on the same output channel. This will result in a complex interferogram shape. The visibility and phase information of each combination pair can be extracted by Fourier analysis of the time dependent interferogram. To separate information in the Fourier space, the input beams should be time modulated using a non-redundant configuration.

3. Results

Interferometric validation of the coaxial three beam combiner was performed using the laboratory set-up described in Fig. 2. Feeding all the three inputs simultaneously was not possible due to set-up limitations, so each pair of inputs was tested individually. Hence the visibility information of each combination is accessible in direct space and there is no need for calculation in the Fourier space.

In the interferometric set-up several optical sources were used: a He-Ne laser (λ 0 = 632 nm) for alignments; a narrow spectral bandwidth (< 1 nm) laser diode at 1.3 μm; as a broadband source a Super Luminescent Diode (SLD) at 1.265 μm (FWHM 50 nm) was used.

The source collimated beam, after passing through a polarizer is split into two beams which are injected into polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. The same principal axes (slow or fast) of both PM fibers are aligned with the polarizer direction. In one arm of the interferometer, a translation stage is used to cancel the optical path difference and to perform path scanning. Light is injected into the beam combiner with V-grooved PM fibers. The outputs of the chip are coupled to single mode fibers, which feed single-pixel detectors.

The normalized interferogram intensity (Ic), for a given pair of telescope inputs Ti and Tj is given by

Ic=IijαPiβPj2αPiβPj
(1)

where Iij is the interference of the two inputs and α, β are the interferometric to photometric ratios inputs i and j. This expression allows the correction of the bias induced by the photometric unbalance over the different interferometric arms. The normalized interferogram intensity calculation for each combination pairs consists on the following steps [8

8. P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a Planar Optics Two-Telescope Beam Combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2130–2139 (2000). [CrossRef]

]:

Fig. 2. Laboratory interferometric set-up based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, used for characterization of the IO chips.
  • Measure the raw outputs photometry Pi, photometry Pj and interferometry Iij, by feeding two different inputs Ti and Tj. For input T 2 just one of the photometric channels is used.
  • Compute the interferometric to photometric ratios α and β. This is achieved by feeding only one input (Ti) at a time and measuring the interferometric (I i0) and the photometric (P i0) intensities. α= I i0/P i0 is computed when input i is fed and β = I j0/P j0 when input j is fed.

V=max(Ic)min(Ic)2
(2)

The cross-talk in the X-junction between inputs T 2 and T 3 was determined by measuring P 2b (see Fig. 2) while only T 3 was fed, obtaining a value less than -27 dB (0.2%).

4. Conclusions and perspectives

In this paper, the results of design, fabrication and characterization of a coaxial three beam combiner for astronomical interferometry, using hybrid sol-gel technology, were reported. High contrast (≥ 94%) fringes have been obtained, demonstrating the high performance of the devices made by hybrid sol-gel for astronomy.

Fig. 3. Using an SLD of FWHM of 50 nm, fringe visibilities of 96%, 94% and 97% have been measured, respectively for the combination pairs (T 2,T 3), (T 1,T 3) and (T 1,T 2).

This technology combined with a UV direct writing unit allows the rapid prototyping of devices. We have recently developed a laser photopatterning system that already allows the writing of photomasks. We are currently calibrating the system for sol-gel direct writing, without making use of a photomask. Such a rapid prototyping system has interesting applications in integrated optics for astronomy, in particular at the research/design phase where the comparison and testing of different concepts is addressed. Multimode interference power splitters have been fabricated using hybrid sol-gel technology (e.g. [21

21. M. A. Fardad, O. V. Mishechkin, and M. Fallahi, “Hybrid Sol-Gel Materials for Integration of Optoelectronic Components,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 84–91 (2001). [CrossRef]

]). The properties of astronomical beam combiners based on such components [22

22. F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, and T. Benyat-tou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multi-mode interferences (MMI),” in in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 1359–1369 (2003). [CrossRef]

] could be compared with more classical designs such as the one presented in this paper. Another interesting application is to use the thermo-optic or electro-optic effects to control directly, on the device, the optical path modulation. Applications to metrology, in particular dichroic functions, could be tested, with recourse to Bragg gratings, for example.

Finally, 3D writing of waveguides in sol-gel has recently been demonstrated (e.g. [23

23. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 301–303 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). This result opens the possibility of escaping the planar world of present astrophotonics into tridimensional concepts and ideas.

Acknowledgments

AG, DA and PJVG acknowledge the grants SFRH/BD/24493/2005, SFRH/BD/39284/2007 and SFRH/BSAB/806/2008, respectively, this work was partially supported by grant PTDC-CTM-72093-2006, all approved by FCT and POCI, with funds from the European community programme FEDER. This work was partially supported by the EU under contract number RII3-Ct-2004-001566 (OPTICON).

References and links

1.

R. G. Petrov, F. Malbet, and G. Weigelt, et. al., “AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1–12 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

V. Coude du Foresto, P. J. Borde, A. Merand, C. Baudouin, A. Remond, G. S. Perrin, S. T. Ridgway, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and H. A. McAlister, “FLUOR fibered beam combiner at the CHARA array,” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 280–285 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Bonaccini Calia, E. Allaert, and J. L. Alvarez, and 23 coauthors, “First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, Proc. SPIE 6272,627207-1–627207-11 (2006).

4.

S. Vergnole, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, “Three-beam photonic crystal fiber imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6712–6717 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, “New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12, 5902–5909 (2004).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5902. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 135–145 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 139, 173–177 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a Planar Optics Two-Telescope Beam Combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2130–2139 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31–L34 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J. P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

J.-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, L. Jocou, F. Zabihian, K. Rousselet-Perraut, J.-P. Berger, A. Delboulbé, P. Kern, A. Glindemann,, and M. Schöller, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. VI. Coupling the light of the VLTI in K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1259–1264 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

S. El-Sabban, I. Schanen, K. D., and B. P., “Fabrication and test of an integrated optical magic T on a glass substrated,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 684–686 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, “The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner,” in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, Proc. SPIE 626862682D-1–62682D-6 (2006).

14.

P. Kern, E. Le Coärer, and P. Benech, “Full integrated beam combiner instrument based on SWIFTS concept,” in Optical and Infrared Interferometry, Proc. SPIE 7013, 701315-1–701315-8 (2008).

15.

S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, M. Trouillon, J. Grelin, I. Schanen, V. Minier, J.-E. Broquin, C. Ruilier, and B. Leone “MAFL experiment: development of photonic devices for a space-based multiaperture fiber-linked interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 46, 834–844 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. Brustlein, L. Del Rio, A. Tonello, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, “Laboratory Demonstration of an Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Interferometer for Spatial Coherence Analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153903-1–153903-4 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Photonics 1, 473–478 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, L. Jocou, and J.-P. Berger, “Direct UV-Written Integrated Optical Beam Combiner for Stellar Interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 367–371 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

P. Moreira, P. Marques, and A. Leite, “Hybrid sol-gel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399–401 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

P. Haguenauer, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, J.-P. Berger, Y. Duchene, M. Lacolle, P. Y. Kern, F. Malbet, and P. Benech, “Planar optics three-telescope beam combiners for astronomical interferometry,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. Léna and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1107–1115 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

M. A. Fardad, O. V. Mishechkin, and M. Fallahi, “Hybrid Sol-Gel Materials for Integration of Optoelectronic Components,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 84–91 (2001). [CrossRef]

22.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, and T. Benyat-tou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multi-mode interferences (MMI),” in in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 1359–1369 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 301–303 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics
(130.5460) Integrated optics : Polymer waveguides

History
Original Manuscript: October 27, 2008
Revised Manuscript: December 27, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 6, 2009
Published: January 30, 2009

Virtual Issues
Focus Issue: Astrophotonics (2009) Optics Express

Citation
A. Ghasempour, A. Leite, F. Reynaud, P. V. Marques, P. J. Garcia, D. Alexandre, and P. J. Moreira, "Hybrid sol-gel planar optics for astronomy," Opt. Express 17, 1970-1975 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1970


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References

  1. R. G. Petrov, F. Malbet, G. Weigelt,  et al., "AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument," Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1-12 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. V. Coude du Foresto, P. J. Borde, A. Merand, C. Baudouin, A. Remond, G. S. Perrin, S. T. Ridgway, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and H. A. McAlister, "FLUOR fibered beam combiner at the CHARA array," in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE 4838, 280-285 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Bonaccini Calia, E. Allaert, J. L. Alvarez, and 23 coauthors, "First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, Proc. SPIE 6272,627207-1-627207-11 (2006).
  4. S. Vergnole, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, "Three-beam photonic crystal fiber imaging interferometer," Appl. Opt. 45, 6712-6717 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, and G. Edvell, "New approach to atmospheric OH suppression using an aperiodic fibre Bragg grating," Opt. Express 12, 5902-5909 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5902. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications," Astron. Astrophys.Suppl. 138, 135-145 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms," Astron. Astrophys.Suppl. 139, 173-177 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, "Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a Planar Optics Two-Telescope Beam Combiner," Appl. Opt. 39, 2130-2139 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, andW. Traub, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars," Astron. Astrophys. 376, L31-L34 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J. P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band," Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171-1176 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. J.-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, L. Jocou, F. Zabihian, K. Rousselet-Perraut, J.-P. Berger, A. Delboulb’e, P. Kern, A. Glindemann, and M. Sch¨oller, "Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. VI. Coupling the light of the VLTI in K band," Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1259-1264 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. S. El-Sabban, I. Schanen, K. D., and B. P., "Fabrication and test of an integrated optical magic T on a glass substrated," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 684-686 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, "The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner," in Advances in Stellar Interferometry, Proc. SPIE 6268 62682D-1-62682D-6 (2006).
  14. P. Kern, E. Le Co¨arer, and P. Benech, "Full integrated beam combiner instrument based on SWIFTS concept," in Optical and Infrared Interferometry, Proc. SPIE 7013, 701315-1-701315-8 (2008).
  15. S. Olivier, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, V. Collomb, M. Trouillon, J. Grelin, I. Schanen, V. Minier, J.-E. Broquin, C. Ruilier, and B. Leone, "MAFL experiment: development of photonic devices for a space-based multiaperture fiber-linked interferometer," Appl. Opt. 46, 834-844 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Brustlein, L. Del Rio, A. Tonello, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, H. Herrmann, and W. Sohler, "Laboratory Demonstration of an Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Interferometer for Spatial Coherence Analysis," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153903-1-153903-4 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. L’erondel, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Royer, "Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry," Nature Photonics 1, 473-478 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, L. Jocou, and J.-P. Berger, "Direct UV-Written Integrated Optical Beam Combiner for Stellar Interferometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 367-371 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Moreira, P. Marques, and A. Leite, "Hybrid sol-gel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Haguenauer, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, J.-P. Berger, Y. Duchene, M. Lacolle, P. Y. Kern, F. Malbet, and P. Benech, "Planar optics three-telescope beam combiners for astronomical interferometry," in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. L’ena and A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE 4006, 1107-1115 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Fardad, O. V. Mishechkin, and M. Fallahi, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Materials for Integration of Optoelectronic Components," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 84-91 (2001). [CrossRef]
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