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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 5 — Mar. 2, 2009
  • pp: 3036–3041
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60 GHz millimeter-wave gigabit wireless services over long-reach passive optical network using remote signal regeneration and upconversion

Hung-Chang Chien, Arshad Chowdhury, Zhensheng Jia, Yu-Ting Hsueh, and Gee-Kung Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 3036-3041 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.003036


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Abstract

This study proposed and experimentally demonstrated a cost-efficient scheme that can deliver 60 GHz millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multi-gigabit wireless services over 125 km long-reach passive optical networks (PONs) without any dispersion compensation. By introducing a remote local exchange (LE) stage with robust signal regeneration and all-optical upconversion functionalities, the proposed long-reach optical-wireless access network can easily accommodate over 128 users with 2.5 Gb/s shared bandwidth as well as shifting the capital expenditure of multiple hybrid optical network units (ONUs) toward single LE headend. Experimental verification shows that the power penalties for wireless and wired services are 1.8 dB and 0.4 dB at 10-9 BER after 125 km optical fiber transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The delivery of 60 GHz millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless services over passive optical networks (PONs), a seamless integration of optical wired and wireless access networks with large bandwidth, high flexibility, and high connectivity, has attracted lots of attention due to the emerging last-mile, last-meter applications such as multi-channel HDTV distribution and interactive multimedia services for home and office networking in the near future1–3

1. Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key Enabling Technologies for Optical-Wireless Networks: Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation, Wavelength Reuse, and Architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

. However, the major issue of such hybrid optical-wireless access network is limited by the fiber transmission distance of 60 GHz mm-wave signals, which is mainly due to the fading and time-shifting effects induced by fiber chromatic dispersion1

1. Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key Enabling Technologies for Optical-Wireless Networks: Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation, Wavelength Reuse, and Architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

, and thus makes it merely suitable for integrating with those conventional PONs with coverage around tens of kilometer in radius. Such short-reach access system will lead to higher cost in terms of network deployment and management, and is expected to be upgraded urgently toward a next-generation access scenario with longer reach and less number of central offices (COs) in the metro area, which is highly expected to simplify the entire network infrastructure by consolidating both metro and access networks4

4. S. M. Lee, S. G. Mun, M. H. Kim, and C. H. Lee, “Demonstration of a Long-Reach DWDM-PON for Consolidation of Metro and Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 271–276 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2827–2834 (2006). [CrossRef]

. Basically, delivering mm-wave and baseband signals at different wavelengths and then mixing them remotely, so called remote local oscillator delivery schemes, is regarded as effective alternatives to mitigate the dispersion effect in hybrid mm-wave optical-wireless links6–8

6. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, “Millimeter-Wave Broad-Band Fiber-Wireless System Incorporating Baseband Data Transmission over Fiber and Remote LO Delivery,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1355–1363 (2000). [CrossRef]

, and is a promising deployment strategy for long-reach access networks. These schemes, however, usually require costly mm-wave-band electrical mixing at each hybrid optical network unit (ONU) for the remote signal upconversion. Therefore, in order to extend the reach of mm-wave wireless signals over PONs while simultaneously achieving cost reduction of all hybrid ONUs, a novel long-reach hybrid PON architecture is designed and experimentally demonstrated for delivering multi-gigabit wired and wireless services to 128 ONUs using remote signal regeneration and upconversion techniques. By introducing a local exchange (LE) headend with a remote optical upconverter shared by all hybrid ONUs, network reach can be extended up to 125 km, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the longest fiber transmission distance of a 2.5 Gb/s baseband data carried by 60 GHz mm-wave without requiring dispersion compensation. In addition, the proposed long-reach PON architecture with 60 GHz mm-wave service overlay can coexist with all legacy ONUs, and is potential for future upgrade toward 10 Gb/s optical-wireless systems.

2. Long-reach mm-wave optical-wireless access network

Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual diagram of proposed long-reach and conventional short-reach 60 GHz mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access networks. Unlike the short-reach access sending upconverted mm-wave signals at single λS from an optical line terminal (OLTS) in central office (CO), the basic idea behind the proposed long-reach scheme is to deliver 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal and 60 GHz mm-wave carrier independently at different wavelength λL1 and λL2 from OLTL and then mix them at a LE with a remote optical upconverter, which is commonly utilized as an extended and managed network stage in optical access network4

4. S. M. Lee, S. G. Mun, M. H. Kim, and C. H. Lee, “Demonstration of a Long-Reach DWDM-PON for Consolidation of Metro and Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 271–276 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2827–2834 (2006). [CrossRef]

. Thus, before arriving at LE headend, both uncorrelated lightwaves can suffer from the least dispersion-induced penalties over long-distance fiber transmission. After the LE, the output 60 GHz mm-wave at λL2 will carry 2.5 Gb/s data and then be delivered through remote node (RN) to hybrid ONUs or legacy ONUs for wireless and wired access. In addition, since one single optical upconverter is arranged at the LE to serve multiple hybrid ONUs, the structure as well as the expense of these hybrid ONUs can be further simplified and reduced by shifting their local upconversion functionality toward the LE.

Fig. 1. Network architecture of the proposed long-reach and conventional short-reach 60 GHz mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access networks.

3. Proof-of-concept experimental setup

Fig. 2. Proof-of-concept experimental setup for the proposed long-reach 60 GHz mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access network with remote upconverter.

4. Results and discussions

Fig. 3. Optical spectra of (a) the lightwave with 30 GHz DSB modulation before and after an OL and (b) two independent downstream channels carrying 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal and 60 GHz optical mm-wave, respectively.
Fig. 4. Waveforms of 60 GHz optical mm-wave before and after 125 km transmission, and eye diagrams of 2.5 Gb/s signals carried by 60 GHz optical mm-wave measured at different transmission distances by using conventional and proposed approaches, respectively.
Fig. 5. Measured eye disgram of an upconverted 10 Gb/s baseband signal on 60 GHz band at an LE which is 50 km away from the CO.

Figure 6(a) and (b) show the bit error rate (BER) performance and corresponding eye diagrams for wireless and wired services, respectively. For wireless services, after 125 km transmission, the receiver sensitivity and power penalty with pre-amplification are -28 dB and 1.8 dB at 10-9 BER, respectively. For wired services, the receiver sensitivity and power penalty without pre-amplification are -24.2 dB and 0.4 dB at 10-9 BER, respectively. Note that the back-to-back case in the proposed scheme is defined at the LE where the mm-wave signal is observed before being transmitted over another 25 km to multiple hybrid ONUs. After 125 km transmission, the downconverted eye diagram in Fig. 6(a) has obvious distortion due to the nature of fiber dispersion. In addition, since the output optical power at LE is about 5 dBm, the estimated power budgets for wireless and wired services are 33 dB and 29.2 dB at BER of 10-9, respectively. Assume that the proposed long-reach mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access network is operated in time-division multiplexing (TDM) manner and uses an N-way optical power splitter as the RN, it will be able to accommodate at least 128 users with a shared bandwidth of 2.5 Gb/s (20 Mb/s per user) or it can provide about 78 Mb/s guaranteed bandwidth for 32 users to meet the requirement of future HD video-centric Internet services. Moreover, it is also scalable to multiple channels at the cost of increased modulators and receivers at LE, but will save more on numerous simplified hybrid ONUs.

5. Conclusions

We have proposed and demonstrated a novel hybrid optical-wireless access network testbed, which can deliver multi-gigabit data on 60 GHz optical mm-wave over 125 km long-reach passive optical network without any dispersion compensation. Robust signal regeneration and upconversion are utilized at remote local exchange to boost and broadcast downstream mm-wave signals as well as to minimize the capital expenditure of many hybrid ONUs. Such hybrid integration of optical-wireless system has great potentials to provide high-bandwidth video-centric services for both wireless and wired users in a simplified end-to-end architecture designed for the convergence of broadband optical-wireless access and metropolitan networks.

Fig. 6. BER performance and corresponding eye diagrams for (a) wireless and (b) wired services, respectively.

References and links

1.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key Enabling Technologies for Optical-Wireless Networks: Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation, Wavelength Reuse, and Architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “60-GHz-Band 155-Mb/s and 1.5-Gb/s Baseband Time-Slotted Full-Duplex Radio-Over-Fiber Access Network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 617–619 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the Home/Fiber to the Premises: What, Where, and When?” Proc. IEEE , 94, 911–934 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

S. M. Lee, S. G. Mun, M. H. Kim, and C. H. Lee, “Demonstration of a Long-Reach DWDM-PON for Consolidation of Metro and Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 271–276 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2827–2834 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and G. Yoffe, “Millimeter-Wave Broad-Band Fiber-Wireless System Incorporating Baseband Data Transmission over Fiber and Remote LO Delivery,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1355–1363 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Ismail, C. P. Liu, and A. J. Seeds, “Millimetre-wave Gigabit/s Wireless-over-Fibre Transmission Using Low Cost Uncooled Devices with Remote Local Oscillator Delivery,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007, OWN3 (2007).

8.

S. A. Malyshev and A. L. Chizh, “p-i-n Photodiodes for Frequency Mixing in Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3236–3243 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed Mobile Convergence Architectures for Broadband Access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 44–50 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic Dispersion in Fiber-Optic Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 44, 1716–1724 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(160.5298) Materials : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: December 18, 2008
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 9, 2009
Published: February 13, 2009

Citation
J. E. Lugo, B. de la Mora, R. Doti, R. Nava, J. Tagueña, A. del Rio, and J. Faubert, "Multiband negative refraction in one-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express 17, 3036-3041 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3036


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