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Optics Express

  • Vol. 17, Iss. 7 — Mar. 30, 2009
  • pp: 5496–5501
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Reduction of thermally induced depolarization of laser radiation in [110] oriented cubic crystals

Ivan Mukhin, Oleg Palashov, and Efim Khazanov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 5496-5501 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.005496


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Abstract

The first measurements of thermally induced depolarization in a [110] oriented cubic crystal at powerful heat release were made. It was demonstrated that depolarization in a crystal with such orientation may be less than in analogous crystals having orientation [001] or [111]. In a TGG crystal, for example, maximum depolarization value was 10% and dropped down to 3% with a further increase of radiation power in full conformity with the theoretical predictions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The power of both, pulsed periodic and cw lasers has grown dramatically in the recent years. The average power of modern solid-state lasers amounts to kilowatts and even tens of kilowatts. The main problem restricting solid-state laser power is unavoidable heat release in active elements due to pump absorption. It leads to changes in refractive index, degradation of laser characteristics, strain, and even to destruction of active element. One of such depolarization effects is photoelastically induced radiation depolarization, i.e., different polarization at different points of the beam cross-section [1

1. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).

, 2

2. W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering. (Berlin: Springer, 1999).

]. Studies of the thermally induced depolarization in active elements were initiated back in the 1960s [3-5

3. F. W. Quelle, “Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 5, 633–637 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and are continued up to the present. Depolarization in an amorphous medium (glass) was investigated in ample detail rather fast [6-9

6. I. B. Vitrishchak, L. N. Soms, and A. A. Tarasov, “On intrinsic polarizations of a resonator with thermally distorted active element,” Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. , 44, 1055–1062 (1974) (in Russian).

].

Thermally induced depolarization in isotropic crystals (crystals with cubic symmetry, such as garnets) was studied in many works [10-20

10. J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970). [CrossRef]

]. The influence of crystal orientation on depolarization was first investigated in [18

18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. But the results presented in [18

18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

] are true for the [111] orientation only because of the mistake which was first pointed to in [19

19. L. N. Soms, A. A. Tarasov, and V. V. Shashkin, “On the problem of depolarization of linearly polarized light by a YAG:Nd3+ laser rod under conditions of thermally induced birefringence,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 10, 350–351 (1980). [CrossRef]

]. The authors of [18

18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

] supposed that the directions of intrinsic polarizations coincide with radial and tangential directions. The same erroneous statement can be found in the classical book [2

2. W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering. (Berlin: Springer, 1999).

].

Expression for the permittivity tensor ΔB for the [001] orientation were obtained in [1

1. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).

, 19

19. L. N. Soms, A. A. Tarasov, and V. V. Shashkin, “On the problem of depolarization of linearly polarized light by a YAG:Nd3+ laser rod under conditions of thermally induced birefringence,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 10, 350–351 (1980). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. L. N. Soms and A. A. Tarasov, “Thermal deformation in color-center laser active elements. 1.Theory,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1506–1508 (1979). [CrossRef]

], where it shown that depolarization with this orientation may be less than with [111]. The authors of [1

1. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).

, 20

20. L. N. Soms and A. A. Tarasov, “Thermal deformation in color-center laser active elements. 1.Theory,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1506–1508 (1979). [CrossRef]

] also considered and derived approximate expressions for the [110] orientation. The used approximation, however, does not hold for the great majority of laser crystals, such as, e.g., YAG, GGG, GSGG, YGG. Depolarization for the [110] orientation was calculated in [21

21. I. Shoji and T. Taira, “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048–3050 (2002). [CrossRef]

], but the results hold true only for uniform heating and have the errors pointed to in [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

The first analytical expressions for the ΔB tensor for any cubic crystal with arbitrary orientation and arbitrary axially symmetric power density distribution of heat generation were obtained in [23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] using the procedure proposed in [18

18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. The authors of [23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] showed that the [001] orientation is the best one at small heat generation. In [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

] some general theorems about physical singularity of the [001], [111] and [110] orientations were proved and the problem about the best and the worst orientations for arbitrary power of heat generation was solved. Theoretical results for the case of small power of heat generation in crystals with [110] orientation were confirmed in experiments [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In all the above works elastic properties of a crystal were regarded to be isotropic, although, strictly speaking, it is merely a good approximation [24

24. V. Parfenov, V. Shashkin, and A. Stepanov, “Numerical investigation of thermally induced birefringence in optical elements of solid-state lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5243–5255 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The conditions under which depolarization in a [110] crystal at large heat generation power may be much less than in a crystal having orientation [001] or [111] were found in [21

21. I. Shoji and T. Taira, “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048–3050 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. However, those findings have not been confirmed experimentally. In the current paper we present the first experimental study of depolarization in a [110] oriented cubic crystal at large thermal loads and demonstrate its advantage over the [001] and [111] orientations. In Sec. 2 specific features of polarization distortions in crystals with [110] orientation are described. Results of measuring depolarization in a [110] oriented terbium gallium garnet are presented in Sec. 3, where the obtained experimental results are compared with theoretical data. In the Conclusion we discuss prospective applications of crystals with [110] orientation for reducing polarization distortions of powerful laser radiation.

2. Features of polarization distortions in crystals with [110] orientation

In the simplest case, crystallographic abc axes coincide with the xyz directions (Fig. 1), which corresponds to the [001] orientation. The rφz correspond to the xyz coordinates in the cylindrical frame of reference. For a cubic crystal, arbitrary position of the abc axes may be specified by means of two successive turns of the system of coordinates xyz relative to the crystal lattice by two Euler angles α and β [18

18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

]: by angle α around the z axis, and then by angle β around the y axis. Thus, by varying the values of α and β one can obtain any desired crystal orientation. By virtue of physical equivalence of crystallographic axes a, b and c, the some orientations are physically equivalent. For example, [011] (α=-π/2, β=π/4), [110] (α=π/4, β=-π/2), [101] (α=0, β=-π/4), [101] (α=0, β=π/4), and so on. Hereinafter we will consider it to be one orientation and refer to it as to [110].

Let the incident polarization radiation make angle θ with the x axis, and the profiles of heat sources (further referred to as pumps) and of transient (test) radiation be defined by functions Fh(r) and FL(r), respectively. The eigen polarizations of thermally induced birefringence e1 and e2 are directed at angle Ψ to the x and y axes (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Cross-section of cylindrical active element; e1 and e2 are intrinsic polarizations at the point (r,φ); E is polarization of incident radiation.

The depolarization ratio γ of the radiation transmitted through the crystal will be understood as the ratio of the power of radiation polarized along the y axis to the total power. An exact analytical expression for γ in a cubic crystal of arbitrary orientation with arbitrary axially symmetric heat generation was derived in [23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The main feature of polarization distortions in a cubic crystal as compared to glass is that the directions of eigen polarizations of thermally induced birefringence e1 and e2 do not coincide with the radial and tangential directions (Ψ≠φ, see Fig. 1). This leads to the dependence of γ on crystal orientation. This effect is associated with anisotropy of the photoelastic effect in cubic crystals: 2p44≠p11−p12, where p ij are the elements of photoelasticity tensor (2p44=p11p12 in glass).

Anisotropy of the photoelastic effect results also in the dependence of γ on angle θ [1

1. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).

, 19

19. L. N. Soms, A. A. Tarasov, and V. V. Shashkin, “On the problem of depolarization of linearly polarized light by a YAG:Nd3+ laser rod under conditions of thermally induced birefringence,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 10, 350–351 (1980). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. L. N. Soms and A. A. Tarasov, “Thermal deformation in color-center laser active elements. 1.Theory,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1506–1508 (1979). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In what will follow the indices “min” and “max” will designate the minimum and the maximum values of γ with the variation of angle θ. The only exception [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

] is the [111] orientation for which γ is independent of θ. Indices “min” and “max” are not given for this orientation here.

In the case of small heat release, γ depends quadratically on the normalized heat power p [23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:

p=PhλκαTn0341+v1v(p11p12),
(1)

where κ, ν, and αT, are, respectively, heat conductivity, Poisson’s ratio and thermal expansion coefficient; P h is heat power in a crystal, and λ is test radiation wavelength. At infinitely large heat release (p → ∝), γ tends to γ. In terms of real laser installations, most interesting is the regime intermediate between the two approximations described above (p≫1). In this case, depolarization value oscillates about γ, with the oscillation amplitude decreasing with increasing p. Depolarization as a function of pump power is plotted in Fig. 2 for three crystal orientations calculated by the formulas from [23

23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The magnitude of γ in a [111] oriented crystal depends neither on material characteristics of the crystal nor on pump and transmitted radiation profiles and is always equal to 0.25. In a [001] crystal, γ is determined only by the parameter of photoelastic anisotropy ξ=2p 44/(p 11p 12) [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

]:

γ([001])=0.25141ξ1+ξγ([111])=0.25
(2)

For a YAG crystal γ([001])=12% and ξ, = 3.2 [25

25. R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967). [CrossRef]

,26

26. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals in Russian ( Nauka, Moscow1975) pp. 256 c.

], for a TGG crystal γ([001])=15% and ξ = 2.25 [27

27. D. S. Zheleznov, A. V. Voitovich, I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, and E. A. Khazanov, “Considerable reduction of thermooptical distortions in Faraday isolators cooled to 77 K,” Quantum Electron. 36, 383–388 (2006). [CrossRef]

] .Depolarization in a crystal having orientation [110] strongly depends on both, the ξ and radii of crystal R 0, pump r h and laser beam r 0. In particular, the magnitude of γ([110]) drops down both, with an increase in R 0 and with an increase of the rh/r0 ratio. It is clear from Fig. 2 that for R0/rh=1 and R0/r o=4, [110] is the best orientation in terms of the minimum of depolarization at large heat power (p>15).

For experimental verification of this theoretical prediction of thermally induced depolarization in a TGG crystal with [110] orientation was measured in a broad range of heat power.

Fig. 2. Curves for γ(p) for different orientations of YAG crystal: [111] (yellow), [001] (pink), [110] at R0/rh=1 (homogeneous heating of the crystal) and R0/ro=4 (green).

3. Depolarization measurements in a [110] oriented crystal

Experiments aimed at studying depolarization were divided into two parts: quantitative verification of the theoretical predictions, and qualitative experiment confirming that depolarization in a [110] oriented crystal at large heat power is less than in a crystal having orientation [001] or [111].

The first part of the experiment is depicted schematically in Fig. 3(a). Radiation of a cw fiber laser 1 at the wavelength of 1076 nm was used as a pump. The polarization ratio was 30:1. A Gaussian beam with maximum power of 330 W was transmitted through telescope 2 that reduced beam diameter down to 0.83 mm. Calcite wedge 3 increased the polarization ratio of the beam up to 106:1.

Further, the beam was transmitted through TGG crystals 4, with part of the beam being absorbed in the crystals (α=4·10-3cm-1). To increase heat generation power we used three TGG crystals having orientation [110] and equal size: length 20 mm and diameter 8.3 mm. Laser radiation was used as a pump and a test beam. Part of the beam was separated by a quartz plate 5 and past Glan’s prism 6 entered CCD camera 8. Lens 7 transferred the image from the last edge of the TGG crystals to the CCD camera. Each crystal was oriented so as to provide minimum (γmin) or maximum (γmax) depolarization. After that the corresponding value of depolarization was measured in all the crystals.

Fig. 3. Schematic of depolarization measurements without (a) and with (b) complementary test laser: 1 – fiber cw laser, 2,10 – telescope, 3 – calcite wedge, 4 – crystals under consideration, 5 – fused quartz plate, 6 – Glan’s prism, 7 – lens for image transfer, 8 – CCD camera, 9 – diode laser, λ = 532 nm.

The results of measurements presented in Fig. 4(a) agree well with the theoretical curves. A small difference of γmax may be attributed to error at mutual alignment of the three crystals. The depolarization reached its maximum at a little less power than that predicted by the theory. The point is that, as the power is increased, the thermal lens in crystals focuses the pump beam (hence, the test beam); and depolarization in a [110] oriented crystal is known to depend on the diameter of transmitted radiation. Curves 3 and 4 in Fig. 4(a) are the theoretical dependences of depolarization on pump power for the [111] and [001] orientations of a TGG crystal. One can see that for the values of crystal radius R0 and laser beam and heat release radii (rh=r0) used in our experiment, [111] is the worst orientation, and depolarization γmin in crystals with orientations [001] and [110] will be comparable at large power. With increasing ratios R0/rh, R0/r0 or rh/r0, the magnitude of γmin∝ will decrease in a [110] oriented crystal and will remain unchanged in a crystal with [001] orientation.

In the second series of experiments we realized this situation using radiation from laser 9 as a test beam (Fig. 3(b)) at the wavelength of 532 nm. The average power of the green laser did not exceed 20 mW, so its absorption coefficient in TGG is not important. The probe laser wavelength is chosen the shortest to increase the normalized heat release power p (p is inversely proportional to a wavelength of probe radiation). Telescope 10 transformed the beam so that it was 0.45 mm in diameter at the input of the crystals and 0.68 mm at the output (with switched off laser 1). This geometry allows partial compensation of thermal lens. The radiation was linearly polarized past Glan’s plate 6. Pump beam diameter in the second series of experiments was also reduced down to 0.63 mm at the input of the crystals 4 and to 1.0 mm at the output.

The results of the experiment are presented in Fig. 4(b). Curves 6 and 7 were plotted taking into account the change in the beam diameters of both lasers caused by the thermal lens. However, experimental and numerical results agree well only for small pump power. As power is increased, the experiment and the theory agree only qualitatively. This discrepancy is explained by strong thermally induced aberration in TGG crystals. Depolarization strongly depends on the intensity profiles of the pump beam and of the test beam. However, it is rather difficult to control intensity distribution of these beams for each pump power. Besides, the test beam and the pump beam were aligned in experiment to finite accuracy, which could also affect measurement results. Note, there is a small difference between 3,4 and 7,8 curves in Fig. 4 because these curves was calculated for different pump and probe beam profiles.

In spite of some difference in the results of experiment and theory, from Fig. 4 it follows that the depolarization γ in a TGG crystal with orientation [110] did not exceed 10%, and dropped down to 3% with a further power increase, which is in agreement with the theory. Still further increase of power would again give rise to the growth of γ that would reach γmin∝. after some oscillations. For the parameters used in the experiment γmin∝=5%, and for the [001] orientation γmin∝=15%. Thus, the earlier predicted advantage [21

21. I. Shoji and T. Taira, “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048–3050 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

] of the [110] orientation at large pump power was confirmed in experiment.

Fig. 4. Experimental (points) and numerically calculated (curves) dependences of depolarization ratio γ on pump power for TGG crystal: γmax([110]) circles and curves 1,5; γmin([110]) squares and curves 2,6; γmin([001]) curves 3, 7; and γ([111] ) curve 4, 8

4. Conclusion

We investigated in experiment depolarization in a [110] oriented cubic crystal at large heat generation power. The results of measurements qualitatively and quantitatively confirm correctness of the depolarization theory developed in the works [21

21. I. Shoji and T. Taira, “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048–3050 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Experiments confirmed that, at large heat generation power, [110] is optimal orientation, provided that pump and test beam diameters are much less that diameter of the crystal. Thus, in a YAG crystal the [110] orientation is optimal if the diameter of the flat-top pump beam is 3.5 times less than the crystal diameter [22

22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

The [110] orientation is the most promising for disk geometry of an active element and in crystalline fibers. At the same time, in the case of edge diode pumping, the [110] orientation may be effectively used in rods too.

References and links

1.

A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).

2.

W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering. (Berlin: Springer, 1999).

3.

F. W. Quelle, “Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 5, 633–637 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. D. Sims, A. Stein, and C. Roth, “Rods pumped by flash lamps,” Appl. Opt. 6, 579–580 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

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6.

I. B. Vitrishchak, L. N. Soms, and A. A. Tarasov, “On intrinsic polarizations of a resonator with thermally distorted active element,” Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. , 44, 1055–1062 (1974) (in Russian).

7.

N. Gopi, T. P. S. Nathan, and B. K. Sinha, “Experimental studies of transient, thermal depolarization in a Nd:glass laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2259–2265 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Anan’ev and N. I. Grishmanova, “Deformation of active elements of interferometer and thermooptical constant Nd: glass,” Prikladnaya spektroskopiya 12, 668–673 (1970).

9.

A. A. Mak, V. M. Mit’kin, and L. N. Soms, “About thermooptical constant of doped glasses,” Optiko-mechanicheskaya promishlennost 9, 65–66 (1971).

10.

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, “Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970). [CrossRef]

11.

G. A. Massey, “Criterion for selection of cw laser host materials to increase available power in the fundamental mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 213–215 (1970). [CrossRef]

12.

W. Koechner, “Absorbed pump power, thermal profile and stresses in a cw pumped Nd:YAG crystal,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1429–1434 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Effect of birefringence on the performance of linearly polarized YAG:Nd lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557–566 (1970). [CrossRef]

14.

M. A. Karr, “Nd:YAIG laser cavity loss due to an internal Brewster polarizer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 893–895 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd:YAG laser amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884–1891 (1993). [CrossRef]

16.

S. D. Jackson and J. A. Piper, “Thermally induced strain and birefringence calculations for a Nd:YAG rod encapsulated in a solid pump light collector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1409–1423 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Schmid, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, “Analytical model of the temperature distribution and the thermally induced birefringence in laser rods with cylindrically symmetric heating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1398–1404 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, “Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758–766 (1971). [CrossRef]

19.

L. N. Soms, A. A. Tarasov, and V. V. Shashkin, “On the problem of depolarization of linearly polarized light by a YAG:Nd3+ laser rod under conditions of thermally induced birefringence,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 10, 350–351 (1980). [CrossRef]

20.

L. N. Soms and A. A. Tarasov, “Thermal deformation in color-center laser active elements. 1.Theory,” Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1506–1508 (1979). [CrossRef]

21.

I. Shoji and T. Taira, “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048–3050 (2002). [CrossRef]

22.

I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, “Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers,” JETP Lett. 81, 120–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, “Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power,” Appl. Opt. 41, 483–492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

V. Parfenov, V. Shashkin, and A. Stepanov, “Numerical investigation of thermally induced birefringence in optical elements of solid-state lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5243–5255 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967). [CrossRef]

26.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals in Russian ( Nauka, Moscow1975) pp. 256 c.

27.

D. S. Zheleznov, A. V. Voitovich, I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, and E. A. Khazanov, “Considerable reduction of thermooptical distortions in Faraday isolators cooled to 77 K,” Quantum Electron. 36, 383–388 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 5, 2009
Revised Manuscript: March 12, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: March 14, 2009
Published: March 23, 2009

Citation
Ivan Mukhin, Oleg Palashov, and Efim Khazanov, "Reduction of thermally induced depolarization of laser radiation in [110] oriented cubic crystals," Opt. Express 17, 5496-5501 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-7-5496


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References

  1. A. V. Mezenov, L. N. Soms, and A. I. Stepanov, Thermooptics of solid-state lasers. (Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986).
  2. W. Koechner, Solid-state laser engineering. (Berlin: Springer, 1999).
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  6. I. B.  Vitrishchak, L. N.  Soms, and A. A.  Tarasov, "On intrinsic polarizations of a resonator with thermally distorted active element," Zh. Tekhn. Fiz.,  44, 1055-1062 (1974) (in Russian).
  7. N. Gopi, T. P. S. Nathan, and B. K. Sinha, "Experimental studies of transient, thermal depolarization in a Nd:glass laser rod," Appl. Opt. 29, 2259-2265 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Anan'ev and N. I. Grishmanova, "Deformation of active elements of interferometer and thermooptical constant Nd: glass," Prikladnaya spektroskopiya 12, 668-673 (1970).
  9. A. A. Mak, V. M. Mit'kin, and L. N. Soms, "About thermooptical constant of doped glasses," Optiko-mechanicheskaya promishlennost 9, 65-66 (1971).
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  12. W. Koechner, "Absorbed pump power, thermal profile and stresses in a cw pumped Nd:YAG crystal," Appl. Opt. 9, 1429-1434 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, "Effect of birefringence on the performance of linearly polarized YAG:Nd lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557-566 (1970). [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Karr, "Nd:YAIG laser cavity loss due to an internal Brewster polarizer," Appl. Opt. 10, 893-895 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, "Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd:YAG laser amplifier," J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993). [CrossRef]
  16. S. D. Jackson and J. A. Piper, "Thermally induced strain and birefringence calculations for a Nd:YAG rod encapsulated in a solid pump light collector," Appl. Opt. 35, 1409-1423 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Schmid, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Analytical model of the temperature distribution and the thermally induced birefringence in laser rods with cylindrically symmetric heating," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1398-1404 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, "Birefringence of YAG:Nd laser rods as a function of growth direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758-766 (1971). [CrossRef]
  19. L. N. Soms, A. A. Tarasov, and V. V. Shashkin, "On the problem of depolarization of linearly polarized light by a YAG:Nd3+ laser rod under conditions of thermally induced birefringence," Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 10, 350-351 (1980). [CrossRef]
  20. L. N. Soms and A. A. Tarasov, "Thermal deformation in color-center laser active elements. 1.Theory," Sov. J. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1506-1508 (1979). [CrossRef]
  21. I. Shoji and T. Taira, "Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in solid-state lasers by use of a (110)-cut Y3Al5O12 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048-3050 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, E. A. Khazanov, and I. A. Ivanov, "Influence of the orientation of a crystal on thermal polarization effects in high-power solid-state lasers," JETP Lett. 81, 120-124 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. E. Khazanov, N. Andreev, O. Palashov, A. Poteomkin, A. Sergeev, O. Mehl, and D. Reitze, "Effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal orientation on the isolation ratio of a Faraday isolator at high average power," Appl. Opt. 41, 483-492 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. Parfenov, V. Shashkin, and A. Stepanov, "Numerical investigation of thermally induced birefringence in optical elements of solid-state lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 5243-5255 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. W. Dixon, "Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967). [CrossRef]
  26. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals in Russian (Nauka, Moscow 1975) pp. 256 c.
  27. D. S. Zheleznov, A. V. Voitovich, I. B. Mukhin, O. V. Palashov, and E. A. Khazanov, "Considerable reduction of thermooptical distortions in Faraday isolators cooled to 77 K," Quantum Electron. 36, 383-388 (2006). [CrossRef]

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