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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 8 — Apr. 13, 2009
  • pp: 6759–6769
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Ultra-broadband amplification properties of Ni 2+ -doped glass-ceramics amplifiers

Chun Jiang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 8, pp. 6759-6769 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.006759


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Abstract

The energy level, transition configuration and mathematical model of Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics amplifiers are presented for the first time, to the best of one’s knowledge. A quasi-three-level system is employed to model the gain and noise characteristics of the doped system, and the rate and power propagation equations of the mathematical model are solved to analyze the effect of the active ion concentration, fiber length, pump power as well as thermal-quenching on the gain spectra. It is shown that our model is in agreement with experimental result, and when excited at longer wavelength, the center of gain spectra of the amplifier red shifts, the ultra-broad band room-temperature gain spectra can cover 1.25–1.65μm range for amplification of signal in the low-loss windows of the all-wave fiber without absorption peak caused by OH group.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is promising for large capacity optical transmission system and networks because it allows thousands of channels with different wavelengths to be transmitted simultaneously in an all-wave fiber with 400nm low-loss bandwidth. The usable spectral band for a WDM system depends strongly on gain bandwidth of fiber amplifiers. Currently, Pr3+-doped fluoride amplifiers, Er3+-doped amplifiers and Tm3+-doped amplifiers were used for 1.31μm (O-band), 1.47μm (S-band), 1.55μm (C and L bands) windows, respectively. However, they and their combination cannot form seamless gain spectra to utilize the low loss windows. Transition metal ion-doped materials have shown broadband emissions, for instance, Cr3+ ion [1

1. M.Yu. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Pertricevic, R. R. Alfano, G. H. Beall, and N. Borrelli, “Spectroscopic study of transparent forsterite nanocrystalline glass-ceramics doped with chromium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2046–2052, (2004). [CrossRef]

]
and Ni2+ ion [2–4

2. T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Broadband 1400 nm emission from Ni2+ in zinc-alumino-silicate glass,” Appl. Phys Lett , 84 3804–3806 (2004). [CrossRef]

]
have wide emission in 1.1 to 1.7μm range, centered around 1300nm. In Ni2+-doped glass ceramics, Ni2+ ion is in octahedral crystal site, which can make great contribution to the 1300nm broadband fluorescence spectra [5–16

5. B. Wu, S. Zhou, J. Ruan, Y. Qiao, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Energy transfer between Cr3+ and Ni2+ in transparent silicate glass ceramics containing Cr3+/Ni2+ co-doped ZnAl2O4 nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 16, 2508–2513 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
. Ni2+ ion-doped glass ceramics have several absorption bands, which individually has peak in the ranges 0.3–0.4μm, 0.4–0.5μm, 0.5–0.6μm, 0.6–0.7μm, 0.7–0.8μm, 0.8–0.9μm and 1.0–1.10μm, and the absorption peaks and their intensity depends on specific glass-ceramics composition. The stronger absorption bands arise separately from the 3A2 (F)-3T1 (F), 3A2 (F)-3T2 (F) transitions of the Ni2+ ions in the sites. So far, all the studies on these doped systems just concentrated on the absorption and emission properties. Owing to importance of the doped systems for broadband amplification of telecommunication wavelength, a theoretical model should be desirable for designing and optimizing the doped broadband amplifiers. In this paper, the energy level, transition configuration and mathematical model of Ni2+-doped glass- ceramics amplifier is presented for the first time, to the best of one’s knowledge. A quasi-three-level system is employed to model the gain and noise characteristics of the doped system, and the rate and power propagation equations of the model are solved to analyze the effect of the active ion concentration, fiber length, pump power as well as ambient temperature on the gain spectra.

2. Amplifier model

2.1 Energy level configuration

Electron configuration of shell layer of Ni2+ ion is 3d84s0, the s and d electrons of transition metal ion in glasses and crystals have stronger coupling to the phonons of the host surrounding the ion, and the energy levels of the ion are split into many sublevels due to stronger electron-phonon coupling and Stark-split effects. The ground level is 3 A 2g (F), the absorption bands caused by 3 A 2(F) - 3 T 2(F, 3 A2(F) - 3 T 1(F) transitions are centered the range 1000–1100nm, 600–700nm [7

7. S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
, respectively. Thus, a quasi-three-level coordination configuration including electron-phonon coupling may be used to describe the energy level, electron transition process (Fig.1).

2.2 Rate and power propagation equations

A laser in the range 1000–1100nm is used to pump the doped fiber, and, the upper and lower sublevels of the 3 T 2 (F) level act as the excited and meta-stable levels, respectively, and Wpa, Wpe, Wsa, Wse , W23sa, W24sa , A21, A31,A41 represent the pump absorption and emission rates between the ground state and the excited state, the stimulated absorption and emission rate between the ground state and the meta-stable state, the excited state absorption rates from the meta-stable level to the third level, to fourth level, and the spontaneous emission rates from the meta-stable level, third level, fourth level to the ground state, respectively. N1, N2b, N2a, N3, N4 are the population densities of the ground level and the upper-sublevel (excited state) and lower-sublevel (meta-stable state) of the 3 T 2 (F), 3 T 1 (F), 3 T 1 (P) levels. According to Fig.1, the rate equations describing the electron transition among the ground state, excited state (upper sub-level), meta-stable state (lower sub-level), third level and fourth level are expressed as follows:

N1t=(W12pa+W12sa+W12asea)+N1+(A21+W21se+W12asee)N2a+W21peN2b+A31N3+A41N4
N2at=(W12sa+W12asea)N1A21N2a(W21se+W12asee)N2aWesa23N2aWesa24N2a
N2bt=W12paN1W21peN2b
N3t=Wesa23N2aA31N3
N4t=Wesa24N2aA41N4
N=N1+N2a+N2b+N3+N4
(1)
Fig. 1. Schematic of quasi-three-level system presented using configuration coordinate with electro-phonon coupling

The power propagation equations describing pump, signal and spontaneous emission propagating through the active fiber are expressed as

dPp(z,t)dz=PpΓp(σpaN1σpeN2b)αpPp
dPs(z,t)dz=PsΓs(σseN2aσsaN1σsa23N2bσsa24N2a)αsPs
dPa(z,t)dz=PaΓs(σseN2aσsaN1)+2σseN2aΓshvsΔvαsPa
(2)

Where W12sa=σ12saPshvsAeff,W12se=σ12sePshvsAeff,W12pa=σ12paPphvpAeff,W12pe=σ12pePphvpAeff,

W23sa=σ23saPshvsAeff,W24sa=σ24saPshvsAeff,W12asea=σ12aseaPasehvaseAeff,W12asee=σ12aseePasehvaseAeff, And σ12sa, σ12se, σ12pa, σ12pe, σ23sa24sa, σ12ase-a, σ12ase-e represent the absorption and emission cross sections of signal, pump, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and the absorption cross sections from the second level to third level, to fourth level, respectively. Generally, σ12ase-a = σ12sa12ase-e = σ12se, and assumecr σ23sa = σ34sa = σ12sa. PP, PS, Pa are the powers of pump, signal and ASE, respectively, and Γp, Γs, Γa are overlap factors at pump, signal and ASE wavelengths, respectively, and υ is frequency, α(v) is the frequency-dependent background loss of the active fiber. Aeff and h are effective area of fiber core, Plank constant, respectively, and Δv is bandwidth of ASE. The equation group (2) forms a system of coupled differential equations, which are solved by numerical integration along the active fiber using Runge-Kutta method.

3. Results

3.1 Parameters used in calculation

The absorption and emission spectra as a function of wavelength result from SiO2-Al2O3-Li2O systems [6

6. S. Zhou, G. Feng, B. Wu, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium- alumino-silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near-infrared light source,”J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 2472–2475 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
, the emission spectrum covers the wavelength from 1100 to 1700nm and centered around 1300nm, and the absorption spectrum covers the wavelength from 800 to 1400 nm and centered around 1100 nm. The stimulated emission cross sections as a function of wavelength coincide with the profile of spontaneous emission spectrum, which was expressed by the following formula [6

6. S. Zhou, G. Feng, B. Wu, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium- alumino-silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near-infrared light source,”J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 2472–2475 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
:

σ(λ)=λ2g(λ)η8πn2τ
(3)

Where λ is wavelength, g(λ) is the normalized spontaneous emission shape function, n is the host refractive index, and τ is the emission lifetime, η is quantum efficiency. σ at the peak of the band can be estimated by the following formula:

σ=λ02η4πn2τ(ln2π)121Δv1/2
(4)

Where λ 0, Δv 1/2 are the center wavelength and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission band. Since the accurate absorption and emission cross sections as function of wavelength are not available in refs. [6

6. S. Zhou, G. Feng, B. Wu, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium- alumino-silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near-infrared light source,”J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 2472–2475 (2007). [CrossRef]

,7

7. S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], here, the data have to be cited from references [9

9. T. Suzuki, K. Horibuchi, and Y. Ohishi, “Structural and optical properties of ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics Containing Ni2+-doped nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst.Solids 351, 2304–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]

] with similar alumina-silicate system, σe =1.3×10-20 cm 2 with η= 0.55 , n=1.59, λ 0 =1380nm, τ = 240μs. The calculated μ and hence σ are considered as upper limits, and the σ(λ) at other wavelengths according to measured emission spectra is gotten and shown in Fig.2. The absorption spectra as a function of wavelength results from same references and covers the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm. According to the absorption coefficients [9

9. T. Suzuki, K. Horibuchi, and Y. Ohishi, “Structural and optical properties of ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics Containing Ni2+-doped nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst.Solids 351, 2304–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]

]
, with formula α = σa × CN, σa at every wavelength can be obtained. Light speed c in vacuum is 3×108 m/s, Planck constant h is 6.626×10-34 m2. kg /s, dielectric loss coefficient 0.1cm-1, the emission cross section at pump wavelength (σpe) is 0.2×10-20cm2, the absorption cross section at the wavelength (σpa) is 1.3×10-20cm2, overlap factor Γs, Γp are considered approximately as 0.8 and 0.5, respectively and the radius of the optical fiber r=2.5×10-6 m, pump wavelength is 1.1×10-6 m.

Fig. 2. Calculated absorption and emission cross sections as functions of wavelength from absorption and emission spectra [6, 7, 9].
Fig. 3. Comparison of calculated normalized gain of Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics with normalized measured gain, the measured results from reference [7]

3.2 Comparison with experimental result

The gain of Ni2+-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO (SAM) glasses was measured at 1300nm [7

7. S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
. To verify proposed model, same parameters as the sample are used to calculate the gain at 1300 nm. Since the background loss in the reference is not available, the calculated gain and the measured gain from the reference have to be normalized and plotted in Fig.3 where solid line represents calculated value, and the measured one is denoted using circle, it is shown that normalized calculated gain is in agreement with the normalized measured gain, verifying feasibility of the model.

3.3 Fiber parameter dependence

The variations of calculated gain spectra with fiber length is shown in Fig.4 with active ion concentration of 7.0×1024 ions/ m3 and pump power of 200mW and input signal power of 10-3 mW. It is shown from the figure that when the fiber length increases from 2.0 to 8.0 m, the peak of the gain spectra varies from 36.0dB at 1350nm to 38.0dB, 37.0dB, 36.0dB at 1380nm, and the gain at 1250nm varies from 7.5 to -4.0B, -19.0dB, -39.0dB, and the gain at 1650nm varies from 0.0 to 0.0B, -1.0dB, -4.0dB. Thus, when fiber length equals to 2m, the gains at the wavelength 1250–1650nm have positive values.

Fig. 4. Variation of gain spectra with fiber length, where active ion concentration N=7×1024 ions/m3, pump power P=200mW and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

Figure 5 plots the variation of the gain spectra with active ion concentration and with fixed fiber length at 4m and fixed pump power at 200mW and fixed input signal power at 10-3mW. It is illustrated from the figure that when the concentration increases from 2.0×1024 to 1.8×1025 ions/m3, the peak of the gain spectra varies from 21.0 at 1330nm to 37.0dB at 1350nm, 38.5dB at 1390nm, 38.5dB at 1390nm, and the gain at 1250nm varies from 1.0d to 2.0dB, 0.0dB, -55.0dB, the gain at 1650nm is in the range 0╌3.0dB. Hence, the higher the active ion concentration, the higher the gains of signal in the range 1350–1600nm.

Fig. 5. Effect of active ion concentration on gain spectra, where fiber length L= 4m, pump power P=200mW and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

The noise figure (NF) spectra as a function of signal wavelength are calculated using the following equation [17

17. C. Randy Giles and E. Desuvire, “Modeling erbium- doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991). [CrossRef]

]
:

NF=(1/G+Pase/Ghv)
(5)

Where G is gain, Pase is power of ASE, h and v are Plank constant and frequency, respectively. The result is shown in Fig. 7 with active ion concentration 1.8×1025 ions/m3 and pump power 500mW and fiber length 4m and input signal power 10-3mW. It is revealed from the figure that the larger NF appears at the wavelength range 1250–1350 nm and the minimum (5.0dB) occurs around 1400 nm, and NFs at longer wavelengths are near 10.0 dB.

Fig. 6. Effect of pump power on gain spectra, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.
Fig. 7. Noise figure as a function of signal wavelength, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, pump power P=500mW, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

3.4 Temperature dependence

The internal fluorescence quantum efficiency η is defined as the ratio of fluorescence intensity of the transition at given temperature (K) to the intensity at 5K, and η = wr/(wr + wnr) = 1/(1+wnr τ), where wr, wnr are radiation transition and non-radiation transition rates, respectively. Here, let us analyze effect of ambient temperature on the gain spectra. For the gap much larger than the energy of the phonon involved, the non-radiation decay rate is inversely proportional to the exponential of the energy gap separating the two levels [18

18. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. (Marcei Dekker Inc.,, New York,USA,2001), 2nd Chapter. [CrossRef]

]
:

Wnr=C[n(T)+1]pe(αΔE)
(6)

Where C and α are host-dependent parameters, ΔE is the energy gap between the ground and meta-stable levels, p is the number of phonon required to bridge the gap, and n (T) is the Bose-Einstein occupation number for the effective phonon mode [18

18. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. (Marcei Dekker Inc.,, New York,USA,2001), 2nd Chapter. [CrossRef]

]
:

n(T)=1/[exp(ħω/kT)1]
(7)

Where ω is the phonon angular frequency. The non-radiation rate increases with increasing temperature because of the temperature dependence contained in n (T), and C, α, p(orħω) are considered as host-dependent empirical parameters and but they are insensitive to the active ion and energy level involved. The parameters describing the non-radiation relaxation of Ni2+ ions in silicate glass is C =2.9×1012/s, α =3.8×10-3cm, ħω = 1400 cm-1 [18

18. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. (Marcei Dekker Inc.,, New York,USA,2001), 2nd Chapter. [CrossRef]

]
.

Fig. 8. Temperature dependence of gain spectra, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, pump power=500mW, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

With the above parameters, the effect of ambient temperature on gain spectra is plotted in Fig. 8 with active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, pump wavelength/power of 1100nm/500mW, fiber length of 4m and input signal power of 10-3mW. It is revealed from the figure that when the temperature increases from 100 to 300 K, the peak of the gain spectra varies from 48.0 dB at 1390nm to 40.5dB at 1350nm, and the gain at 1250nm increases from -30.0 to -12.0 dB, 9.5dB. At room temperature (300K), the positive gain spectra covers from 1250 to 1650nm, the pump power and fiber length and doping concentration may be tuned to make the room-temperature gain spectra shift toward the long wavelength.

3.5 Effect of glass base

It was reported that the center of the emission spectrum of SiO2-Al2O3-ZnO (SAZ) system is near 1400nm [2

2. T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Broadband 1400 nm emission from Ni2+ in zinc-alumino-silicate glass,” Appl. Phys Lett , 84 3804–3806 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. T. Suzuki, K. Horibuchi, and Y. Ohishi, “Structural and optical properties of ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics Containing Ni2+-doped nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst.Solids 351, 2304–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]

]
. Here, the room-temperature gain spectra of SAZ and SAM are calculated and are shown in Fig.9 with pump 1100nm/500mW and active ion concentration of 1.8×1025 ions/m3 and fiber length of 4 m and input signal power of 10-3 mW. It is shown from the figure that the center of gain spectra of SAZ appears near 1400 nm and has longer wavelength than the center (1350 nm) of gain spectrum of SAM, this difference in center wavelength may arise from different site structure in the two systems.

Fig. 9. Gain spectra of SAM and SAZ glass systems, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, pump wavelength/power=1100nm/500mW, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

3.6 Effect of pump wavelength

The gain spectra of SAZ system pumped at 1200 nm is shown in Fig.10 with same pump power, dopant concentration, fiber length and input signal power as the above case. It is shown from the figure that the peak (25.0 dB) of the gain spectra is at 1450nm, the gains at 1250 nm and 1650 nm are -20.0 dB, 1.0 dB, respectively. Compared with the gain spectra pumped at 1100nm, the center of gain spectra red-shifts 50nm (from 1400 to 1450nm), an optimal pump wavelength should be chosen to make the whole gain spectra in the 1250-1650nm range be positive.

Fig. 10. Gain spectra of SAZ glass system, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, pump wavelength/power=1200nm/500mW, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

4. Discussion

It is shown from the Fig. 4 that in SAM host, with active ion concentration of 7.0×1024 ions/ m3 and pump power of 200mW and input signal power of 10-3 mW, when fiber length is equal to 2.0m, the gains in the wavelength range 1250–1650nm have positive value. Also, it is shown from Fig.10 that in SAZ host, the peak (25.0 dB) of the gain spectra is around 1450nm, the gains at 1250 nm and 1650 nm are -20.0 dB, 1.0 dB, respectively. Compared with the gain spectra pumped at 1100nm, the center of gain spectra red-shifts 50nm (from 1400 to 1450nm). Although thermal quenching at room temperature is severe, with higher pump power (500mW), the positive gain spectra at 300K still covers the range 1310–1650nm. The pump wavelength and power, fiber length and doping concentration may be further changed to tune the room-temperature gain spectra.

Fig. 11. Effect of pump power on room-temperature gain spectra and noise figure spectra, where active ion concentration N=1.8×1025 ions/m3, fiber length L=4m and input signal power Ps=10-3mW.

The room-temperature gain spectra and noise figure spectra of the SAZ pumped with 300,600,900mW powers at 1200 nm are calculated and plotted in Fig.11. The peak of gain spectra varies from15.0 to 29.0, to 32.5 dB, and the peak is approaching to saturation with increasing pump power. The positive gain spectra with 600mW is in the range 1310 to 1675 nm, covering most of low-loss windows of all-wave fiber without the absorption band caused by OH group. And the noise figure in the wavelength range 1250–1350nm is in the range 7.00–27.0dB, and that in the range 1370–1650nm is around 5.0dB. It is necessary to optimize the fiber parameter, pump configuration as well as glass composition of which the amplifier is made to further reduce the ripple of the gain spectra.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, the energy levels, transition configuration and numerical model of Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics amplifier have been presented. A quasi-three-level system was employed to model the gain and noise characteristics of the broadband amplifier, and the rate and power propagation equations of the numerical model were solved to analyze the effect of the active ion concentration, fiber length, pumping power as well as ambient temperature on the gain spectra. It was shown that the gain spectra was sensitive to the ambient temperature due to thermal quenching, with high pump power and being pumped at 1100–1200nm, the amplifier had a ultra-broad band room-temperature gain spectra in the 1.25–1.65μm range, which may cover the low-loss windows of the all-wave fiber without the absorption peak caused by OH group. The fiber parameters and the glass composition of which amplifier is made will be tailored to reduce ripple of the gain spectra.

Acknowledgment

Reference and links

1.

M.Yu. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Pertricevic, R. R. Alfano, G. H. Beall, and N. Borrelli, “Spectroscopic study of transparent forsterite nanocrystalline glass-ceramics doped with chromium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2046–2052, (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Broadband 1400 nm emission from Ni2+ in zinc-alumino-silicate glass,” Appl. Phys Lett , 84 3804–3806 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Suzuki, G. S. Murugan, and Y. Ohishi, “Optical properties of transparent Li2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131903 (2005). [CrossRef]

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S. García-Revilla, P.G. erner, H. U. Güdel, and R. Valiente, “Yb3+-sensitized visible Ni2+ photon upconversion in codoped CsCdBr3 and CsMgBr3,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125111 (2005). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Wu, S. Zhou, J. Ruan, Y. Qiao, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Energy transfer between Cr3+ and Ni2+ in transparent silicate glass ceramics containing Cr3+/Ni2+ co-doped ZnAl2O4 nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 16, 2508–2513 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Zhou, G. Feng, B. Wu, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium- alumino-silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near-infrared light source,”J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 2472–2475 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, G. Feng, B. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in silicate glass-ceramic containing ß-Ga2O3:Ni2+ nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 15, 5477–5481 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

B. Wu, S. Zhou, J. Ren, D. Chen, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from transparent glass-ceramics containing Ni2+-doped β-Ga2O3 nano-crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 697–699 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

T. Suzuki, K. Horibuchi, and Y. Ohishi, “Structural and optical properties of ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics Containing Ni2+-doped nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst.Solids 351, 2304–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]

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B. Wu, N. Jiang, S. Zhou, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped silicate glass ceramics for broadband near-infrared emission,” Opt.Mater. 30, 1900–1904 (2008). [CrossRef]

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B. Wu, J. Qiu, M. Peng, J. Ren, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramics with broadband infrared luminescence,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42, 762–768 (2007). [CrossRef]

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G. Feng, S. Zhou, J. Bao, X. Wang, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Transparent Ni2+-doped lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics with broadband infrared luminescence,” J. Alloys Compd. 457, 506–509 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Xu, D. Deng, R. Bao, H. Ju, S. Zhao, H. Wang, and B. Wang, “Ni2+-doped new silicate glass-ceramics for super broadband optical amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1548–1552(2008). [CrossRef]

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R. Moncorge and T. Benyattou, “Excited absorption of Ni2+ in MgF2 and MgO,” Phys. Rev. B. 37, 9186 (1988). [CrossRef]

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N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, S. Kuck, J. Koetke, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopy and excited absorption of Ni2+ in MgAl2O4,” J. Lumin. 71, 265 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

P. F. Moulton, Laser Handbook,vol.5 (1985), p. 203.

17.

C. Randy Giles and E. Desuvire, “Modeling erbium- doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991). [CrossRef]

18.

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. (Marcei Dekker Inc.,, New York,USA,2001), 2nd Chapter. [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(250.4480) Optoelectronics : Optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: December 19, 2008
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 19, 2009
Published: April 9, 2009

Citation
Chun Jiang, "Ultra-broadband amplification properties of Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 6759-6769 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-8-6759


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