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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 9 — Apr. 27, 2009
  • pp: 6946–6951
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Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber

Hai-Tao Huang, Bai-Tao Zhang, Jing-Liang He, Jian-Fei Yang, Jin-Long Xu, Xiu-Qin Yang, Chun-Hua Zuo, and Shuang Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 9, pp. 6946-6951 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.006946


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Abstract

The performance of a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The focal lengths of thermal lens in the diode-end-pumped Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser for the 1.34μm transition was experimentally investigated, with the corresponding proportion constant estimated to be ~1.5×104W/mm. For the passive Q-switching operation, the maximum average output power of 0.96W was achieved under the pump power of 7.28W, corresponding to optical-to-optical conversion and slope efficiency of 13.2% and 17.6%, respectively. The minimum pulse width attained was 47.8ns with the pulse repetition frequency of 76kHz, with the single pulse energy and peak power estimated to be 8.7/μJ and 182W, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

As for the pulsed laser operation at 1.34μm, several saturable absorbers such as Co2+-doped crystals [10

10. H. T. Huang, J. L. He, C. H. Zuo, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “Co2+:LMA crystal as saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 319–321 (2007). [CrossRef]

,11

11. W. W. Ge, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, X. F. Cheng, M. H. Jiang, C. L. Du, and S. C. Yuan, “Pulsed laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.34μm Nd:GdVO4 laser with Co:LaMgAl11O19 crystal as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 13, 3883(2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-10-3883. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], semiconductor saturable absorbers (SESAs) [12–14

12. R. Fluck, B. Braun, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Passively Q-switched 1.342-μm Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with semiconductor saturable-absorber mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 991–993 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and V3+-doped crystals [15–17

15. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555–558 (1998). [CrossRef]

] have been employed as the passive Q-switches. The reported experimental results show that the Q-switching efficiency obtained by Co-doped crystals such as Co2+:LMA are usually low [10

10. H. T. Huang, J. L. He, C. H. Zuo, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “Co2+:LMA crystal as saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 319–321 (2007). [CrossRef]

,11

11. W. W. Ge, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, X. F. Cheng, M. H. Jiang, C. L. Du, and S. C. Yuan, “Pulsed laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.34μm Nd:GdVO4 laser with Co:LaMgAl11O19 crystal as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 13, 3883(2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-10-3883. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], while a SESA has a lower damage threshold, which limits its application. V3+:YAG crystals have attracted great interest due to their excellent physical and optical performance at 1.34μm, such as high damage threshold, short absorption recovery time of about 5 ns, high ground state absorption cross-section of 7.2×10-18cm2, low saturable energy density of 0.05J/cm2 and low residual absorption at 1.34μm [15

15. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555–558 (1998). [CrossRef]

], which makes them an effective passive Q-switch for 1.34μm radiation.

In this paper, the performance of a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The maximum average output power of 0.96W was achieved under the pump power of 7.28W, corresponding to optical-to-optical conversion and slope efficiency of 13.2% and 17.6%, respectively. The minimum pulse width attained was 47.8ns with the pulse repetition frequency of 76kHz, with the single pulse energy and peak power estimated to be 8.7μJ and 182W, respectively.

2. Experimental setup

Fig. 1. The schematic diagram of the diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser.

3. Experimental results and analysis

The thermal lensing effect of diode-end-pumped Nd-doped laser at 1.3μm was stronger than that at 1.06μm due to the larger quantum defect as well as strong excited state absorption for the 1.3μm transition [18

18. M. Okida, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, H. Ogilvy, J. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Heat generation in Nd doped vanadate crystals with 1.34 μm laser action,” Opt. Express 13, 4909 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4909 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The focal lengths of thermal lens in diode-end-pumped continuous-wave Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm were determined by referring the methods adopted in Ref. [19

19. Y. T. Chang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I13/2 transitions,” Opt. Express 16, 21155(2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-21155. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The input mirror M1, as shown in Fig. 1, would be replaced by a plane mirror with the identical coatings mentioned above. The output power was optimized near the pump threshold at a given cavity length. While the pump power increased to a critical value, the strong thermal lensing effect caused the laser cavity to become unstable, which would result in a rapid decrease of the continuous-wave output power. The corresponding cavity length could be regarded as the approximate thermal focal length under the corresponding critical pump power. Furthermore, the relationship between the thermal focal length fth and input pump power Pin could be expressed by fth=Cwp2/Pin [19

19. Y. T. Chang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I13/2 transitions,” Opt. Express 16, 21155(2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-21155. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where C was a proportional constant; wp was the pump-beam radius in the active medium. Therefore, the approximate constants C could be obtained by fitting the experimental data with the above formula. Figure 2a showed the corresponding experimental data and theoretical fitted curve, with the C estimated to be ~ 1.5×104W/mm.

Fig. 2. (a). The relationship between the thermal focal length and the inverse of input pump power for the Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm; (b) the output power including the continuous-wave and pulsed operation versus the incident pump power.

The continuous-wave operation of the Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm was performed firstly, with the cavity length adjusted to be 40mm and the concave mirror with 200mm radius of curvature exploited, as shown in Fig. 1. The dependence of output power on the pump power for different output couplers was given in Fig. 2b. As could be seen, when the output couplers T=8% and T=15% were exploited, the maximum output powers of 2.42 and 1.94W were respectively obtained under the pump power of 7.28W, with the threshold pump powers of 0.4 and 0.85W, respectively. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency for the said two situations were estimated to be respectively 33.2% and 26.5%, with the slope efficiency estimated to be 35.2% and 30.2%, respectively.

To generate efficient passive Q-switching, it is essential that the saturation in the absorber occurs earlier than that in the gain medium, which is sometimes termed the second threshold condition [20

20. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462–468 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Usually it can be achieved by augmenting the ratio of the effective mode area in the gain medium to that in the absorber (A/As) for the passively Q-switched Nd-doped lasers. For this passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4/V3+:YAG laser at 1.34μm, the second threshold condition can be easily satisfied due to three contributing factors, which are the relatively smaller stimulated emission cross-section of Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 at 1.34μm (~1.0×10-19cm2 [8

8. Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, H. Yu, Z. Wang, M. Jiang, H. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 995–1001(2008). [CrossRef]

]), the larger ground state absorption cross-section (7.2×10-18cm2 [15

15. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555–558 (1998). [CrossRef]

]) and smaller excited state absorption cross-section (7.4×10-19cm2 [15

15. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555–558 (1998). [CrossRef]

]) of V3+:YAG at 1.34μm. This looses control on the ratio of A/As. According to the measured thermal lens, the beam radius variation versus the pump power for the cavity exploited in our experiment is shown in Fig. 3. As can be seen, the beam radius in the laser crystal is insensitive to the thermal lens at the pump power range below about 8W, while it increases quickly with the pump power exceeding 8W due to the severe thermal lensing effect.

By inserting the V3+:YAG into the cavity adopted in the continuous-wave operation, the passive Q-switching operation of the Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm was realized, with the relationship between the average output power and incident pump power also shown in Fig. 2b. The best performance was obtained with the T=15% output coupler exploited. The maximum average output power of 0.96W was achieved under the pump power of 7.28W, corresponding to optical-to-optical conversion and slope efficiency of 13.2% and 17.6%, respectively. The fluctuation at the average output power 0.96 W over hours-long operation was found to be less than 1.0%. The output beam quality factor in this situation was estimated to be <1.5. For the other situation, 0.78W average output power was obtained under the same pump power, with the threshold pump power of 1W. The Q-switching efficiency (ratio of the Q-switched output power to the continuous-wave power at the maximum pump power) were found to be 49.5% and 32.2% for the two situations of T=15% and T=8%, respectively. The relationship between the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the incident pump power was displayed in Fig. 4a. It was found that the PRF increased with the pump powers. When the output couplers with the transmissions of 8% and 15% were exploited, the PRF respectively presented the variations of 42.5–167 kHz and 23–150 kHz with the pump power increasing from 2.24 to 7.28W. Smaller output coupling would lead to higher PRF which coincided with the experimental results shown in Ref [17

17. F. Liu, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Dong, K. Yang, H. Xia, and H. Zhang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1.34μm with a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 11759 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11759. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 3. The beam radius variation versus the pump power.
Fig. 4. (a). The pulse repetition frequency versus the pump power; (b) the pulse widths versus the pump power.

Figure 4b depicted the pulse widths versus the incident pump powers for the two output couplers. As could be seen, the pulse widths for the two output couplers presented the similar variation trend. They firstly decreased with increasing the pump powers to a certain value, and then slightly increased with pump power. For the Q-switched lasers, when the PRF achieved such a high value that the initial inversion population could not be fully consumed during the interval when the Q-switch was turned on, the rise time of a pulse would be extended, resulting in the generation of stretched pulses. So the slight increase of the pulse widths was observed in our experiment. The minimum pulse width of 47.8ns with the PRF of 76kHz was attained with the T=15% output coupler under the pump power of 5.12W, with the maximum single pulse energy and peak power estimated to be 8.7μJ and 182W, respectively. The temporal pulse profiles for the above situation, along with the corresponding train of pulses, were shown in Figs. 5a and 5b, respectively.

Fig. 5. (a). The temporal pulse profile taken at the pump power of 5.12W with T=15% output coupler exploited; (b) the corresponding pulse train.

4. Summary

In summary, a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber was demonstrated in this paper. The focal lengths of thermal lens in the diode-end-pumped Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser for the 1.34μm transition was experimentally investigated, with the corresponding proportion constant estimated to be ~ 1.5×104W/mm. The maximum continuous-wave output power of 2.42W was achieved with the T=8% output coupler under the pump power of 7.28W. As for the passive Q-switching operation under the same pump power, the maximum average output power of 0.96W was attained with the T=15% output coupler, corresponding to optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 13.2%, higher than that of the previously published results [10–13

10. H. T. Huang, J. L. He, C. H. Zuo, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “Co2+:LMA crystal as saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 319–321 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. F. Liu, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Dong, K. Yang, H. Xia, and H. Zhang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1.34μm with a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 11759 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11759. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The minimum pulse width attained was 47.8ns with the pulse repetition frequency of 76kHz, with the single pulse energy and peak power estimated to be 8.7μJ and 182W, respectively.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: 60878012, and 50721002), the Grander Independent Innovation Project of Shandong Province Grant No: 2006GG1103047, and Program for Taishan Scholars. He Jing-Liang’s e-mail address is jlhe@sdu.edu.cn.

References and links

1.

L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, “Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273–278 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, “Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289–1291 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, “Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2330–2332 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. L. He, Y. X. Fan, J. Du, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, L. H. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “4-ps passively mode-locked Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2803–2805 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, J. Kong, L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, and Z. J. Xiong, “Passive mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 475–477 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, “Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 234, 305–308 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror,” Opt. Commun. 259, 256–260 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, H. Yu, Z. Wang, M. Jiang, H. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, “Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 series laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 995–1001(2008). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Li, Y. Li, Y. Sun, X. Hou, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Passively Q-switched 1.34 μm Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 14, 7730(2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7730. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, C. H. Zuo, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “Co2+:LMA crystal as saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 319–321 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

W. W. Ge, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, X. F. Cheng, M. H. Jiang, C. L. Du, and S. C. Yuan, “Pulsed laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.34μm Nd:GdVO4 laser with Co:LaMgAl11O19 crystal as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 13, 3883(2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-10-3883. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Fluck, B. Braun, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Passively Q-switched 1.342-μm Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with semiconductor saturable-absorber mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 991–993 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Li, S.C. Liu, K. W. Su, Y. L. Liao, S. C. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “InGaAsP quantum-wells saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched 1.3μm lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 429–431 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

H. C. Lai, A. Li, K. W. Su, M. L. Ku, Y. F. Chen, and K. F. Huang, “InAs/GaAs quantum-dot saturable absorbers for diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd-doped 1.3μm lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 480–482 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, “V:YAG-a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 555–558 (1998). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, J. He, B. Zhang, C. Zuo, G. Li, D. Li, and M. Li, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched and modelocked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34μm with V:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 20176 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

F. Liu, J. He, B. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Dong, K. Yang, H. Xia, and H. Zhang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1.34μm with a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16, 11759 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11759. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Okida, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, H. Ogilvy, J. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Heat generation in Nd doped vanadate crystals with 1.34 μm laser action,” Opt. Express 13, 4909 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4909 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. T. Chang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Comparison of thermal lensing effects between single-end and double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystals for 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I13/2 transitions,” Opt. Express 16, 21155(2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-21155. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, “Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462–468 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 26, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 6, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: April 6, 2009
Published: April 13, 2009

Citation
Hai-Tao Huang, Bai-Tao Zhang, Jing-Liang He, Jian-Fei Yang, Jin-Long Xu, Xiu-Qin Yang, Chun-Hua Zuo, and Shuang Zhao, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser at 1.34μm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber," Opt. Express 17, 6946-6951 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-6946


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References

  1. L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, J. H. Liu, B. C. Xu, H. Z. Xu, F. Y. Jiang, C. L. Du, and X. Q. Wang, and Z. S. Shao, "Influence of the different Gd/Y ratio on the properties of Nd:YxGd1?xVO4 mixed crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 273-278 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1?xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Liu, Z. P. Wang, X. L. Meng, and Z. Shao, "Improvement of passive Q-switching performance reached with a new Nd-doped mixed vanadate crystal Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4," Opt. Lett. 28, 2330-2332 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. L. He, Y. X. Fan, J. Du, Y. G. Wang, S. Liu, H. T. Wang, L. H. Zhang, and Y. Hang, "4-ps passively mode-locked Nd:Gd0.5Y0.5VO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror," Opt. Lett. 29, 2803-2805 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, J. Kong, L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, and Z. J. Xiong, "Passive mode locking of a diode-pumped Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber mirror,"Appl. Phys. B 80, 475-477 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. He, X. Y. Hou, L. Qin, Y. M. Sun, Y. F. Li, H. J. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1?xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, A. Q. Liu, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, "Short pulse passively Q-switched Nd:GdYVO4 laser using a GaAs mirror," Opt. Commun. 259, 256-260 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, H. Yu, Z. Wang, M. Jiang, H. Xia, and R. I. Boughton, "Growth and characterization of Nd:YxGd1?xVO4 series laser crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 995-1001(2008). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Li, Y. Li, Y. Sun, X. Hou, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, "Passively Q-switched 1.34 ?m Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 saturable absorber," Opt. Express 14, 7730(2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7730. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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