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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 9 — Apr. 27, 2009
  • pp: 6962–6967
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Polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF systems based on parallel pump FWM in a SOA

Jia Lu, Ze Dong, Zizeng Cao, Lin Chen, Shuangchun Wen, and Jianguo Yu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 9, pp. 6962-6967 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.006962


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Abstract

We have proposed and experimentally investigated polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF system based on FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The parallel pump is generated based on odd-order optical sidebands and carrier suppression using an external intensity modulator and a cascaded optical filter. Therefore, the two pumps are always parallel and phase locked, which makes system polarization insensitive. After FWM in a SOA and optical filtering, similar to single sideband (SSB) 40GHz optical millimeter-wave is generated only using 10GHz RF as local oscillator (LO). The receiver sensitivity at a BER of 10-9 for the up-converted signals is -28.4dBm. The power penalty for the up-converted downstream signals is smaller than 1dBm after 20km SSMF-28 transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Radio-over-fiber (ROF) is a promising technique in providing broadband wireless access services in the emerging optical-wireless networks [1–20

1. A. J. Cooper, “Fiber/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2054–2056 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. It provides many advantages and benefits compared with electrical signal distribution such as low attenuation loss, large bandwidth, immunity to radio frequency interference, easy installation and maintenance, low power consumption, and multi-service operation. The all-optical up-conversion technique in ROF system provides an effective way to simplify the architecture of the ROF network [5–8

5. K. Kitayama and R. Griffin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287–289 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In order to realize seamless integration of WDM-PON and ROF system, the baseband signals need to be up-converted to RF frequency. Many schemes have been proposed to realize all optical up-conversion signals based on external modulator [9–10

9. Z. Dong, J. Lu, Y. Pi, X. Lei, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream connection in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 736–741 (2008) [CrossRef]

]. In [9

9. Z. Dong, J. Lu, Y. Pi, X. Lei, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream connection in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 736–741 (2008) [CrossRef]

], quadruple frequency millimeter wave (mm-wave) is generated by odd-sidebands suppression modulation technique. Receiver sensitivity is reduced due to the DC-component is removed by an optical filter at receiver. Therefore, the maximum transmission distance of optical mm-wave over fiber will be limited due to the low receiver sensitivity. Fiber dispersion also limits the transmission distance of the optical mm-wave signal. To overcome fiber dispersion, single sideband (SSB) modulation is a good choice [10

10. J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In [10

10. J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008). [CrossRef]

], double frequency mm-wave is generated by SSB modulation. Moreover, these schemes [7–10

7. J. Yu, Z. Jia, and G. K. Chang, “Optical Millimeter Wave Generation or Up-conversion using External Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]

] based on the external modulator are polarization sensitive. Another scheme to accomplish all-optical up-conversion for ROF system is to use four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear medium because of its positive conversion efficiency and wide LO frequency bandwidth [11

11. H. J. Kim, H. J. Song, and J. I. Song, “All-optical frequency up-conversion technique using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for radio-over-fiber applications,” Microwave symposium. 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International, 67–70 (2007).

]. However, only double frequency mm-wave is generated and polarization sensitivity of this FWM system is not discussed in [11

11. H. J. Kim, H. J. Song, and J. I. Song, “All-optical frequency up-conversion technique using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for radio-over-fiber applications,” Microwave symposium. 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International, 67–70 (2007).

]. Recently, polarization insensitive FWM in nonlinear optical fiber based on co-polarized pump scheme has been demonstrated in [12–13

12. J. Yu, Z. Jia, Y. K. Yeo, and G. K. Chang, “Spectrally non-inverting wavelength conversion based on FWM in HNL-DSF and its application in label switching optical network,” in Proceedings of 25th ECOC, 32 (2005).

], which is an effective way to increase the system stability. In [12–13

12. J. Yu, Z. Jia, Y. K. Yeo, and G. K. Chang, “Spectrally non-inverting wavelength conversion based on FWM in HNL-DSF and its application in label switching optical network,” in Proceedings of 25th ECOC, 32 (2005).

], two pumps are generated from different laser source; therefore, their phase is not locked. Moreover, two polarization controllers (PC) are used to keep the two lightwaves to have the same polarization direction. FWM in fiber has large conversion ranges, but due to phase matching requirements, the optical frequency of the pump must be matched closely to the dispersion of the nonlinear waveguide to achieve acceptable efficiency. Although response times of highly detuned FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are less than hundreds of femto-seconds, strongly polarization sensitivity is a significant challenge in wavelength conversion techniques including FWM in fiber or SOA.

In this paper, we have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel polarization insensitive scheme to realize all-optical up-conversion for ROF system with parallel pumps based on FWM in a SOA. Two pumps are generated by an intensity modulator driven by 10 GHz RF signal based on odd-sidebands suppression modulation technique. The central carrier is removed by one cascaded optical filter [10

10. J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Because the two pumps come from the same laser, the pumps always have the same polarization direction and phase locked. Therefore, the operation of all-optical up-conversion is polarization insensitive. After FWM in a SOA, the up-converted signal at 80GHz repetitive frequency, which has the same characteristic of an 80GHz double-sideband (DSB) signal, is generated. An optical filter is used to remove one sideband to obtain quadruple frequency millimeter wave (mm-wave), which is similar to a SSB mm-wave signal [10

10. J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The scheme can also be employed to realize all-optical up-conversion of multi-channel (WDM) signal.

2. Principle

Figure 1 shows the principle of polarization-insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF systems based on parallel pump FWM in a SOA. In the central station, an intensity modulator (IM) and a cascaded optical filter are employed to generate quadruple frequency optical (4f) mm-wave, which the odd-order sidebands and the optical carrier are suppression. Obviously, the generated two second-order sidebands have the parallel polarization direction and phase locked. Then the two pumps are combined with the signal lightwave by using an optical coupler (OC). The two converted new signals can be obtained after FWM process in the SOA. A tunable optical filter (TOF) is used to suppress the pump signal. In this scheme, the optical signal similar to DSB signal is generated, which includes two converted signals and original signal after FWM in SOA. However, when one sideband is removed by an optical filter or optical interleaver (IL), the remaining signal is SSB-like signal, which includes one up-converted sideband and original signals. As we know that SSB signal can realize dispersion free long distance transmission. In the base station, the optical quadruple repetitive frequency mm-wave will be generated when they are detected by O/E converter after transmission. The electrical mm-wave signal after O/E converter will be down-converted by a mixer to retrieve the baseband data.

Fig. 1. The principle of polarization-insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF system based on parallel pump FWM in a SOA. FBG: fiber Bragg grating. OC: optical coupler. SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier. TOF: tunable optical filter. IL: interleaver. EA: electrical amplifier. IM: intensity modulator. SSB: single sideband. DSB: double sideband. PD: photo-diode. BER: bit error ratio. RX: receiver.

3. Experimental setup and results

Fig. 2. Experimental setup and optical spectra for optical signal up-conversion. FBG: fiber Bragg grating. OC: optical coupler. SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier. TOF: tunable optical filter. EA: electrical amplifier. IM: intensity modulator. SSB: single sideband. DSB: double sideband. PD: photo-diode. BER: bit error ratio. EDFA: erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier.

Figure 2 shows the experimental setup for all-optical up-conversion. The lightwave generated from the DFB laser at 1543.8nm is modulated by the IM1 driven by 10GHz sinusoidal wave. The IM1 is DC-biased at the top peak output power when the LO signal is removed. 10GHz RF microwave signal with a peak-to-peak voltage of 12V. The half-wave voltage of the IM is 6V; by this way, the odd-order modes are suppressed. The optical spectrum after IM1 is shown in Fig. 2 as inset (i). We can see that the first-order modes are suppressed and the frequency spacing between the second-order modes is equal to 40GHz. The carrier is removed by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The output optical spectrum of FBG is shown in Fig. 2 as inset (ii). The two second-order sidebands are used as two parallel pumps. Because two pumps come from one laser, the pumps always have the same polarization direction and phase locked. The CW lightwave from another DFB laser at 1537.9nm is modulated by the second IM2 driven by 2.5Gbit/s electrical signal with a PRBS length of 231 -1 to generate regular non-return-to-zero (NRZ) optical signal. The corresponding launched power measured at point (a) and (b) in Fig. 2 is 6.02dBm and 11.2dBm, respectively. The 2.5Gbit/s NRZ optical signals and two pump signals are combined by an optical coupler (OC) before the EDFA. The coupled signal power injected into the SOA is 9.1dBm. The optical spectra before and after the SOA are shown in Fig. 2 as inset (iii) and (iv), respectively. The SOA has 3-dB gain bandwidth of 68-nm, small signal fiber-to-fiber gain of 28-dB at 1552nm, polarization sensitivity smaller than 1dB, and noise figure of 6-dB at 1553nm. After the SOA, new up-converted signals are generated due to FWM, which is shown in Fig. 2 as inset (iv). Then a tunable optical filter (TOF) with a bandwidth of 0.5nm is used to suppress the pump signals. The optical spectrum after the TOF is shown in Fig. 2 as inset (v). We can see that only the converted and original signals are kept. The DSB signals with 80GHz frequency spacing between two converted sidebands are generated. In order to obtain the SSB signals, a 50/100 optical interleaver is used to remove one sideband. The optical spectrum after optical interleaver is shown in Fig. 2 as inset (vi). We can see that 2.5Gbit/s OOK signals are carried by the SSB-like signals with 40GHz frequency spacing between the converted signals and carrier, namely, the optical quadruple frequency mm-wave carried 2.5GHz signals is obtained. The power delivered to the fiber is 2dBm. After transmission over 20km SMF-28, the optical mm-wave is detected by O/E conversion via a PIN photo-diode (PD) with a 3-dB bandwidth of 50 GHz.

Fig. 3. Eye diagrams of the 40GHz optical millimeter wave signal, (a) Downstream signals before transmission (b) Downstream signal after transmission over 20km SMF-28.
Fig. 4. BER curves. (a) Eye diagram of down-converted electrical signal before transmission. (b) Eye diagram of down-converted electrical signal after transmission over 20km SSMF-28.

4. Conclusion

We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF system using parallel pumps technique based on FWM in SOA. This scheme has some unique advantages such as polarization insensitive, high wavelength stability, and low-frequency bandwidth requirement for RF signal and optical components. 40GHz optical mm-wave SSB-like signal is generated by using 10GHz LO. 40GHz polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion has been realized and the receiver sensitivity at a BER of 10-9 for the converted signals is -28.4dBm. The power penalty for the converted downstream signals is smaller than 1dB after 20 km SMF-28 transmission.

Acknowledgments

This work is partially supported by National “863” High-tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant No.2007AA01Z263, 2008AA01Z4473291), the Hunan provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 06JJ50108) and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Optical Communication and Lightwave Technologies (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, P. R. China)

References and links

1.

A. J. Cooper, “Fiber/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26, 2054–2056 (1990). [CrossRef]

2.

Z. Xu, J. Yu, and X. Zhang, “Electroabsorption modulator frequency downconverison for uplink radio-over-fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1875–1877 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Bamba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285–2293 (1992). [CrossRef]

4.

C. T. Lin, S. P. Dai, J. Chen, P. T. Shih, P. C. Peng, and S. Chi, “A novel direct detection microwave photonic vector modulation scheme for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1106–1108 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Kitayama and R. Griffin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287–289 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. Xu, X. Zhang, and J. Yu, “Frequency up-conversion of multiple RF signals using optical carrier suppression for radio over fiber downlinks,” Opt Express , 15, 16737–16747 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, and G. K. Chang, “Optical Millimeter Wave Generation or Up-conversion using External Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, and G. Chang, “A DWDM optical mm-wave generation for ROF downstream link using optical phase modulator and optical interleaver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418–1420 (2006).

9.

Z. Dong, J. Lu, Y. Pi, X. Lei, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream connection in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 736–741 (2008) [CrossRef]

10.

J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

H. J. Kim, H. J. Song, and J. I. Song, “All-optical frequency up-conversion technique using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for radio-over-fiber applications,” Microwave symposium. 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International, 67–70 (2007).

12.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, Y. K. Yeo, and G. K. Chang, “Spectrally non-inverting wavelength conversion based on FWM in HNL-DSF and its application in label switching optical network,” in Proceedings of 25th ECOC, 32 (2005).

13.

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2851–2858 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Huang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, and G. K. Chang, “Simultaneous Generation of Centralized Lightwaves and Double/Single Sideband Optical Millimeter-Wave Requiring Only Low-Frequency Local Oscillator Signals for Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2653–2662 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, T. Hsuech, A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G. K. Chang, “Multiband Signal Generation and Dispersion-Tolerant Transmission Based on Photonic Frequency Tripling Technology for 60-GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 1470 – 1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

Z. Jia, Jianjun Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Ma, X. Xin, J. Yu, C. Yu, K. Wang, H. Huang, and L. Rao, “Optical millimeter wave generated by octupling the frequency of the local oscillator,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 837–845 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Chen, C.-T. Lin, P. T. Shih, W.-Jr. Jiang, S.-P. Dai, Y.-M. Lin, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Generation of optical millimeter-wave signals and vector formats using an integrated optical I/Q modulator,” J. Opt. Netw. 8, 188–200 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, K.-L. Lee, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Mitigation strategy for transmission impairments in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 8, 201–214 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

N. J. Gomes, M. Morant, A. Alphones, B. Cabon, J. E. Mitchell, C. Lethien, M. Csörnyei, A. Stöhr, and S. Iezekiel, “Radio-over-fiber transport for the support of wireless broadband services,” J. Opt. Netw. 8, 156–178 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(190.7220) Nonlinear optics : Upconversion
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 11, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 5, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: April 6, 2009
Published: April 13, 2009

Citation
Lin Chen, Jia Lu, Ze Dong, Zizheng Cao, Shuangchun Wen, and Jianguo Yu, "Polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF systems based on parallel pump FWM in a SOA," Opt. Express 17, 6962-6967 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-6962


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References

  1. A. J. Cooper, "Fiber/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network," Electron. Lett. 26, 2054-2056 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Xu, J. Yu, and X. Zhang, "Electroabsorption modulator frequency down-converison for uplink radio-over-fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1875-1877 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Bamba, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. C. T. Lin, S. P. Dai, J. Chen, P. T. Shih, P. C. Peng, and S. Chi, "A novel direct detection microwave photonic vector modulation scheme for radio-over-fiber system," IEEE photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1106-1108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kitayama and R. Griffin, "Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Xu, X. Zhang and J. Yu, "Frequency up-conversion of multiple RF signals using optical carrier suppression for radio over fiber downlinks," Opt Express 15, 16737-16747 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Yu, Z. Jia, and G. K. Chang, "Optical Millimeter Wave Generation or Up-conversion using External Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L Chen, T Wang and G Chang, "A DWDM optical mm-wave generation for ROF downstream link using optical phase modulator and optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).
  9. Z. Dong, J. Lu, Y. Pi, X. Lei, L. Chen, and J. Yu, "Optical millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream connection in radio-over-fiber systems," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 736-741 (2008) [CrossRef]
  10. J. Yu, M. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, "A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478-480 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Kim, H. J. Song, J. I. Song, "All-optical frequency up-conversion technique using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for radio-over-fiber applications," Microwave symposium. 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International, 67-70 (2007).
  12. J. Yu, Z. Jia, Y. K. Yeo, and G. K. Chang, "Spectrally non-inverting wavelength conversion based on FWM in HNL-DSF and its application in label switching optical network," in Proceedings of 25th ECOC, 32 (2005).
  13. J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Huang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, and G. K. Chang, "Simultaneous Generation of Centralized Lightwaves and Double/Single Sideband Optical Millimeter-Wave Requiring Only Low-Frequency Local Oscillator Signals for Radio-Over-Fiber Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2653 - 2662 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Jia, J. Yu, T. Hsuech, A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, J. A. Buck, G. K. Chang, "Multiband Signal Generation and Dispersion-Tolerant Transmission Based on Photonic Frequency Tripling Technology for 60-GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Systems," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 1470 - 1472 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Jia, JianjunYu , G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, "Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture," J. Lightwave Technol. 25,3452-3471 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ma, X. Xin, J. Yu, C. Yu, K. Wang, H. Huang, and L. Rao, "Optical millimeter wave generated by octupling the frequency of the local oscillator," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 837-845 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Chen, C.-T. Lin, P. T. Shih, W.-Jr.  Jiang, S.-P.  Dai, Y.-M.  Lin, P.-C.  Peng, and S. Chi, "Generation of optical millimeter-wave signals and vector formats using an integrated optical I/Q modulator," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 188-200 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, K.-L. Lee, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, "Mitigation strategy for transmission impairments in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber networks," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 201-214 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. N. J. Gomes, M. Morant, A. Alphones, B. Cabon, J. E. Mitchell, C. Lethien, M. Csörnyei, A. Stöhr, and S. Iezekiel, "Radio-over-fiber transport for the support of wireless broadband services," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 156-178 (2009). [CrossRef]

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