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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 1 — Jan. 4, 2010
  • pp: 87–95
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Optical phase conjugation of picosecond pulses at 1.06 μ in Sn2P2S6:Te for wavefront correction in high-power Nd-doped amplifier systems

Tobias Bach, Kouji Nawata, Mojca Jazbinšek, Takashige Omatsu, and Peter Günter  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 87-95 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.000087


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Abstract

We report, for the first time to our knowledge, on picosecond-pulse optical phase conjugation using photorefractive Sn2P2S6 crystals. For 7.2-ps pulses at 1.06 μm, we have achieved phase-conjugate reflectivities of up to 45% with very fast build-up times, about 15 ms at an intensity of 23 W/cm2 using Te-doped Sn2P2S6. We furthermore demonstrate aberration-free 5 W optical output of 8-ps pulses at 1.06 μm from a side pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier using the Sn2P2S6-based phase-conjugate feedback.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Picosecond laser sources with a high average output power are interesting for several applications, for example laser ablation, nonlinear optics, two-photon absorption, spectroscopy, second-harmonic microscopy, laser displays and others. For many of these applications, a good beam quality in terms of a narrow spectral width and a low beam propagation factor M 2 are required, which is in general very challenging for short-pulse lasers having a high average output power. A powerful technique to generate high-power laser outputs is to use doped crystals as amplifying media for an incident low-power beam. One of the very often used configurations for such amplifiers is the side-pumped bounce geometry, since it allows for easy pumping and power scaling, as well as very high repetition rates. Nd-doped yttrium vanadate Nd:YVO4 crystals are very promising for such amplification at the technologically important wavelength of 1.06 μm, due to the very large stimulated-emission cross section and a strong absorption for diode frequencies in comparison with a conventional Nd:YAG. Nd:YVO4 crystals can therefore generate high-power outputs with a very high conversion efficiency [1

1. J. E. Bernard and A. J. Alcock, “High-efficiency diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 968–970 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In recent years, highly efficient outputs from Nd:YVO4 side-pumped amplifiers have been successfully demonstrated in both cw and pulsed regimes. However, side-pumped vanadate amplifiers, in which high density population inversion is produced in a shallow absorption depth near the pump face (~1 mm), exhibit strong thermal lensing and aberration at high-power operation, which results in a degradation of beam quality (higher M 2 factor) and considerably limits the power scaling [2

2. J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

Volume holographic gratings produced in photorefractive crystals can be very efficiently exploited to dynamically clean high-power laser beams, which can result in very narrow cw spectral profiles [3

3. Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Self-adaptive, narrowband tuning of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator and a continuous-wave diode laser via phase-conjugate photorefractive cavity reflectors: verification by high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 545–560 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. J. J. Lim, S. Sujecki, L. Lang, Z. C. Zhang, D. Paboeuf, G. Pauliat, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, R. C. I. MacKenzie, P. Bream, S. Bull, K. H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, H. Wenzel, G. Erbert, B. Thestrup, P. M. Petersen, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, “Design and simulation of next-generation high-power, high-brightness laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 993–1008 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. V. Reboud, N. Dubreuil, P. Fournet, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, and D. Rytz, “Single-mode output power enhancement of an extended cavity broad-area laser diode by an intracavity photorefractive crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 233–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

], as well as diffraction-limited spatial profiles [6

6. L. Lombard, A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, E. Lallier, P. Georges, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Review of photorefractive materials: an application to laser beam cleanup,” C. R. Phys. 8, 234–242 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. S. MacCormack, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, S. O′Brien, R. J. Lang, M. B. Klein, and B. A. Wechsler, “Powerful. diffraction-limited semiconductor laser using photorefractive beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 227–229 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The photorefractive effect has been shown to be very promising also for correcting thermal lensing effects occurring in Nd:YAG amplifiers [8

8. A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, M. H. Garrett, and I. Mnushkina, “Nd:YAG master-oscillator power amplifier with a rhodium-doped BaTiO3 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 442–444 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. K. Tei, F. Matsuoka, M. Kato, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system with a passive ring self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 25, 481–483 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. By using a self-pumped optical phase-conjugate mirror in a photorefractive crystal, one can direct back the amplified beam to the crystal to achieve both double-pass amplification and at the same time compensate for beam aberrations. For side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifiers, phase-conjugate feedback from a ring self-pumped Rh:BaTiO3 phase conjugator has been shown very promising for aberration corrections and power scaling in both cw [10

10. T. Omatsu and M. J. Damzen, “Multi-watt cw output from a double-pass diode side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a Rh:BaTiO3 phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 198, 135–139 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and picosecond [11

11. T. Omatsu, T. Imaizumi, M. Amano, Y. Ojima, K. Watanabe, and M. Goto, “Multi-watt diffraction-limited picosecond pulses from a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a photorefractive phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 467–470 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. T. Imaizumi, M. Goto, Y. Ojima, and T. Omatsu, “Characterization of pico-second phase conjugate Nd:YVO4 laser system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2510–2514 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. K. Nawata, Y. Ojima, M. Okida, T. Ogawa, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of a pico-second Nd : YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier with a phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Express 14, 10657–10662 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. K. Nawata, M. Okida, K. Furuki, and T. Omatsu, “MW ps pulse generation at sub-MHz repetition rates from a phase-conjugate Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier,” Opt. Express 15, 9123–9128 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] operating regime. By power scaling with two Nd:YVO4 amplifiers and a phase-conjugate mirror, more than 70 W average power picosecond output from the Nd:YVO4 laser system has been demonstrated [15

15. K. Nawata, N. Shiba, M. Okida, and T. Omatsu, “11 MW Pico-Second Pulses with = 70 W Average Power from a Phase-Conjugate Nd:YVO4 Bounce Laser System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFB5.

].

The key component for aberration correction of Nd:YVO4 systems with optical phase conjugation is a photorefractive material with a high sensitivity at 1.06 μm. The main material requirements for self-pumped optical phase conjugation are a high photorefractive gain Γ, long interaction length L, low absorption constant α ≪ Γ, as well as a real-time response. The materials should also stand high optical intensities, long-term operation and should exhibit a high environmental stability. From numerous photorefractive materials that have been developed in the last forty years [16

16. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

], until recently Rh-doped BaTiO3 has been the only material of choice for applications at 1.06 μm. However, BaTiO3:Rh suffers from domain formation caused by 1.06-μm light [17

17. R. S. Cudney and M. Kaczmarek, “Optical poling in Rh:BaTiO3,” in Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices, G. Salamo and A. Siahmakoun, eds., Vol. 62 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper 485.

] and has a phase transition very close to room temperature at ~ 9° C, therefore a new material is needed for photorefractive applications in this wavelength region [18

18. G. Roosen, S. Bernhardt, and P. Delaye, “Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3: a new photorefractive material to replace BaTiO3 in applications,” Opt. Mater. 23, 243–251 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Additionally, the response time of BaTiO3 is very slow, typically in the order of several seconds, which considerably limits the application possibilities of this material.

Recently, Te-doped Sn2P2S6 has been developed with very promising properties for infrared photorefractive applications [19

19. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Tailoring of infrared photorefractive properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals by Te and Sb doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1535–1541 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Sn2P2S6 is a relatively new photorefractive ferroelectric material [20

20. A. A. Grabar, M. Jazbinsek, A. N. Shumelyuk, Yu. M. Vysochanskii, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive effects in Sn2P2S6,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter and J.-P. Hiugnard, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

] with high photorefractive sensitivity even further in the infrared at 1.55 μm [21

21. R. Mosimann, P. Marty, T. Bach, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar “High-speed photorefraction at telecommunication wavelength 1.55 μm in Sn2P2S6:Te,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3230–3232 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and very fast response of a phase-conjugate mirror [22

22. M. Jazbinsek, G. Montemezzani, P. Gunter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Fast near-infrared self-pumped phase conjugation with photorefractive Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1241–1246 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. M. Jazbinsek, D. Haertle, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Wavelength dependence of visible and near infrared photorefraction and phase conjugation in Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2459–2467 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], typically two orders of magnitude faster as in BaTiO3:Rh. With 1.06-μm 20-W/cm2 light in the cw regime, phase-conjugate reflectivities of more than 40% have been obtained with 100 ms rise time using Sn2P2S6: Te [24

24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Although Sn2P2S6 has been shown to be a very efficient photorefractive material, its potential for pulsed-laser applications in the infrared has not been explored yet. A holographic experiment has been performed in the nanosecond regime by Bally et al. at 1.06 μm with a pure Sn2P2S6 crystal exhibiting a strong charge compensating effect [25

25. G. von Bally, F. Rickermann, S. Odoulov, and A. Shumelyuk, “Near-infrared holographic recording in Sn2P2S6 with nanosecond pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 157, 199–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. In this case, a very small diffraction efficiency in the order of 10-3 has been achieved for single 3-ns pulses, and practically zero efficiency for repetition rates higher than 100 Hz [25

25. G. von Bally, F. Rickermann, S. Odoulov, and A. Shumelyuk, “Near-infrared holographic recording in Sn2P2S6 with nanosecond pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 157, 199–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Another experiment has been performed in the visible interband regime also with a pure Sn2P2S6 crystal using 50-ns pulses at 532 nm, at the edge of the absorption band of Sn2P2S6 [26

26. R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Yu. M. Vysochanskii, “High-frame-rate joint Fourier-transform correlator based on Sn2P2S6 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1666–1668 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In this case, diffraction efficiencies strongly diminished for repetition rates higher than 3 kHz. Here we show that Te-doped Sn2P2S6 without strong compensating effects can be a very efficient photorefractive material suitable for picosecond laser pulses. We report on the first photorefractive phase conjugation experiments in a Te-doped Sn2P2S6 in the picosecond regime using a high repetition-rate (100 MHz) ps laser at 1.06 μm wavelength. We first investigate the reflectivity and response time of the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror in the picosecond regime and furthermore investigate its performance in a double-pass side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier system pumped by a cw diode array.

2. Self-pumped optical phase conjugation of ps pulses in Te-doped Sn2P2S6

One of the most efficient, robust and stable geometries to achieve self-pumped optical phase conjugation in photorefractive materials is the ring-cavity configuration [27

27. M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. The set-up we used for the characterization of Sn2P2S6:Te in this geometry is very simple, consisting of a Sn2P2S6 crystal, two cavity mirrors and 4-f imaging optics inside the ring cavity to compensate for diffraction; see Fig. 1(a). We used a picosecond pump laser with a repetition rate of 100 MHz, pulse width of 7.2 ps, and a total average output power of 200 mW at the wavelength of 1.06 μm. The light beams were polarized in the plane of the ring-cavity loop and were almost parallel to the x-axis in the Sn2P2S6 crystal. The angle θ within the cavity was about 30°, corresponding to the optimal angle for two-beam coupling in this material [19

19. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Tailoring of infrared photorefractive properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals by Te and Sb doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1535–1541 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The Te-doped Sn2P2S6 crystal had the dimensions of x × y × z = 10 mm × 6 mm × 7.44 mm along the main Cartesian axes defined as in Refs. [20

20. A. A. Grabar, M. Jazbinsek, A. N. Shumelyuk, Yu. M. Vysochanskii, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive effects in Sn2P2S6,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter and J.-P. Hiugnard, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

, 23

23. M. Jazbinsek, D. Haertle, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Wavelength dependence of visible and near infrared photorefraction and phase conjugation in Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2459–2467 (2005). [CrossRef]

] with optically polished z faces. The crystal was coated with a 190-nm thick Al2O3 layer and rotated by about 45° with respect to the direction of the incident beam to reduce reflection losses. The absorption constant of the Sn2P2S6 :Te crystal used at the wavelength of 1.06 μm is low, in the order of α ≃ 0.1 cm-1, while the photorefractive gain is about Γ ≃ 4 cm-1, resulting in the coupling strength of ΓL ≃ 2.9 [24

24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], i.e. well above the threshold of ΓL = 2 for self-pumped optical phase conjugation in the ring-cavity geometry [28

28. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993).

].

Fig. 1. (a) Set-up for the ring-cavity self-pumped optical phase conjugation with Sn2P2S6:Te. (b) Phase conjugate reflectivity R as a function of time at the wavelength of 1.06 μm for 7.2 ps pulses. The rise time τ is about 15 ms for an intensity of 23 W/cm2.

Figure 2(a) shows the response rate 1/τ as a function of the input intensity I 3. As predicted by the conventional one-center photorefractive theory, response rate is a linear function of intensity [28

28. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993).

]. This indicates that for the investigated intensity range, the saturation effects that are often observed in short-pulse experiments for high peak intensities are not reached yet [30

30. G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637–1645 (1983). [CrossRef]

, 31

31. H. Okamura, K. Takeuchi, T. Tanaka, and K. Kuroda, “Grating formation with very short pulses in photorefractive materials: weak excitation limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2650–2656 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 32

32. N. Barry, L. Duffault, R. Troth, R. Ramosgarcia, and M. J. Damzen, “Comparison between continuous-wave and pulsed photorefraction in barium-titanate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1758–1763 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. Compared with the cw measurements of the self-pumped phase conjugation at 1.06 μm using the same crystal and a very similar set-up [24

24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the slope d(1/τ)/dI is four times higher for ps pulses; i.e. the response at the same average intensity is for ps pulses four times faster as for the cw regime. This is rather unusual, since for very short pulses a saturation of the carrier number density is expected, which should decrease the response time in the pulsed regime [30

30. G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637–1645 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. This may indicate that additional photorefractive centers become important for Sn2P2S6:Te. Indeed, although the origins of the photorefractive response in Sn2P2S6 are not clearly identified yet, there are several indications for a rather complex charge-transfer mechanism in this material [19

19. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Tailoring of infrared photorefractive properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals by Te and Sb doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1535–1541 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. A. A. Grabar, M. Jazbinsek, A. N. Shumelyuk, Yu. M. Vysochanskii, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive effects in Sn2P2S6,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter and J.-P. Hiugnard, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

, 25

25. G. von Bally, F. Rickermann, S. Odoulov, and A. Shumelyuk, “Near-infrared holographic recording in Sn2P2S6 with nanosecond pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 157, 199–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 33

33. A. Shumelyuk, M. Wesner, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, “Wave mixing in nominally undoped Sn2P2S6 at high light intensities,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 497–503 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. R. Mosimann, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, Günter, and A. A. Grabar, “Photorefractive waveguides in He+ implanted pure and Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 444–449 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The higher speed observed in the ps regime could be also due to additional two-photon absorption contribution, since the second-harmonic wavelength 0.53 μm is already at the edge of the absorption band of Sn2P2S6 [26

26. R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Yu. M. Vysochanskii, “High-frame-rate joint Fourier-transform correlator based on Sn2P2S6 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1666–1668 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. A similar enhancement of the response speed attributed to two-photon absorption was recently observed using femtosecond pulses in the visible using oxidized LiNbO3, where the grating-recording speed was enhanced by a factor of 40 compared to the cw case, still leading to a linear dependence of the response speed as a function of intensity [35

35. D. Maxein, J. Bückers, D. Haertle, and K. Buse, “Photorefraction in LiNbO3:Fe crystals with femtosecond pulses at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 399–405 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. From the applications point of view, self-pumped phase-conjugation results with Sn2P2S6:Te are very positive indicating no detrimental saturation effects and even speeding-up of the effect in the picosecond regime.

Fig. 2. Response rate 1/τ (a) and phase-conjugate reflectivity R (b) as a function of the input intensity at 1.06 μm wavelength, 7.2 ps pulse width, and 100 MHz repetition rate (full circles). For comparison, we added the data obtained with a cw laser from Ref. [24] (open squares).

In Fig. 2(b) the steady-state phase-conjugate reflectivity is shown as a function of the input intensity. In the investigated intensity range, the reflectivity at high intensities does not start to decrease due to possible electron-hole competition effects [36

36. M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase-conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051–2057 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. We measured phase-conjugate reflectivities of more than 45 percent, which is in good agreement with the measurements with a cw laser at the same wavelength [24

24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The only measured point that deviates considerably is the measurement at the lowest intensity of 2.3 W/cm2. Here the measured phase-conjugate reflectivity is much higher for ps pulses compared to the case for cw lasers, for which the reflectivity at this intensity was already limited by the dark conductivity. This again suggests a more effective charge excitation in Sn2P2S6:Te by ps pulses compared to the cw regime.

3. High-power diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier using Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror

In this section we report on the performance of the Te-doped Sn2P2S6 phase-conjugate mirror as a feedback mirror in a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. We employed a similar experimental set-up as in Ref. [11

11. T. Omatsu, T. Imaizumi, M. Amano, Y. Ojima, K. Watanabe, and M. Goto, “Multi-watt diffraction-limited picosecond pulses from a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a photorefractive phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 467–470 (2003). [CrossRef]

], with a diode-pumped amplifier in a bounce geometry, see Fig. 3. The amplifier used was a 1.0 at. % a-cut Nd:YVO4 slab crystal of dimensions a×b×c = 20 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm, with anti-reflection coating for 1 μm and cut at 5° at the end surfaces to prevent self-lasing. The crystal was wrapped in indium foil and sandwiched between two aluminium blocks. The temperature of the blocks was maintained at about 10° C using a water re-circulating cooler. The amplifier was transversely pumped by a cw single-bar diode array emitting at the wavelength around 808 nm. The signal laser used for the amplifier was the same as used for the characterization of the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror, a commercial diode-pumped cw mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser with a pulse width of 7.2 ps and a repetition rate of 100 MHz.

Fig. 3. Schematic illustration of the phase-conjugate MOPA set-up.

Fig. 4. Output power of the diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror as a function of the pump power (circles). The highest output power of more than 5 W is reached at a pump level of 46 W. For comparison, results with BaTiO3:Rh are also shown (crosses).

For a double-pass amplifier with a conventional mirror in a similar geometry and amplification as used here, the beam propagation parameter after amplification was about M 2 ~ 3 [12

12. T. Imaizumi, M. Goto, Y. Ojima, and T. Omatsu, “Characterization of pico-second phase conjugate Nd:YVO4 laser system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2510–2514 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The spatial TEM00 output from the double-pass amplifier with the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror is shown in Fig. 5. The output exhibited beam propagation parameters Mx 2 < 1.33 and My 2 < 1.25. For comparison the figure also shows the spatial form of the original signal beam delivered by the signal laser with M 2 of about 1.2. The signal amplified by about 350 times is not considerably distorted, demonstrating that the double-pass amplifier with the phase-conjugate mirror using Te-doped Sn2P2S6 has a good potential for correction of thermal distortions inside the amplifier.

Fig. 5. Spatial profile of the original signal beam and of the double-pass amplified output beam with the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror.

The duration of the amplified pulse from a double-pass amplifier was investigated by measuring the intensity autocorrelation trace using second harmonic generation in a 5-mm thick KTP (KTiOPO4) crystal. The results are shown in Fig. 6(a). For comparison also the autocorrelation traces for the signal (master) beam and the amplified signal beam after the single pass are shown. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the original signal beam is 6.9 ps, obtained by considering a Gaussian-shape pulse. After the first pass through the amplifier the FWHM of the single-pass amplified beam is 8.3 ps. For the amplified phase-conjugate beam (double-pass amplified) the FWHM is 8.6 ps. Therefore, the pulse duration is not considerably broadened after phase conjugation in Sn2P2S6:Te, meaning that the bandwidth of the photorefractive grating is large enough to not induce substantial frequency narrowing effects. The about 20% broadening of the pulse duration of the amplified beam is therefore mainly due to the finite gain-bandwidth of the amplifier, as also observed for the phase-conjugate MOPA system using BaTiO3:Rh [13

13. K. Nawata, Y. Ojima, M. Okida, T. Ogawa, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of a pico-second Nd : YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier with a phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Express 14, 10657–10662 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We also measured the spectrum of the signal (master) beam and the phase-conjugate beam from the Sn2P2S6:Te crystal (see Fig. 6(b)), confirming no change in the central wavelength or the spectral narrowing of the phase-conjugate beam.

Fig. 6. (a) Autocorrelation trace of the master laser beam (the measured trace corresponds to FWHM= 6.9 ps), the single-pass amplified beam (FWHM= 8.3 ps) and the double-pass amplified output beam with the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror (FWHM= 8.6 ps). For this measurement, the average output power from the phase-conjugate MOPA was P = 2.5 W. (b) Spectrum of the master laser and the phase-conjugate beam with the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror (without the amplifier). No significant shift or broadening of the spectrum can be observed.

The important parameters for many applications are the build-up time of the amplification and the switching time for changing the pump power. For BaTiO3:Rh the long build-up time of the phase-conjugate mirror is a serious drawback for most applications, as well as for the alignment and optimization of the set-up. Figure 7(a) shows the build-up dynamics of the mirror without pumping, for both Sn2P2S6:Te and BaTiO3:Rh using 200 mW signal beam (23 W/cm2 average intensity). While in Sn2P2S6:Te the rise time is about 15 ms, for BaTiO3:Rh the reflectivity is still increasing even after 10 minutes of operation, i.e. the measured phase-conjugate response at 1.06 μm in the ps regime is for Sn2P2S6:Te more than four orders of magnitude faster than in BaTiO3:Rh. When the transmission grating responsible for the phase conjugation is already built up, the response after switching the pump power is faster also for BaTiO3:Rh, as shown in Fig. 7(b), however the steady-state is again reached almost in real time for Sn2P2S6:Te, while it takes more than 10 s for BaTiO3:Rh for changing the pump power from 18.5 W to 21 W. The initial fluctuations observed in Fig. 7(b) are due to the thermal fluctuations of the laser diode frequency after switching the driving current.

Fig. 7. (a) Dynamics of the output signal without pumping using 200-mW average-power ps signal beam. (b) Dynamics of the relative output signal (P 21W - P 18.5W) after switching the pump power from 18.5 W to 21 W, when the phase conjugation is already built up, using 15-mW average-power ps signal beam.

4. Conclusions

We have performed the first photorefractive phase conjugation experiments with Sn2P2S6 in the pulsed regime. For the investigation we have used a Te-doped Sn2P2S6 crystal and a high repetition rate 100 MHz ps pulses at 1.06 μm wavelength. For 7.2-ps pulses with 23 W/cm2 average power we have achieved a very fast rise time of about 15 ms and phase-conjugate reflectivity of 45%. We have furthermore used the Sn2P2S6:Te phase-conjugate mirror as a feedback mirror in a double-pass side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier, pumped by a cw 808 nm diode array. From a 15-mW signal beam at 1.06 μm (about 7 ps pulse length and 100 MHz repetition rate) we have obtained an almost diffraction limited output with 5 W average power, without considerable distortions of the pulse length and frequency. We have demonstrated that the amplification with Sn2P2S6:Te is as good as with an efficient BaTiO3:Rh crystal, however the response rate is increased by more than four orders of magnitude (miliseconds compared to minutes) for starting the operation. This makes Sn2P2S6:Te a very promising material for corrections of aberrations in high-power picosecond amplifiers at 1.06 μm.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Swiss National Foundation (200020-119961) and a Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid (16032202, 18360031). T. Bach acknowledges the support from the International co-operation project by the Swiss National Foundation (IZAJZ0-123463) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS/RCI-2/08040 ID No. RC 20830002).

References and links

1.

J. E. Bernard and A. J. Alcock, “High-efficiency diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 968–970 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Self-adaptive, narrowband tuning of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator and a continuous-wave diode laser via phase-conjugate photorefractive cavity reflectors: verification by high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 545–560 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

J. J. Lim, S. Sujecki, L. Lang, Z. C. Zhang, D. Paboeuf, G. Pauliat, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, R. C. I. MacKenzie, P. Bream, S. Bull, K. H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, H. Wenzel, G. Erbert, B. Thestrup, P. M. Petersen, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, “Design and simulation of next-generation high-power, high-brightness laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 993–1008 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

V. Reboud, N. Dubreuil, P. Fournet, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, and D. Rytz, “Single-mode output power enhancement of an extended cavity broad-area laser diode by an intracavity photorefractive crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 233–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Lombard, A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, E. Lallier, P. Georges, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, “Review of photorefractive materials: an application to laser beam cleanup,” C. R. Phys. 8, 234–242 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

S. MacCormack, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, S. O′Brien, R. J. Lang, M. B. Klein, and B. A. Wechsler, “Powerful. diffraction-limited semiconductor laser using photorefractive beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 227–229 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, M. H. Garrett, and I. Mnushkina, “Nd:YAG master-oscillator power amplifier with a rhodium-doped BaTiO3 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 442–444 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

K. Tei, F. Matsuoka, M. Kato, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system with a passive ring self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 25, 481–483 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Omatsu and M. J. Damzen, “Multi-watt cw output from a double-pass diode side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a Rh:BaTiO3 phase conjugator,” Opt. Commun. 198, 135–139 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Omatsu, T. Imaizumi, M. Amano, Y. Ojima, K. Watanabe, and M. Goto, “Multi-watt diffraction-limited picosecond pulses from a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a photorefractive phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 467–470 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Imaizumi, M. Goto, Y. Ojima, and T. Omatsu, “Characterization of pico-second phase conjugate Nd:YVO4 laser system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2510–2514 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

K. Nawata, Y. Ojima, M. Okida, T. Ogawa, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of a pico-second Nd : YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier with a phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Express 14, 10657–10662 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. Nawata, M. Okida, K. Furuki, and T. Omatsu, “MW ps pulse generation at sub-MHz repetition rates from a phase-conjugate Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier,” Opt. Express 15, 9123–9128 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. Nawata, N. Shiba, M. Okida, and T. Omatsu, “11 MW Pico-Second Pulses with = 70 W Average Power from a Phase-Conjugate Nd:YVO4 Bounce Laser System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFB5.

16.

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

17.

R. S. Cudney and M. Kaczmarek, “Optical poling in Rh:BaTiO3,” in Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices, G. Salamo and A. Siahmakoun, eds., Vol. 62 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper 485.

18.

G. Roosen, S. Bernhardt, and P. Delaye, “Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3: a new photorefractive material to replace BaTiO3 in applications,” Opt. Mater. 23, 243–251 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Tailoring of infrared photorefractive properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals by Te and Sb doping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1535–1541 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

A. A. Grabar, M. Jazbinsek, A. N. Shumelyuk, Yu. M. Vysochanskii, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive effects in Sn2P2S6,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter and J.-P. Hiugnard, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).

21.

R. Mosimann, P. Marty, T. Bach, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar “High-speed photorefraction at telecommunication wavelength 1.55 μm in Sn2P2S6:Te,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3230–3232 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Jazbinsek, G. Montemezzani, P. Gunter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Fast near-infrared self-pumped phase conjugation with photorefractive Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1241–1246 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Jazbinsek, D. Haertle, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Wavelength dependence of visible and near infrared photorefraction and phase conjugation in Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2459–2467 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, “Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” Opt. Express 13, 9890–9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

G. von Bally, F. Rickermann, S. Odoulov, and A. Shumelyuk, “Near-infrared holographic recording in Sn2P2S6 with nanosecond pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 157, 199–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

26.

R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Yu. M. Vysochanskii, “High-frame-rate joint Fourier-transform correlator based on Sn2P2S6 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1666–1668 (2001). [CrossRef]

27.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983). [CrossRef]

28.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993).

29.

N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, “Characterization and optimization of a ring self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror at 1.06 μm with BaTiO3:Rh,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1992–1999 (1998). [CrossRef]

30.

G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637–1645 (1983). [CrossRef]

31.

H. Okamura, K. Takeuchi, T. Tanaka, and K. Kuroda, “Grating formation with very short pulses in photorefractive materials: weak excitation limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2650–2656 (1997). [CrossRef]

32.

N. Barry, L. Duffault, R. Troth, R. Ramosgarcia, and M. J. Damzen, “Comparison between continuous-wave and pulsed photorefraction in barium-titanate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1758–1763 (1994). [CrossRef]

33.

A. Shumelyuk, M. Wesner, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, “Wave mixing in nominally undoped Sn2P2S6 at high light intensities,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 497–503 (2009). [CrossRef]

34.

R. Mosimann, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, Günter, and A. A. Grabar, “Photorefractive waveguides in He+ implanted pure and Te-doped Sn2P2S6,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 444–449 (2009). [CrossRef]

35.

D. Maxein, J. Bückers, D. Haertle, and K. Buse, “Photorefraction in LiNbO3:Fe crystals with femtosecond pulses at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 399–405 (2009). [CrossRef]

36.

M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase-conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051–2057 (1995). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(190.5040) Nonlinear optics : Phase conjugation
(320.5390) Ultrafast optics : Picosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 10, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 9, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 14, 2009
Published: December 22, 2009

Citation
Tobias Bach, Kouji Nawata, Mojca Jazbinšek, Takashige Omatsu, and Peter Günter, "Optical phase conjugation of picosecond pulses at 1.06 μm in Sn2P2S6:Te for wavefront correction in high-power Nd-doped amplifier systems," Opt. Express 18, 87-95 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-1-87


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References

  1. J. E. Bernard and A. J. Alcock, "High-efficiency diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser," Opt. Lett. 18, 968-970 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1727-1729 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. He and B. J. Orr, "Self-adaptive, narrowband tuning of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator and a continuouswave diode laser via phase-conjugate photorefractive cavity reflectors: verification by high-resolution spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 96, 545-560 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Lim, S. Sujecki, L. Lang, Z. C. Zhang, D. Paboeuf, G. Pauliat, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, R. C. I. MacKenzie, P. Bream, S. Bull, K. H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, H. Wenzel, G. Erbert, B. Thestrup, P. M. Petersen, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, and E. C. Larkins, "Design and simulation of next-generation high-power, high-brightness laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 993-1008 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. V. Reboud, N. Dubreuil, P. Fournet, G. Pauliat, G. Roosen, and D. Rytz, "Single-mode output power enhancement of an extended cavity broad-area laser diode by an intracavity photorefractive crystal," Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 233-237 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Lombard, A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, E. Lallier, P. Georges, G. Lucas-Leclin, G. Pauliat, and G. Roosen, "Review of photorefractive materials: an application to laser beam cleanup," C. R. Phys. 8, 234-242 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. S. MacCormack, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, S. O’Brien, R. J. Lang, M. B. Klein, and B. A. Wechsler, "Powerful. diffraction-limited semiconductor laser using photorefractive beam coupling," Opt. Lett. 22, 227-229 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Brignon, J. P. Huignard, M. H. Garrett, and I. Mnushkina, "Nd:YAG master-oscillator power amplifier with a rhodium-doped BaTiO3 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror," Opt. Lett. 22, 442-444 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Tei, F. Matsuoka, M. Kato, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, "Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system with a passive ring self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror," Opt. Lett. 25, 481-483 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Omatsu and M. J. Damzen, "Multi-watt cw output from a double-pass diode side-pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a Rh:BaTiO3 phase conjugator," Opt. Commun. 198, 135-139 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Omatsu, T. Imaizumi, M. Amano, Y. Ojima, K. Watanabe, and M. Goto, "Multi-watt diffraction-limited picosecond pulses from a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 amplifier with a photorefractive phase-conjugate mirror," J. Opt. A:Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 467-470 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Imaizumi, M. Goto, Y. Ojima and T. Omatsu, "Characterization of pico-second phase conjugate Nd:YVO4 laser system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2510-2514 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Nawata, Y. Ojima, M. Okida, T. Ogawa, and T. Omatsu, "Power scaling of a pico-second Nd : YVO4 masteroscillator power amplifier with a phase-conjugate mirror," Opt. Express 14, 10657-10662 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Nawata, M. Okida, K. Furuki, and T. Omatsu, "MW ps pulse generation at sub-MHz repetition rates from a phase-conjugate Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier," Opt. Express 15, 9123-9128 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Nawata, N. Shiba, M. Okida, and T. Omatsu, "11 MW Pico-Second Pulses with > 70 W Average Power from a Phase-Conjugate Nd:YVO4 Bounce Laser System," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFB5.
  16. P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).
  17. R. S. Cudney and M. Kaczmarek, "Optical poling in Rh:BaTiO3, " in Photorefractive Effects, Materials, and Devices, G. Salamo and A. Siahmakoun, eds., Vol. 62 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper 485.
  18. G. Roosen, S. Bernhardt, and P. Delaye, "Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3: a new photorefractive material to replace BaTiO3 in applications," Opt. Mater. 23, 243-251 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, A. A. Grabar, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, "Tailoring of infrared photorefractive properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals by Te and Sb doping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1535-1541 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. A. A. Grabar, M. Jazbinsek, A. N. Shumelyuk, Yu. M. Vysochanskii, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Photorefractive effects in Sn2P2S6," in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Gunter and J.-P. Hiugnard, eds. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2007).
  21. R. Mosimann, P. Marty, T. Bach, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar, "High-speed photorefraction at telecommunication wavelength 1.55 μm in Sn2P2S6:Te," Opt. Lett. 32, 3230-3232 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Jazbinsek, G. Montemezzani, P. Gunter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, "Fast nearinfrared self-pumped phase conjugation with photorefractive Sn2P2S6," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1241-1246 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Jazbinsek, D. Haertle, G. Montemezzani, P. G¨unter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, "Wavelength dependence of visible and near infrared photorefraction and phase conjugation in Sn2P2S6," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2459-2467 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. T. Bach, M. Jazbinsek, P. G¨unter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Y. M. Vysochanskii, "Self pumped optical phase conjugation at 1.06 μm in Te-doped Sn2P2S6," Opt. Express 13, 9890-9896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. von Bally, F. Rickermann, S. Odoulov, and A. Shumelyuk, "Near-infrared holographic recording in Sn2P2S6 with nanosecond pulses," Phys. Status Solidi A 157, 199-204 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, P. G¨unter, A. A. Grabar, I. M. Stoika, and Yu. M. Vysochanskii, "High-frame-rate joint Fourier-transform correlator based on Sn2P2S6 crystal," Opt. Lett. 21, 1666-1668 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, "Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919-921 (1983). [CrossRef]
  28. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993).
  29. N. Huot, J. M. C. Jonathan, and G. Roosen, "Characterization and optimization of a ring self-pumped phaseconjugate mirror at 1.06 μm with BaTiO3:Rh," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1992-1999 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. G. C. Valley, "Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637-1645 (1983). [CrossRef]
  31. H. Okamura, K. Takeuchi, T. Tanaka, and K. Kuroda, "Grating formation with very short pulses in photorefractive materials: weak excitation limit," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2650-2656 (1997). [CrossRef]
  32. N. Barry, L. Duffault, R. Troth, R. Ramosgarcia, and M. J. Damzen, "Comparison between continuous-wave and pulsed photorefraction in barium-titanate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1758-1763 (1994). [CrossRef]
  33. A. Shumelyuk, M. Wesner, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, "Wave mixing in nominally undoped Sn2P2S6 at high light intensities," Appl. Phys. B 95, 497-503 (2009). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Mosimann, F. Juvalta, M. Jazbinsek, Gunter, and A. A. Grabar, "Photorefractive waveguides in He+ implanted pure and Te-doped Sn2P2S6," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 444-449 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. D. Maxein, J. Buckers, D. Haertle, and K. Buse, "Photorefraction in LiNbO3:Fe crystals with femtosecond pulses at 532 nm," Appl. Phys. B 95, 399-405 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, "High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phaseconjugation using nanosecond pulses," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051-2057 (1995). [CrossRef]

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