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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — May. 24, 2010
  • pp: 11173–11180
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Nonlinear spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped sesquioxides Lu2O3 and Sc2O3

R. Soulard, R. Moncorgé, A. Zinoviev, K. Petermann, O. Antipov, and A. Brignon  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11173-11180 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.011173


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Abstract

We report on the measurements of near-UV excited-state absorption (ESA) spectra and refractive index changes (RICs) in the two ytterbium doped laser crystals Yb:Lu2O3 and Yb:Sc2O3. ESA is assigned to ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) absorption transitions and RICs to the polarizability changes experienced by the Yb3+ ions due to these strong electric-dipole allowed absorption bands.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

It is now clearly recognized that the Yb-doped crystals and glasses have the most significant potential in the development of the present and future directly-diode-pumped high power and/or ultra-short pulse laser chains. This is due to their broad emission bands, enabling short-pulse generation, their long emission lifetimes, allowing large energy storage, and to the simple two-electronic energy-level structure of the Yb3+ lasing ions, which results in the absence of any excited-state absorption losses at the pump and the laser wavelengths and to limited thermal loads thanks to a reduced quantum defect (defined as the ratio of the laser emission over the excitation wavelengths).

In this context, an increased interest has appeared and many efforts have been dedicated in the last years to the particular properties and the development of crystals with a simple cubic structure, garnets and fluorides like YAG [1

1. J. Aus der Au, S. F. Schaer, R. Paschotta, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, and M. Moser, “High-power diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1281–1283 (1999). [CrossRef]

3

3. Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, K. Ogawa, K. Tsuji, S. Tokita, J. Kawanaka, H. Nishioka, and K. Yamakawa, “High-energy, diode-pumped, picosecond Yb:YAG chirped-pulse regenerative amplifier for pumping optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1899–1901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and CaF2 [4

4. A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J.L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, Appl. Phys. B – Lasers and Optics. 97(2), 327 (2009 [CrossRef]

], and the sesquioxides Y2O3, Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 [7

7. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 63 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2823–2825 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Indeed, these cubic crystalline structures present two main advantages: first, very good thermal properties [10

10. R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insulating crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. balembois, and P. Georges, Progr. in Quant Electronics 30, 89–153 (2006). [CrossRef]

], with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K for undoped crystals, second, the possibility to prepare them either in the form of large size and transparent bulk crystals and ceramics [8

8. M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped sub-100 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb3+:Sc2O3 ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3382–3384 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with crystals already exceeding 30 cm diameter in the case of CaF2 [12], for instance, or in the form of thin-disks [7

7. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 63 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2823–2825 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] by using the so-called “top-down” technique (thinned-down bulk crystals) or deposition techniques such as PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) and LPE (Liquid Phase Epitaxy).

Such high power laser developments raise however a number of fundamental and technological questions concerning the behaviour of the considered laser materials under intense optical pumping and emission conditions. From this point of view, several works have been recently published [13

13. R. Moncorgé, O. N. Eremeykin, J. L. Doualan, and O. L. Antipov, “Origin of athermal refractive index changes observed in Yb3+ doped YAG and KGW,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2526–2530 (2008). [CrossRef]

16

16. A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Mégret, “Dynamics of pump-induced refractive index changes in single-mode Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12658–12663 (2008). [PubMed]

] about the existence in these materials of strong near-UV absorption bands which might be responsible for significant refractive index changes (RICs) when the lasing ions are pumped into their metastable emitting level, and for non-negligible multi-photon absorption losses at very high excitation pump powers.

After having recently discussed the case of Yb:YAG, Yb:YVO4 and Yb:KGW [13

13. R. Moncorgé, O. N. Eremeykin, J. L. Doualan, and O. L. Antipov, “Origin of athermal refractive index changes observed in Yb3+ doped YAG and KGW,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2526–2530 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. E. V. Ivakin, A. V. Sukhadolau, O. L. Antipov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Transient grating measurements of refractive-index changes in intensively pumped Yb-doped laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 315–318 (2007). [CrossRef]

], we concentrate here in this communication on the case of the two important laser crystals (and ceramics) Yb:Lu2O3 and Yb:Sc2O3. These crystals are indeed grown and conditioned nowadays, more particularly in the “thin-disk” configuration, to develop both high peak power and high repetition rate laser chains for different applications.

Our study is made in two steps. The first step deals with excited-state absorption (ESA) measurements performed in the near-UV spectral domain by using a specifically dedicated pump-probe experimental set-up. The second one deals with measurements of pump induced refractive index changes by using a transient interferometric technique based on a Jamin-Lebedev interferometer.

2. Interferometric measurements and associated refractive index changes

Details on the interferometric experimental set-up and on the procedure which is used to analyse the data can be found, respectively, in a paper dedicated to Yb:YAG [15

15. O. L. Antipov, D. V. Bredikhin, O. N. Eremeykin, E. V. Ivakin, A. P. Savikin, A. V. Sukhodolov, and K. A. Fedorova, “Quant. Electr. QE 36 (5), 418 (2006) and Opt,” Lett. 31(6), 763 (2006).

] and in a very recent one concerning a series of well-known Nd-doped laser materials [17

17. R. Soulard, A. Zinoviev, J. L. Doualan, E. Ivakin, O. Antipov, and R. Moncorgé, “Detailed characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes observed in Nd:YVO(4), Nd:GdVO(4) and Nd:KGW,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1553–1568 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the present experiment, however, pumping was realized by using a QCW (500 µs pulses at 10Hz repetition rate) fiber-coupled diode laser operating around 969 nm. Such an excitation wavelength was not optimized for Yb:Lu2O3 or Yb:Sc2O3 but it was efficient enough to obtain good transient signals. The probe beam, as in the works performed previously, was provided by an He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

As explained in Ref [17

17. R. Soulard, A. Zinoviev, J. L. Doualan, E. Ivakin, O. Antipov, and R. Moncorgé, “Detailed characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes observed in Nd:YVO(4), Nd:GdVO(4) and Nd:KGW,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1553–1568 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], pump-induced refractive index changes lead to phase-shift variations which can be evaluated from the observed relative intensity modulation of the interference signal ΔI(t)/2I0¯x,y through the expression (in case of small modulations):
ΔI(t)/2I0¯x,yΔϕ(t)¯x,y=2πΔn(t)¯x,y,z(2l)/λ0
(1)
where z stands for the propagation direction, x and y the transverse axes and λ0 = 632.8nm is the wavelength of the probe beam. On the other hand, the transient interferometric signals, measured after QCW pulse excitation, can be satisfactorily described by such an expression as:
Δn(t)¯x,y,zΔnel¯x,y,z×exp(t/τel)+Δnth¯x,y,z×exp(t/τth)
(2)
where the first and the second terms stand for the purely electronic and thermal contributions to the refractive index changes. These contributions indeed correspond to short- and long-lived exponential decays associated with the time-constant τel=τF, the fluorescence lifetime of the Yb3+ emitting level, and the time-constant τth associated with the dissipation of the generated thermal load in the crystal.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Total refractive index changes Δntotal found in the case of Yb:Sc2O3, as measured (○○○) and as resulting () from the sum of the deconvoluted electronic and thermal contributions Δnel and Δnth, respectively.
displays what was found in the case of the 0.85 mm thick 2.5%Yb:Sc2O3 single crystal used in the experiments. As illustrated, the electronic and thermal contributions with the time-constants τel=τF=0.82ms and τth=9.8ms, respectively, can be unambiguously deconvoluted and these contributions at time t = 0 (at the end of the pump pulse) amount to about 69 and 31%, respectively. In these conditions, at time t = 0, the calibration of these transient signals have allowed to estimate the electronic refractive index change (RIC) Δnel¯x,y,z6.5×106.

On the other hand, the average pump power absorbed in the crystal was of the order of 9.1 mW which means, at a 10Hz repetition rate, an absorbed pump energy Eabs of about 910µJ per pulse. In such conditions, knowing the wavelength λp = 969nm of the pump photons, the average waist-radii ϖp=300µm and ϖs=150µm of the pump and probe beams inside the crystal, and the time-duration τp=500µs of the QCW pump pulses, it is possible to determine the average density of excited ions Nex¯x,y,zby writing:

Nex¯x,y,z=2π(ϖp2+ϖs2)1lEabs.λphcτFτp[1exp(τpτF)]
(3)

Knowing this excited state ion density and assuming, as it is now generally admitted, that the observed RIC is coming from a variation of polarisability Δαp of the Yb3+ ions when they are brought into their emitting state, we have the now well-know expression:
Δnel¯x,y,z=2πn0fL2ΔαpNex¯x,y,z
(4)
where n0 is the refractive index of the host material (1.96 and 1.91 around 1µm in the case of Sc2O3 and Lu2O3, respectively) and fL=n02+231.94 is the usual Lorenz correction factor.

Using the above expressions, it was found for Yb:Sc2O3 the polarisability change:

ΔαpYb:Sc203(633nm)=(1.9±0.6)×1026cm3

The indicated error bar is a rough estimation (upper limit) resulting from the measurement uncertainties on the excited-ion density (15%) and on the electronic refractive index change (15%).

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Total refractive index changes Δntotal found in the case of Yb:Lu2O3, as measured (○○○) and as resulting () from the sum of the deconvoluted electronic and thermal contributions Δnel and Δnth, respectively.
displays what was found in the case of the 1.05mm thick 2.5%Yb:Lu2O3 sample.

With the same pumping conditions as above, the crystal absorbed about 5.3 mW, thus 533µJ per pulse, and the relative amount of the purely electronic contribution to the observed total refractive index change was about 83% with an absolute value Δnel¯x,y,z3.8×106. Such a value led in turn to the polarisability change:

ΔαpYb:Lu203(633nm)=(2.3±0.6)×1026cm3

3. Excited-state absorption spectra and associated polarisability changes

Details on the pump-probe ESA experimental set-up and on the procedure which is used to extract the data can be found in Refs 13

13. R. Moncorgé, O. N. Eremeykin, J. L. Doualan, and O. L. Antipov, “Origin of athermal refractive index changes observed in Yb3+ doped YAG and KGW,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2526–2530 (2008). [CrossRef]

and 18

18. J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, and P. Nagtegaele, “Spectroscopic investigation of variations in the refractive index of a Nd:YAG laser crystal: Experiments and crystal-field calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235108 (2006). [CrossRef]

. Pumping is realized with a standard (1cm−1 bandwidth, 5ns pulse length) GWU model C355 OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) pumped by a 10Hz repetition rate, 10ns pulse duration Q-switched Nd-YAG laser frequency-tripled at 355 nm, and the probe is a synchronized pulsed xenon arc-lamp with a 5µs pulse duration. In the case of Yb:Lu2O3 and Yb:Sc2O3, the crystals were pumped around 975 and 976 nm, respectively, which correspond to the most intense “zero-line” absorption peaks [9

9. R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the time-resolved ESA spectra were registered between about 190nm (which is the spectral limit of the grating and reflecting mirrors) and 500 nm.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Optical density and excited-state “absorption difference” spectra of 0.85 mm thick 2.5%Yb:Sc2O3 and 1.05 mm thick 2.5%Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals
displays the ESA “difference” spectra of our 2.5%Yb doped Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 samples, as registered in the same near-UV spectral domain. It also displays their regular absorption spectra in terms of optical density (O.D). The ESA “difference” spectra are given by the logarithmic intensity ratio ln(Iu/Ip) where Ip and Iu stand for the intensity of the probe beam transmitted by the crystals when they are respectively pumped and unpumped by the OPO.

Because of the absorption edge of the crystal hosts, ESA measurements made below 240 nm were rather delicate. In fact, they were made points by points by allowing more and more light going through the pin-holes located along the pathway of the probe beam, by opening the slits of the spectrometer and by increasing the voltage on the detector (photomultiplier).

The above expressions thus lead to the relation:

σesaσgsa=ln(Iu/Ip)Nexl
(6)

NexIabsλphcπϖp2l
(7)

Doing so, the σesa - σgsa values derived around 248 nm in the case of Yb:Sc2O3 and around 261 nm in the case of Yb:Lu2O3 are approximately equal to 6.4 × 10−19 cm2 and 7.5 × 10−19 cm2, respectively, thus more than one order of magnitude larger the above “GSA” cross section σgsa.

This means that we can safely estimate, whatever is the origin of the absorption tail between about 220 and 330 nm, that:

σesaYb:Sc2O3(248nm)6.4×1019cm2andσesaYb:Lu2O3(261nm)7.5±0.5×1019cm2

This also means that the final ESA spectra have the same shape as the directly registered spectra Ln(Iu/Ip). The ESA spectra of Yb:Sc2O3 and Yb:Lu2O3 thus extend from about 220 and 330 nm. Both spectra are probably made of two overlapping broad bands and it is so whatever is the time delay between the pump and probe beams. In the case of Yb:Sc2O3, the bands are peaking around 248 and 287 nm and the former is about twice more intense than the latter. In the case of Yb:Lu2O3, the bands have about the same intensity and they are peaking around 261 and 291 nm, thus closer to each other and slightly red-shifted by about 10nm.

Assuming, in the end, that the position of the lowest absorption energy levels associated with these ESA bands is approximately given by the energy of the peaks located around 290 nm (thusυ¯esaCT34480cm1) added to the energy corresponding to the “zero-line” position (975nm) of the Yb3+ infrared emitting state (thusυ¯ZL10260cm1), it is possible to determine up to what extent these bands can account for the refractive index and polarizabilitiy changes observed when the Yb3+ ions are brought into this excited emitting state, by using the “spectroscopic” expression [22

22. R. C. Powell, Physics of Solid State Laser Materials, Springer, NY, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1998.

]:
Δαpspec(υ¯)=7.1×1015[fesaυ¯esa2υ¯2fgsa(υ¯esa+υ¯ZL)2υ¯2]
(8)
with [23

23. B. Di Bartolo, Optical Interactions in Solids, John Wiley and Sons Inc., NY, 1968.

]:
fesa=1.13×1019λ2σesa(λ)dλ
(9)
and by assuming that the GSA and ESA transitions to the considered charge transfer (CT) states have about the same oscillator strengths, i.e. fesafgsa.

Using the above reported ESA data, the following results were then found:
fesaYb:Sc2O30.0054andΔαpYb:Sc2O3(633nm)=(1.9±0.5)×1026cm3
fesaYb:Lu2O30.0073andΔαpYb:Lu2O3(633nm)=(2.6±0.6)×1026cm3
thus in perfect agreement with the values found via interferometric measurements.

4. Conclusion

In the end, compared to the other already investigated Yb-doped laser crystals, the polarizability change occurring in the Yb-doped sesquioxides would be comparable to that found in the case of Yb:YAG (ΔαpYb:YAG(633nm)=(1.9±0.8)×1026cm3) but substantially smaller than in the case of the Yb-doped tungstate and vanadate Yb:KGW and Yb:YVO4 (ΔαpYb:KGW(633nm)(1.1±0.2)×1025cm3 and ΔαpYb:YVO4(633nm)=(8.1±0.4)×1026cm3).

Then, let us determine whether, in Yb-doped sesquioxides, phase gratings will dominate over absorption/gain gratings at the usual pump and laser wavelengths, by comparing the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric susceptibility, as given by the usual expression:
β=ΔχRΔχIm=8π2fL2υ¯n.ΔαpΔσ
(10)
Δσ measures the cross section at the considered absorption or laser wavelength and Δαp measures the polarizability change estimated at these wavelengths by using the above expressions and the values obtained at 633nm.

Using the data reported in Ref. 9 for Yb:YAG and Yb:Lu2O3, and assuming, as in the case of the high power Yb:YAG laser chains, that pumping occurs around 945nm (secondary absorption peak), it is found β(948nm)= 3.4 for Yb:Lu2O3 against β(940nm)=3.7 in the case of Yb:YAG, andβ(1030nm)=2.6 for Yb:Lu2O3 against 1.4 in the case of Yb:YAG. Thus phase grating is more important in the case of Yb:Lu2O3 than in the case of Yb:YAG. This can be used advantageously, for instance via two-wave mixing [24

24. O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, A. S. Kuzhelev, and D. V. Chausov, “Resonant two-wave mixing of optical beams by refractive-index and gain gratings in inverted Nd:YAG,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(8), 2276 (1998). [CrossRef]

], for high power laser operation with improved beam quality.

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge DGA for providing the PhD scholarship of one of us (R.S.), Mr. V. Ménard for preparing the samples and Drs P. Camy and J.L. Doualan for their help in setting-up the interferometric experiment.

References and links

1.

J. Aus der Au, S. F. Schaer, R. Paschotta, C. Hönninger, U. Keller, and M. Moser, “High-power diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1281–1283 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(10), 1274–1277 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Akahane, M. Aoyama, K. Ogawa, K. Tsuji, S. Tokita, J. Kawanaka, H. Nishioka, and K. Yamakawa, “High-energy, diode-pumped, picosecond Yb:YAG chirped-pulse regenerative amplifier for pumping optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1899–1901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, R. Boedefeld, S. Podleska, S. Klingebiel, C. Wandt, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, R. Uecker, A. Jochmann, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Terawatt diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2770–2772 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J.L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, Appl. Phys. B – Lasers and Optics. 97(2), 327 (2009 [CrossRef]

7.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 63 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2823–2825 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped sub-100 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb3+:Sc2O3 ceramic laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3382–3384 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped insulating crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. balembois, and P. Georges, Progr. in Quant Electronics 30, 89–153 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

http://www.schott.com/lithotec/english/products/calcium_Fluoride/calcium_fluoride.html

13.

R. Moncorgé, O. N. Eremeykin, J. L. Doualan, and O. L. Antipov, “Origin of athermal refractive index changes observed in Yb3+ doped YAG and KGW,” Opt. Commun. 281(9), 2526–2530 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

E. V. Ivakin, A. V. Sukhadolau, O. L. Antipov, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Transient grating measurements of refractive-index changes in intensively pumped Yb-doped laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 315–318 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

O. L. Antipov, D. V. Bredikhin, O. N. Eremeykin, E. V. Ivakin, A. P. Savikin, A. V. Sukhodolov, and K. A. Fedorova, “Quant. Electr. QE 36 (5), 418 (2006) and Opt,” Lett. 31(6), 763 (2006).

16.

A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Mégret, “Dynamics of pump-induced refractive index changes in single-mode Yb-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12658–12663 (2008). [PubMed]

17.

R. Soulard, A. Zinoviev, J. L. Doualan, E. Ivakin, O. Antipov, and R. Moncorgé, “Detailed characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes observed in Nd:YVO(4), Nd:GdVO(4) and Nd:KGW,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1553–1568 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, and P. Nagtegaele, “Spectroscopic investigation of variations in the refractive index of a Nd:YAG laser crystal: Experiments and crystal-field calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235108 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

L. van Pieterson, M. Heeroma, E. De Heer, and A. Meijerink, “Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 91(3-4), 177–193 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

N. V. Guerassimova, L. A. Kamenskikh, D. N. Krasikov, V. V. Mikhailin, K. Petermann, D. F. de Sousa, G. Zimmerer “Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ in sesquioxides” HASYLAB Annual Report 2004.

21.

D. N. Krasikov, A. V. Scherbinin, A. N. Vasil’ev, I. A. Kamenskikh, and V. V. Mikhailin, “Model of Y2O3–Yb charge-transfer luminescence based on ab initio cluster calculations,” J. Lumin. 128(11), 1748–1752 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

R. C. Powell, Physics of Solid State Laser Materials, Springer, NY, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1998.

23.

B. Di Bartolo, Optical Interactions in Solids, John Wiley and Sons Inc., NY, 1968.

24.

O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, A. S. Kuzhelev, and D. V. Chausov, “Resonant two-wave mixing of optical beams by refractive-index and gain gratings in inverted Nd:YAG,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(8), 2276 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: March 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 27, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 28, 2010
Published: May 12, 2010

Citation
R. Soulard, R. Moncorgé, A. Zinoviev, K. Petermann, O. Antipov, and A. Brignon, "Nonlinear spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped sesquioxides Lu2O3 and Sc2O3," Opt. Express 18, 11173-11180 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11173


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References

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