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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — May. 24, 2010
  • pp: 11209–11215
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A silicon nitride microdisk resonator with a 40-nm-thin horizontal air slot

Shinyoung Lee, Seok Chan Eom, Jee Soo Chang, Chul Huh, Gun Yong Sung, and Jung H. Shin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11209-11215 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.011209


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Abstract

We design and fabricate pedestal-type, 15 μm diameter silicon nitride microdisk resonators on Si chip with horizontal air-slot using selective wet etching between Si, SiO2, and SiNx. As the slot structure is determined by deposition process, air slots that are as thin as 40 nm and as deep as 5 μm with ultra-smooth slot surfaces can easily be fabricated with photolithography only. Fundamental TM-like slot mode in which the E-field is greatly enhanced within slot was observed with an intrinsic Q factor of ~34,000 (λres = 1523.7nm) and energy overlap in slot region of 21.6%.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Light confinement in nm-size region is essential for highly sensitive and compact devices for optoelectronics. Owing to this reason, slot-structures which consist of low refractive index region sandwiched with high refractive index material have attracted great attention [1

1. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. At the slot boundary, the magnitude of electric field which is polarized normal to the slot is enhanced with a ratio of dielectric constant to satisfy the continuity of electric displacement. If the width of slot is thin enough, and the index contrast large enough, we can obtain large electric field intensity within sub-wavelength thin region. By now, several applications such as sensing [2

2. C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optical modulation using enhanced nonlinear effect [3

3. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and optical manipulation were reported using waveguides and resonators based on slot-structures [5

5. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

,6

6. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

These works utilized vertical-slot structures whose slot consisted of a narrow, vertical trench in a high-index waveguide. Such a structure has the advantage of an open slot into which functional materials can easily be introduced for enhanced photon-matter interaction confined in a sub-wavelength region. On the other hand, due to the difficulty of fabricating nm-wide, high aspect-ratio trench, the slot width tends to be in the range of ~100nm, with nm-sized sidewall roughness at the slot boundary that can lead to very high scattering losses [7

7. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14467–14475 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Device fabrication

A 255nm-thin SiNx / 40nm-thin SiO2/ 255nm-thin SiNx multilayer thin film was deposited on a silicon substrate using reactive ion beam sputtering method with Ar, N2 and O2 gas flow. After deposition, the sample was annealed at 800°C during 30min in a flowing Ar environment to remove defects and increase film quality. Silicon nitride was chosen for the high-index layer due to its chemical and mechanical robustness that allow for compact micro resonators with intrinsic Q-factor of 25,000 near the 1.5 μm region [13

13. J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “On-chip, planar integration of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride microdisk with SU-8 waveguide with sub-micron gap control,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22918–22924 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. For PECVD-deposited, stoichiometric SiN, propagation loss of 2.2 ± 0.4 dB/cm had been reported [14

14. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The Si content in the SiNx layers were increased beyond the stoichiometric value in order to increase the refractive index of the nitride layers, which was obtained to be as high as 2.308 at 1550nm using ellipsometry (data not shown). Finally, a ~600 nm thick amorphous Si layer was deposited on top to serve as the etch mask.

After the thin film deposition, 15 μm diameter disks were patterned using photolithography and dry etching. Pedestal-type disk resonators were then fabricated by using a KOH solution heated to 60°C to selectively etch the Si substrate and undercut the multilayer disk, leaving a Si center post that is more than 3 μm high. This also removes the remaining a-Si hardmask at the same time. The air-slot region was then formed by etching silicon oxide spacer layer with buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) from the disk edge to a depth of ~5 μm. Finally, the fabricated disks were dried using CO2 critical point drying method to avoid capillary-force driven collapse of the air-slot during the drying process.

The optical properties of the resonators were measured using a U-bent tapered fiber [15

15. J. S. Chang, M.-K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J. H. Shin, and G. Y. Sung, “Fabrication and characterization of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride(SRSN) micro-disks,” Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970O (2008). [CrossRef]

] with 1.5 μm diameter mounted to a 3-axis picomotor translator. Light from a tunable laser (1475 nm~1545 nm) with linewidth <300 kHz and controlled polarization was then coupled into and out of the resonator via the tapered fiber, and the transmitted intensity was monitored using a powermeter. In all cases, the coupling fiber was in a light contact with the microresonator sidewall, resulting in overcoupling condition. The input polarization was controlled with a fiber polarization controller, and excitation of TE- and TM-like modes were determined by comparing the obtained transmission spectra with simulated results. More detailed description of the measurement setup can be found in Ref [15

15. J. S. Chang, M.-K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J. H. Shin, and G. Y. Sung, “Fabrication and characterization of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride(SRSN) micro-disks,” Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970O (2008). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results and discussion

As such, the resonator provides an electric energy overlap defined as below:

slotε(r)|E(r)|2dxdy / ε(r)|E(r)|2dxdy .
(1)

For a vertical edge, the energy overlap in slot region was calculated as 23.4%. In case of 10° sloped side-wall, the overlap factor in slot region was decreased to 21.6% due to lifting of the mode profile. However, this is still a much higher value than can be achieved by a conventional, single-disk resonator within same area.

The Q-factor, on the other hand, does not change significantly after the air-slot formation. The measured Q factor of the TM-like slot mode was 2230 (λres,oxide = 1524.6nm) and 2240 (λres = 1523.7nm) before and after the air-slot formation, respectively. These values are much lower than the values obtained in Fig. 2. The main source of optical loss, we believe, is the coupling fiber that is in contact with the resonator. In fact, direct simulation of a slot resonator in direct contact with a 1.5μm-diameter tapered fiber has shown that the Q-factor decreases to ~4,500, in agreement with the experimentally observed results (data not shown). The intrinsic cavity loss (1/τcavity) independent of the fiber coupling loss (1/τfiber) was calculated with the coupled mode theory [16

16. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Assuming that we are in the over-coupled regime, the intrinsic cavity Q factors were obtained using the following equations to be 37,000 and 34,000 before and after the air-slot formation, respectively.

1/τmeasured =1/τfiber+1/τcavity=FWHM,
(2)
Transmission =(1/τcavity1/τfiber)2(1/τcavity+1/τfiber)2.
(3)

The intrinsic Q-factor of 34,000 agrees well with previously reported values for comparable SiNx microdisk resonators [13

13. J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “On-chip, planar integration of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride microdisk with SU-8 waveguide with sub-micron gap control,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22918–22924 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and is comparable to the value reported from a vertical air-slot, SOI ring resonator coupled with gap-controlled bus waveguide fabricated using e-beam lithography [17

17. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. This indicates that the air-slot structure does not introduce any excess optical loss, and that higher Q-factors could be achieved with better fabrication and fiber coupling conditions [8

8. R. Sun, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, C. Y. Hong, J. Michel, M. Lipson, and L. Kimerling, “Horizontal single and multiple slot waveguides: optical transmission at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17967–17972 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. K. Foubert, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, E. Picard, D. Peyrade, E. Delamadeleine, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, “Near-field modal microscopy of subwavelength light confinement in multimode silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251103 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. More importantly, the fact that the Q-factor does not degrade significantly upon air-slot formation indicates that the scattering from the disk surfaces is negligible. In fact, as the image of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in Fig. 4(b)
Fig. 4 (a) The transmissions spectra of a single SiNx disk, fabricated by removing the top disk through completely etching away the SiO2 spacer layer. No TM-like mode can be observed but TE-like modes are slightly mixed. The inset shows the SEM image of the bottom disk after removal of the top disk. (b) AFM image of the top surface of the bottom disk thus exposed. The RMS roughness is 0.51 nm only.
shows, the RMS roughness of the top surface of the bottom disk after removing the top disk through completely etching away the SiO2 spacer layer is 0.51nm only, which is about seven times lower than the reported line edge roughness of optimized silicon waveguide [20

20. X. Jiang, Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, K. Vahala, and O. Painter, “High-Q double-disk microcavities for cavity optomechanics,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20911–20919 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have designed and fabricated pedestal-type, 15 μm diameter SiNx microdisk resonators on Si chip with horizontal air-slot that ultra-smooth, are as thin as 40 nm, and reach as deep as 5 μm in from the circumference of the disk with selective wet etching process. As a consequence, the top and bottom disks act together as a single resonator with an air gap, with a corresponding fundamental, TM-like slot mode whose E-field is greatly enhanced along the entire circumference of the disk, with an energy overlap in slot region of 21.6%. The measured Q-factor for such slot-mode is ~2240 due to strong coupling loss. The calculated intrinsic Q-factor is 34,000, comparable with conventional, single-disk SiNx resonators and vertical-slot ring resonators fabricated using e-beam lithography. This combination of Q-factor with the large electric field concentration indicates a great potential of such air-slot disk structure for many applications such as sensing, non-linear optics, and nano-manipulation.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported in part by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF), grant No. R01-2007-000-21036-0 of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF), the Basic Science Research Program through NRF funded by MEST (2009-0087691), the Top Brand R&D program of MKE (09ZC1110: Basic Research for the Ubiquitous Lifecare Module Development), and KICOS (GRL, K20815000003). J. H. Shin acknowledges support by WCU (World Class University) program, grant No. (R31-2008-000-10071-0).

References and links

1.

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14467–14475 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

R. Sun, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, C. Y. Hong, J. Michel, M. Lipson, and L. Kimerling, “Horizontal single and multiple slot waveguides: optical transmission at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17967–17972 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103112–103113 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, “Birefringence and optical power confinement in horizontal multi-slot waveguides made of Si and SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8623–8628 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021106 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, “Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8-nm slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 353–355 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “On-chip, planar integration of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride microdisk with SU-8 waveguide with sub-micron gap control,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22918–22924 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. S. Chang, M.-K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J. H. Shin, and G. Y. Sung, “Fabrication and characterization of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride(SRSN) micro-disks,” Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970O (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

K. Foubert, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, E. Picard, D. Peyrade, E. Delamadeleine, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, “Near-field modal microscopy of subwavelength light confinement in multimode silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251103 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. Jiang, Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, K. Vahala, and O. Painter, “High-Q double-disk microcavities for cavity optomechanics,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20911–20919 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. Barwicz and H. I. Smith, “Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2892–2896 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 29, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 7, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 9, 2010
Published: May 12, 2010

Citation
Shinyoung Lee, Seok Chan Eom, Jee Soo Chang, Chul Huh, Gun Yong Sung, and Jung H. Shin, "A silicon nitride microdisk resonator with a
40-nm-thin horizontal air slot," Opt. Express 18, 11209-11215 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11209


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References

  1. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4296–4301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14467–14475 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Sun, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, C. Y. Hong, J. Michel, M. Lipson, and L. Kimerling, “Horizontal single and multiple slot waveguides: optical transmission at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17967–17972 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103112–103113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, “Birefringence and optical power confinement in horizontal multi-slot waveguides made of Si and SiO2.,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8623–8628 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021106 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, “Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8-nm slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 353–355 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “On-chip, planar integration of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride microdisk with SU-8 waveguide with sub-micron gap control,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22918–22924 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. S. Chang, M.-K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J. H. Shin, and G. Y. Sung, “Fabrication and characterization of Er doped silicon-rich silicon nitride(SRSN) micro-disks,” Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970O (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043902 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Foubert, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, E. Picard, D. Peyrade, E. Delamadeleine, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, “Near-field modal microscopy of subwavelength light confinement in multimode silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. Jiang, Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, K. Vahala, and O. Painter, “High-Q double-disk microcavities for cavity optomechanics,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20911–20919 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Barwicz and H. I. Smith, “Evolution of line-edge roughness during fabrication of high-index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2892–2896 (2003). [CrossRef]

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