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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — May. 24, 2010
  • pp: 11270–11275
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Design and simulation of multimode interference based demultiplexers aided by computer-generated planar holograms

Ming-Chan Wu and Shuo-Yen Tseng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11270-11275 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.011270


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Abstract

A 1.31/1.55 μm multimode interference based wavelength demultiplexer aided by computer-generated planar holograms is proposed. The device length is not limited to the common multiples of the beat lengths for the two wavelengths. The demultiplexer length is chosen as the first self-imaging length for 1.55 μm input, and a computer-generated holographic pattern is used to image the 1.31 μm input to the cross output port. The design and optimization of the holographic pattern is presented. The device performance is investigated using the beam propagation method.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a key technology in optical fiber communication systems [1

1. G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, MA, 2000).

]. In WDM transmission systems, wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers play essential roles in combining/separating information carried by different wavelengths. Of particular interests to optical telecommunications are the 1.31 µm and 1.55 µm windows. In fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) services, these two windows are used to carry data/voice and video, respectively [2

2. H. Kawata, T. Ogawa, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Sugie, “Multichannel video and IP signal multiplexing system using CWDM technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(6), 1454–1462 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Several integrated optical devices have been proposed or demonstrated for the demultiplexing of 1.31 and 1.55 µm wavelengths. Devices based on the application of multimode interference (MMI) phenomenon [3

3. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995). [CrossRef]

] are particularly attractive because of their large fabrication tolerance, low loss, and compact size [4

4. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 1004–1009 (1994). [CrossRef]

].

In the past, several groups [5

5. K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 [micro sign]m wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32(14), 1259–1261 (1996). [CrossRef]

,6

6. B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Low-loss 1×2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 575–577 (1999). [CrossRef]

] have demonstrated wavelength demultiplexers for the 1.31 and 1.55 µm based on MMI. The operation of these MMI based demultiplexers relies on the self-imaging (SI) effect in multimode waveguides [3

3. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. The SI length is wavelength dependent, and two wavelengths can be separated if the device length is at the direct image length for one wavelength while at the mirror image length for the other. As a result, the device length needs to be a common multiple of the beat lengths for the two wavelengths [7

7. M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1180–1182 (1995). [CrossRef]

], which could result in a long device length. To achieve a shorter device length, careful selection of device width and length through numerical simulations is required [6

6. B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Low-loss 1×2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 575–577 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. For a particular material platform, the available device geometry in terms of width and lengths is thus restricted. A MMI based multiplexer/demultiplexer with fewer restrictions on its geometry would be desirable in terms of design freedom.

Recently, planar optical waveguide devices with computer calculated refractive index distributions have received a lot of attention [8

8. T. W. Mossberg, “Planar holographic optical processing devices,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 414–416 (2001). [CrossRef]

10

10. Y. Tsuji and K. Hirayama, “Design of optical circuit devices using topology optimization method with function-expansion-based refractive index distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 982–984 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The ability to design and fabricate these index perturbation on optical waveguides has opened up new possibilities in designing functional devices that are no longer limited by the traditional device geometries. In the past, we have proposed a class of devices using computer-generated planar holograms (CGPHs) on multimode waveguides to perform various functionalities [11

11. S.-Y. Tseng, Y. Kim, C. J. K. Richardson, and J. Goldhar, “Implementation of discrete unitary transformations by multimode waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4864–4872 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. S.-Y. Tseng, and M.-C. Wu, “Adiabatic mode conversion in multimode waveguides using computer-generated planar holograms,” submitted (2010).

]. These CGPHs are multiplexed long-period gratings that couple and transform the guided modes of the multimode waveguides. In this letter, we propose a 1.31/1.55 µm wavelength demultiplexer using CGPH on MMI devices. The design and optimization procedure of the CGPH is presented, and the device performance is investigated with numerical simulations.

2. Principle of operation

3. CGPH design

We choose a polymer ridge waveguide structure for the BPM simulations. The design parameters are chosen as follows: 3 µm thick SiO2 on a Si wafer is used for the bottom cladding layer, the core consists of a 2.4 µm layer of CycloteneTM (BCB), the upper cladding is air, the width W of the multimode section is 18 µm, the width of the access waveguide is 3 µm, and the centers of access waveguides are placed at ± 7.5 µm from the center of the multimode section. The refractive indices of BCB at 1.31/1.55 μm can be found in [16

16. The Dow Chemical Company, “CYCLOTENE Advanced Electronics Resins,” www.dow.com/cyclotene

]. Subsequent CGPH design and BPM simulations are performed on the 2D structure obtained from the 3D structure using the effective index method.

For the TE polarization at 1.55 µm, we use the BPM simulation to find the first self-imaging length and set it as the length of the multimode section length L = 2720 µm [Fig. 2(a)]. Next, we calculate the CGPH that images the 1.31 µm input to the cross output port. The 1.31 µm optical field E1(z) do not image at L [Fig. 2(b)], and we wish to transform E1(z) to an optical field E2(z) which images to the cross output port. E2(z) is obtained by taking the conjugate of the mirrored image of E1(L) and using it as the input to the multimode waveguide. Because E2(0) is the phase conjugate replica of the mirrored image of E1(L), we expect E2(L) to form an image at the cross output port. This is verified by the BPM simulation shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BPM simulations showing that the phase conjugate of the mirrored image of E1(L) images to the cross port at 1.31 μm.
.

η=|E2(L)|2/|E1(0)|2=sin2(κL).
(7)

To find the optimal index perturbation, we monitor the cross and bar port outputs as a function of Δn using 1.31 μm as the input. As shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The variation of bar/cross ports output at 1.31 µm as a function of maximum index perturbation Δn.
, the cross port output varies in a sinusoidal manner with Δn as indicated by Eq. (7). The result is not exactly described by Eq. (7) since we monitor the power at the cross output port rather than |E2(L)|2. From Fig. 5, we find that the optimal Δn to image the 1.31 µm input to the cross output port is 1.4 × 10−3, and the corresponding field intensity simulation is shown in Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 BPM simulations of the MMI demultiplexer with CGPH. (a) 1.31 μm input; (b) 1.55 μm input.
. With the properly designed CGPH, the 1.31 µm input is imaged to the cross output port. As shown in Eq. (5), the CGPH has wavelength selectivity since the grating periods designed for 1.31 µm would not satisfy the phase matching conditions at 1.55 µm. Figure 6(b) shows the field intensity simulation of the same CGPH aided MMI with 1.55 µm input. The CGPH has little effect on its self-imaging property as expected. The CGPH loaded MMI can thus be used to demultiplex 1.31 and 1.55 μm. In the subsequent analysis, a Δn of 1.4 × 10−3 is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed wavelength demultiplexer.

4. Performance analysis and conclusion

The performance of wavelength demultiplexers can be characterized by contrast in the output ports. We define the contrast as −10 log(Pcross/Pbar), where Pbar and Pcross are the output power at the bar and cross ports, respectively. The BPM simulation results with a input wavelength variation from 1.20 to 1.60 μm are shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavelength dependence of the cross and bar ports contrast defined by −10log (Pcross / Pbar) with and without the CGPH.
. Without the CGPH (dashed line), a dip at 1.55 μm corresponds to the SI to the bar output port as determined by the MMI geometry. However, since the length is chosen arbitrarily, the contrast at 1.31 μm is very poor. With the properly designed CGPH, we observe a peak at the CGPH design wavelength of 1.31 µm. When the input wavelength deviates from the targeted wavelengths, the contrast degrades due to changes in the MMI imaging length and detunings from the CGPH design wavelength. At 1.55 µm, the peak contrast is slightly degraded due to the small effect of the CGPH. The CGPH biases the core refractive index by Δn, which causes a small shift of the beat length at 1.55 µm. The degradation of contrast at 1.55 µm could partly be attributed to this effect.

Across the investigated spectral range, the MMI basically retains its spectral response except for the peak at 1.31 µm induced by the CGPH. Using the conventional approach, we have estimated that the MMI demultiplexer length needs to be three times the current device length of 2720 µm in order to be at a mirror image length for 1.31 µm. The proposed approach offers more flexibility in device geometry without sacrificing the compactness of the device. Further reduction of the device length to the first mirror image length for 1.55 µm is feasible provided that the amount of index modulation could be increased to obtain maximum diffraction efficiency in Eq. (7).

In conclusion, we have proposed a MMI wavelength demultiplexer aided by the CGPH. Unlike conventional MMI demultiplexers, the device width and length are not limited to specific values as determined by the self-imaging properties. Using a design example, the design procedure for the CGPH is illustrated. BPM simulations are used to design the demultiplexer and analyze its performance. The same design principle can be applied to demultiplexers for different wavelengths.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the reviewer for the insightful comments and suggestions. This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under contract NSC 98-2221-E-006-016-.

References and links

1.

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, MA, 2000).

2.

H. Kawata, T. Ogawa, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Sugie, “Multichannel video and IP signal multiplexing system using CWDM technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(6), 1454–1462 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995). [CrossRef]

4.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 1004–1009 (1994). [CrossRef]

5.

K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 [micro sign]m wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32(14), 1259–1261 (1996). [CrossRef]

6.

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Low-loss 1×2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 575–577 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1180–1182 (1995). [CrossRef]

8.

T. W. Mossberg, “Planar holographic optical processing devices,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 414–416 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “New optical waveguide design based on wavefront matching method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3511–3518 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Tsuji and K. Hirayama, “Design of optical circuit devices using topology optimization method with function-expansion-based refractive index distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 982–984 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

S.-Y. Tseng, Y. Kim, C. J. K. Richardson, and J. Goldhar, “Implementation of discrete unitary transformations by multimode waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4864–4872 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S.-Y. Tseng, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, D. Owens, and B. Kippelen, “Variable splitting ratio 2 x 2 MMI couplers using multimode waveguide holograms,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9015–9021 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-14-9015. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S.-Y. Tseng, S. K. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Variable-ratio power splitters using computer-generated planar holograms on multimode interference couplers,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 512–514 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S.-Y. Tseng, “Diffraction engineering of multimode waveguides using computer-generated planar holograms,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21465–21471 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21465. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S.-Y. Tseng, and M.-C. Wu, “Adiabatic mode conversion in multimode waveguides using computer-generated planar holograms,” submitted (2010).

16.

The Dow Chemical Company, “CYCLOTENE Advanced Electronics Resins,” www.dow.com/cyclotene

17.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, CA, 1992).

OCIS Codes
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 7, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 11, 2010
Published: May 12, 2010

Citation
Ming-Chan Wu and Shuo-Yen Tseng, "Design and simulation of multimode interference based demultiplexers aided by computer-generated planar holograms," Opt. Express 18, 11270-11275 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11270


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References

  1. G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, MA, 2000).
  2. H. Kawata, T. Ogawa, N. Yoshimoto, and T. Sugie, “Multichannel video and IP signal multiplexing system using CWDM technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(6), 1454–1462 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 1004–1009 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. K.-C. Lin and W.-Y. Lee, “Guided-wave 1.3/1.55 [micro sign]m wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference,” Electron. Lett. 32(14), 1259–1261 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, and X. Wang, “Low-loss 1×2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(5), 575–577 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, and J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1180–1182 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. T. W. Mossberg, “Planar holographic optical processing devices,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 414–416 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “New optical waveguide design based on wavefront matching method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3511–3518 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Tsuji and K. Hirayama, “Design of optical circuit devices using topology optimization method with function-expansion-based refractive index distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 982–984 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. S.-Y. Tseng, Y. Kim, C. J. K. Richardson, and J. Goldhar, “Implementation of discrete unitary transformations by multimode waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4864–4872 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.-Y. Tseng, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, D. Owens, and B. Kippelen, “Variable splitting ratio 2 x 2 MMI couplers using multimode waveguide holograms,” Opt. Express 15(14), 9015–9021 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-14-9015 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-Y. Tseng, S. K. Choi, and B. Kippelen, “Variable-ratio power splitters using computer-generated planar holograms on multimode interference couplers,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 512–514 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S.-Y. Tseng, “Diffraction engineering of multimode waveguides using computer-generated planar holograms,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21465–21471 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21465 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S.-Y. Tseng, and M.-C. Wu, “Adiabatic mode conversion in multimode waveguides using computer-generated planar holograms,” submitted (2010).
  16. The Dow Chemical Company, “CYCLOTENE Advanced Electronics Resins,” www.dow.com/cyclotene
  17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, CA, 1992).

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