## Very broad gain bandwidth parametric amplification in nonlinear crystals at critical wavelength degeneracy

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11689-11699 (2010)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.011689

Acrobat PDF (949 KB)

### Abstract

Gain spectra were calculated at critical wavelength degeneracy (CWD) in a collinear phase-matching geometry optical parametric amplification (OPA) process. The frequency bandwidth available through CWD-OPA is broader compared to the gain bandwidth obtained by the non-collinear OPA geometry. A solution for very broad bandwidth chirped pulse amplification based on partially deuterated DKDP (P-DKDP) crystals, pumped by pulsed green lasers, is proposed. 1.38 x 10^{14} Hz frequency bandwidth and peak intensity gain G ≈62 were calculated in a 5-mm long 58% deuterated DKDP crystal, pumped by 527-nm wavelength at 64-GW/cm^{2} intensity. Parametric amplification at CWD in few-mm thin P-DKDP crystals, pumped by picosecond pulses of nearly 100-GW/cm^{2} intensity, possesses a true potential for generating high energy laser pulses compressible to one-cycle duration.

© 2010 OSA

## 1. Introduction

11. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. **74**(1), 1–18 (2003). [CrossRef]

11. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. **74**(1), 1–18 (2003). [CrossRef]

15. J. Limpert, C. Aguergaray, S. Montant, I. Manek-Hönninger, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, and F. Salin, “Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy,” Opt. Express **13**(19), 7386–7392 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16. Y. Tang, I. N. Ross, C. Hernandez-Gomez, G. H. C. New, I. Musgrave, O. V. Chekhlov, P. Matousek, and J. L. Collier, “Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source suitable for seeding high-energy systems,” Opt. Lett. **33**(20), 2386–2388 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Theoretical analyses

**, are required:where**

*k*_{p,s,i}*p, s,*and

*i*refer to pump, signal, and idler, respectively. In case of uniaxial nonlinear crystals, the three-wave interaction occurs in a plane including the crystal optical axis (Fig. 1 ). For a type-I parametric process in a negative uniaxial crystal, the signal and idler waves are ordinary polarized, whereas the pump wave is extraordinary polarized. The

*θ*angle between the pump wave vector and the optical axis is derived from the phase-matching condition and Sellmeier equations for the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes of the nonlinear crystal.

11. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. **74**(1), 1–18 (2003). [CrossRef]

*I*is the pump beam intensity,

_{p}*Δk*is the wave vectors mismatch,

*d*is effective non-linear optical coefficient,

_{eff}*L*is the crystal length,

*ε*is the vacuum permittivity,

_{0}*c*is the vacuum speed of light,

_{0}*n*are the refractive indexes,

_{p,s,i}*λ*are signal and idler wavelengths, respectively.

_{s,}λ_{i}*ΓL>>1*), is determined by

*ω*and

_{s0}*ω*frequencies that satisfy the Eqs. (1). If the signal frequency changes to

_{i0}*ω*, by energy conservation the idler frequency changes to

_{s0}+ Δω*ω*:

_{i0}-Δω*Δk*changes as slowly as possible with the change of the signal frequency. The wave-vectors mismatch around the phase-matching frequency is given by the Taylor series expansion:

*Δk*determines the phase matching frequency bandwidth, which can be calculated as:where

^{(1)}*v*and

_{gs}*v*are the group velocities of the signal and idler waves, respectively.

_{gi}*Δk*can be canceled. In a collinear phase-matching geometry, it corresponds to the degeneracy (

^{(1)}*ω*), where the group velocity of the signal and idler are equal. In this case, the phase mismatch

_{s}= ω_{i}*Δk*must be expanded to the second order, givingwhere

*(GVD)*are the group velocity dispersions of the signal and idler.

_{s,i}*θ*to the optical axis. The internal crystal angle between signal and pump wave-vectors

*α*, the angle between signal and idler wave-vectors

*β*, and

*θ*angle are determined by [11

**74**(1), 1–18 (2003). [CrossRef]

*x*are two orthogonal axes [Fig. 1(b)].

_{1}, x_{2}*Δk*term becomes zero too. The ultra broad band (UBB) NOPA conditions were derived from Eqs. (9) by equalizing to zero the second derivatives with

^{(2)}*ω*of the phase-matching relations.

*θ, α*, and

*β*angles and a pair of signal and idler wavelengths corresponding to an ultra-broad band gain bandwidth can be calculated [13].

*ω*of the two phase-matching equations from (9)

*ω*) involved in a parametric amplification process, the solution of the six-equations system composed by (9), (10), and (11) represents the conditions for obtaining the broadest gain signal bandwidth in a certain nonlinear crystal. The solution of this equations system consists in a collinear phase matching geometry (

_{p}, ω_{s,}ω_{i},_{,}θ, α, β*α = 0, β = 0*) and degeneracy (

*ω*=

_{s}*ω*=

_{i}*ω*) at the critical wavelength,

_{p}/2*λ*, where the group velocity dispersion of the signal/idler is

_{c}*n*is the ordinary refractive index of signal wavelength.

_{o}(λ)*θ*angle is determined by the phase-matching condition from Eqs. (9) and Sellmeier equations.

*Δν*is determined by the fourth order mismatch term,

^{(4)},*Δk*, of the Taylor series expansion (6)

^{(4)}## 3. Gain bandwidths calculation

18. United Crystals Company, Data sheets, http://www.unitedcrystals.com/KDPProp.html

*θ, α,*and

*β*) for broad spectral bandwidth were calculated with Eqs. (9). For a certain pump wavelength, in case of UBB NOPA, the phase matching angles and the suitable signal/idler wavelengths are derived from Eqs. (9) and (10). In case of a parametric amplification process at CWD, the signal central wavelength was calculated using Eq. (13), whereas the

*θ*angle is derived from the phase-matching condition for collinear OPA. The gain spectra were calculated by use of (1), (2), (3), and (9) equations.

^{2}pump intensity, are shown in Fig. 2(a) . Curve A represents the gain spectrum for a collinear interaction at 0.95 μm central signal wavelength. The gain spectra B, C, and D are derived for a collinear degenerated parametric process (λ

_{s}= λ

_{i}= 1.054 μm), NOPA (at λ

_{s}= 0.95 μm central signal wavelength), and UBB-NOPA (λ

_{s}= 0.90 μm), respectively. Figure 2(b) shows the intensity gain for OPA at CWD, λ

_{p}= 0.561 μm, λ

_{s}= λ

_{i}= 1.122 μm. Calculations are summarized in the Table 1 .

^{13}Hz was calculated for UBB-NOPA at 900 nm signal central wavelength. For generating 5-fs laser pulses, a gain bandwidth at least 2-times broader would be necessary. Pulse intensities of two order of magnitude higher (nearly 100 GW/cm

^{2}), crystals one order of magnitude shorter (few-mm length), and optimized NOPA geometries are necessary to reach the required bandwidth. Taking into account the DKDP damage threshold intensity, pump pulses of about 1 ps duration may be used. The peak intensity gain

*G*significantly decreases by a factorwhere

_{2}*L*are the previous crystal length and peak signal gain, and

_{1}, G_{1}*L*is the actual crystal length.

_{2}^{13}Hz, obtained for collinear OPA at CWD, is larger by a factor of 1.6 compared to the gain bandwidth for UBB-NOPA. Very broad gain bandwidths could be available simultaneously with a high parametric gain in relatively long nonlinear crystals.

## 4. P-DKDP crystals application

2. V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 Petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. **4**(6), 421–427 (2007). [CrossRef]

19. I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T. J. Wang, V. Pervak, A. Popp, M. Siebold, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “Frontend light source for short-pulse pumped OPCPA system,” Appl. Phys. B **97**(3), 529–536 (2009). [CrossRef]

*n*is the refractive index of a 100% deuterated DKDP crystal,

_{o,e}(1)*n*is the refractive index of a KDP crystal,

_{o,e}(0)*D*is the deuteration level,

*o*and

*e*are the subscripts for ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. Using Sellmeier equations for KDP and 100% deuterated DKDP crystals [18

18. United Crystals Company, Data sheets, http://www.unitedcrystals.com/KDPProp.html

*θ*phase-matching angles are 38.5 and 39.8 degrees.

^{2}, 4 GW/cm

^{2}, 25 GW/cm

^{2}, and 64 GW/cm

^{2}pump intensities are presented in Fig. 3(a) . From intensity damage threshold considerations, these pump intensities can be used when pump laser pulses have durations in the range of nanosecond, hundred of picoseconds, ten picoseconds, and few picoseconds, respectively. The crystal lengths were chosen to get the same peak gain factor in all cases: 40 mm, 20 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm. The calculated FWHM-PMB were 0.77 x 10

^{14}Hz, 0.95 x 10

^{14}Hz, 1.22 x 10

^{14}Hz, and 1.38 x 10

^{14}Hz, respectively. Similar results were obtained for a 40% P-DKDP crystal pumped by a 515-nm Yb:YAG [Fig. 3(b)].

^{2}, are shown in Fig. 4(a) . The crystal lengths were chosen to get the same peak gain. The calculated FWHM-PMB of 1.38 x 10

^{14}Hz for the 58% P-DKDP crystal is about 1.23 times broader than 1.12x 10

^{14}Hz in case of UBB-NOPA in the DKDP crystal. As derived from Eqs. (14) and (15), due to the difference between power scaling factors (

*1/8*and

*1/6*), for the same peak gain, the gain bandwidth in case of CWD-OPA changes slower with pump intensity and crystal length compared to an UBB-NOPA process. As a result, when pump intensity decreases, the ratio between the available gain bandwidths in the above mentioned OPA processes will be higher. The calculated gain frequency bandwidths were 1.33 and 1.27 times broader in case of CWD-OPA in P-DKDP crystals compared to UBB-NOPA in DKDP crystals at 4 GW/cm

^{2}and 25 GW/cm

^{2}pump intensity, respectively. At 1-GW/cm

^{2}pump intensity, the FWHM-PMB of 7.7 x 10

^{13}Hz calculated for a 40-mm long 58% P-DKDP is 1.4 times broader than 5.5 x 10

^{13}Hz in case of UBB-NOPA in a DKDP crystal [Fig. 4(b)]. In conditions of similar peak gain and pump intensity, broader frequency bandwidth is available in case of CWD-OPA in P-DKDP crystals. Under conditions of equal peak gain (G ≈62), for CWD-OPA in a 10.7 mm long P-DKDP crystal, pumped by 14-GW/cm

^{2}intensity, a FWHM-PMB of 1.12 x 10

^{14}Hz was calculated, as broad as the one obtained for UBB-NOPA in a 5.4 mm long DKDP crystal at 64-GW/cm

^{2}pump intensity [Fig. 4(a)].

^{2}intensity pump pulses, allow the generation of 5-fs laser pulses. Optical synchronization of pump and seed pulses becomes less critical than in case of 1-ps pulses overlapped in UBB-NOPA processes. When pumping with nanosecond pulses at ~1-GW/cm

^{2}intensity, the available frequency bandwidth at CWD is broad enough to amplify chirped laser pulses compressible to sub-10 fs duration. Considering a pump intensity of 100 GW/cm

^{2}, and a 2.5-mm thin P-DKDP crystal, a peak gain about 4 and a frequency bandwidth broader than 1.5 x 10

^{14}Hz were calculated. This gain bandwidth seems broad enough to amplify supercontinuum ps-stretched pulses, compressible down to one-cycle pulse duration.

## Conclusions

^{2}intensity and 10-ps duration of pump pulses are broad-enough to amplify chirped laser pulses compressible down to 5 fs pulsewidth. Sub 10-fs duration laser pulses could be generated by ultrafast laser systems based on OPCPA at CWD in P-DKDP crystals pumped by nanosecond green laser beams at ~1 GW/cm

^{2}pump intensity. By pumping few-mm long P-DKDP crystals with 1-ps green laser pulses at nearly 100-GW/cm

^{2}pump intensity, the available gain bandwidth at CWD seems broad-enough to amplify stretched laser pulses compressible down to one-cycle pulse duration. OPCPA at CWD could be considered as a solution for ultrashort pulsed laser amplifier systems.

## References and links

1. | X. Yang, Z. Z. Xu, Y. X. Leng, H. H. Lu, L. H. Lin, Z. Q. Zhang, R. X. Li, W. Q. Zhang, D. J. Yin, and B. Tang, “Multiterawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. |

2. | V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 Petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. |

3. | A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. |

4. | I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, “The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. |

5. | I. N. Ross, J. L. Collier, P. Matousek, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, R. M. Allott, D. A. Pepler, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and K. Osvay, “Generation of terawatt pulses by use of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Appl. Opt. |

6. | A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Visible pulse compression to 4 fs by optical parametric amplification and programmable dispersion control,” Opt. Lett. |

7. | N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. |

8. | S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express |

9. | J. A. Fülöp, Zs. Major, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, T. Clausnitzer, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, J. Osterhoff, R. Horlein, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “Short-pulse optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for generation of high-power few-cycle pulses,” N. J. Phys. |

10. | D. Herrmann, L. Veisz, R. Tautz, F. Tavella, K. Schmid, V. Pervak, and F. Krausz, “Generation of sub-three-cycle, 16 TW light pulses by using noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. |

11. | G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. |

12. | E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Sporlein, and W. Zinth, “Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable trough all the visible and the NIR,” Appl. Phys. B |

13. | V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Palashov, A. M. Sergeev, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Study of Broadband Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification in a DKDP Crystal Pumped by the Second harmonic of a Nd:YLF Laser,” Laser Phys. |

14. | X. Yang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, Y. Leng, J. Peng, J. Wang, S. Jin, W. Zhang, and R. Li, “Dependence of spectrum on pump-signal angle in BBO-I noncollinear optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Appl. Phys. B |

15. | J. Limpert, C. Aguergaray, S. Montant, I. Manek-Hönninger, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, and F. Salin, “Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy,” Opt. Express |

16. | Y. Tang, I. N. Ross, C. Hernandez-Gomez, G. H. C. New, I. Musgrave, O. V. Chekhlov, P. Matousek, and J. L. Collier, “Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source suitable for seeding high-energy systems,” Opt. Lett. |

17. | R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Oscillators” in |

18. | United Crystals Company, Data sheets, http://www.unitedcrystals.com/KDPProp.html |

19. | I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T. J. Wang, V. Pervak, A. Popp, M. Siebold, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “Frontend light source for short-pulse pumped OPCPA system,” Appl. Phys. B |

20. | Zs. Major, “The Petawatt Field Synthesizer–Current status and recent progress,” presented at the International Conference LEI 2009, Brasov, Romania, 9 Oct. 2009. |

**OCIS Codes**

(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers

(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers

**ToC Category:**

Nonlinear Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: March 29, 2010

Revised Manuscript: April 30, 2010

Manuscript Accepted: May 5, 2010

Published: May 18, 2010

**Citation**

R. Dabu, "Very broad gain bandwidth parametric amplification in nonlinear crystals at critical wavelength degeneracy," Opt. Express **18**, 11689-11699 (2010)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11689

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### References

- X. Yang, Z. Z. Xu, Y. X. Leng, H. H. Lu, L. H. Lin, Z. Q. Zhang, R. X. Li, W. Q. Zhang, D. J. Yin, and B. Tang, “Multiterawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1135–1137 (2002). [CrossRef]
- V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 Petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(6), 421–427 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992). [CrossRef]
- I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, “The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 144(1-3), 125–133 (1997). [CrossRef]
- I. N. Ross, J. L. Collier, P. Matousek, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, R. M. Allott, D. A. Pepler, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and K. Osvay, “Generation of terawatt pulses by use of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Appl. Opt. 39(15), 2422–2427 (2000). [CrossRef]
- A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Visible pulse compression to 4 fs by optical parametric amplification and programmable dispersion control,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 306–308 (2002). [CrossRef]
- N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, G. Veitas, V. Smilgevicius, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 567–569 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, A. L. Wolf, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “A source of 2 terawatt, 2.7 cycle laser pulses based on noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8168–8177 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. A. Fülöp, Zs. Major, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, T. Clausnitzer, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, J. Osterhoff, R. Horlein, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “Short-pulse optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for generation of high-power few-cycle pulses,” N. J. Phys. 9(12), 438 (2007). [CrossRef]
- D. Herrmann, L. Veisz, R. Tautz, F. Tavella, K. Schmid, V. Pervak, and F. Krausz, “Generation of sub-three-cycle, 16 TW light pulses by using noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2459–2461 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003). [CrossRef]
- E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Sporlein, and W. Zinth, “Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable trough all the visible and the NIR,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 457–465 (2000).
- V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Palashov, A. M. Sergeev, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Study of Broadband Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification in a DKDP Crystal Pumped by the Second harmonic of a Nd:YLF Laser,” Laser Phys. 15(9), 1319–1333 (2005).
- X. Yang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, Y. Leng, J. Peng, J. Wang, S. Jin, W. Zhang, and R. Li, “Dependence of spectrum on pump-signal angle in BBO-I noncollinear optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 219–222 (2001).
- J. Limpert, C. Aguergaray, S. Montant, I. Manek-Hönninger, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, and F. Salin, “Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7386–7392 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Tang, I. N. Ross, C. Hernandez-Gomez, G. H. C. New, I. Musgrave, O. V. Chekhlov, P. Matousek, and J. L. Collier, “Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source suitable for seeding high-energy systems,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2386–2388 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Oscillators” in Quantum Electronics: A Treatise, Nonlinear Optics, Part B, H. Rabin and C. L. Tang, eds., (Academic Press, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.
- United Crystals Company, Data sheets, http://www.unitedcrystals.com/KDPProp.html
- I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T. J. Wang, V. Pervak, A. Popp, M. Siebold, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, “Frontend light source for short-pulse pumped OPCPA system,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 529–536 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Zs. Major, “The Petawatt Field Synthesizer–Current status and recent progress,” presented at the International Conference LEI 2009, Brasov, Romania, 9 Oct. 2009.

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