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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — May. 24, 2010
  • pp: 11772–11784
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Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system

Kang Zhang and Jin U. Kang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11772-11784 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.011772


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Abstract

We realized graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time 4D (3D + time) signal processing and visualization on a regular Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system with a nonlinear k-space spectrometer. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for λ-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in the GPU architecture, which gives average interpolation speeds of >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-pixel OCT (1024-OCT) and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-pixel OCT (2048-OCT). The complete FD-OCT signal processing including λ-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. The maximum complete A-scan processing speeds are investigated to be 680,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and 320,000 line/s for 2048-OCT, which correspond to 1GByte processing bandwidth. In our experiment, a 2048-pixel CMOS camera running up to 70 kHz is used as an acquisition device. Therefore the actual imaging speed is camera- limited to 128,000 line/s for 1024-OCT or 70,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time at 1024-OCT mode, immediately processed and visualized as high as 10 volumes/second (12,500 A-scans/volume) by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The acquisition line (A-scan) speed of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has been advancing rapidly to >100,000 line/s level in the last few years. For a spectrometer based FD-OCT, an ultrahigh speed CMOS line scan camera based system has achieved up to 312,500 line/s [1

1. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-19-15149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; while for a swept laser type, 370,000 line/s has been realized by using a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser [2

2. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such ultrahigh acquisition speed enables time-resolved volumetric (4D) recording and reconstruction of dynamic processes such as eye blinking, papillary reaction to light stimulus [3

3. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14880. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and embryonic heart beating [5

5. M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-13-10786. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(2), 736–748 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-736. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, parallel efforts have not been embarked on data processing and visualization at the matching speed of the acquisition. Therefore, current real-time video-rate display is generally limited to 2D (B-scan) images. The most common way dealing with a huge volumetric data (C-scan) is to “capture and save” and then perform post-processing at a later time. The post-processing of 3D data usually includes two stages, FD-OCT signal processing and volumetric visualization, both of which are heavy-duty computing task due to the huge data size. Therefore the real-time signal processing and volumetric visualization become two bottlenecks for an ultra-high speed FD-OCT system that could be a practical system for clinical applications such as surgical intervention and instrument guidance, which usually requires a real-time 4D imaging capability.

To overcome the signal processing bottleneck, several solutions have recently been proposed and demonstrated: Multi-CPU parallel processing has been implemented and achieved 80,000 line/s processing rate on nonlinear-k system [8

8. G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and 207,000 line/s on linear-k system for 1024-OCT [9

9. J. Probst, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Real-time 3D rendering of optical coherence tomography volumetric data,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720Q (2009). [CrossRef]

]; A linear-k Fourier-domain mode-locked laser (FDML) with direct hardware frequency demodulation method enabled real-time en face image by yielding the analytic reflectance signal from one depth for each axial scan [10

10. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; More recently, a graphics processing unit (GPU) has been utilized for processing FD-OCT data [11

11. Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009). [CrossRef]

] using linear-k spectrometer. However, the methods in [9

9. J. Probst, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Real-time 3D rendering of optical coherence tomography volumetric data,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720Q (2009). [CrossRef]

11

11. Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009). [CrossRef]

] are limited to highly-special linear-k FD-OCT systems to avoid interpolation for λ-to-k spectral re-sampling. Therefore they are not applicable to the majority of nonlinear-k FD-OCT systems. Moreover, a linear-k spectrometer is not completely linear over the whole spectrum range [11

11. Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009). [CrossRef]

,12

12. Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] so re-sampling would still be required for a wide spectrum range which is essential for achieving ultra-high axial resolution.

For the volumetric visualization issue, multiple 2D slice extraction and co-registration is the simplest approach, while volume rendering offers more comprehensive spatial view of the whole 3D data set, which is not immediately available from 2D slices. However, volume rendering such as ray-casting is usually very time-consuming for CPU. So real-time rendering for a large data volume is only available through GPU. Moreover, a complete 3D data set must be ready prior to any volumetric visualization due to the feature of FD-OCT signal processing method [10

10. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which still would require a solution.

In this paper, we realized GPU based real-time 4D signal processing and visualization on a regular FD-OCT system with nonlinear k-space for the first time to the best of our knowledge. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for λ-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in GPU architecture. The complete FD-OCT signal processing including interpolation, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time, immediately processed and visualized by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

2. System configuration and CPU-GPU hybrid architecture

Start from the LSI equation:
S'[j]=S[i]+S[i+1]S[i]k[i+1]k[i](k'[j]k[i]),
(1)
where k[n]=2π/λ[n] is the nonlinear k-space value series and λ[n] is the calibrated wavelength values of the FD-OCT system. S[n] is the spectral intensity series corresponding to k[n] . k'[n] is the linear k-space series covering the same frequency range as k[n] . Linear spline interpolation requires a proper interval [k[i],k[i+1]] for each k'[j] , that is:

k[i]<k'[j]<k[i+1].
(2)

Let a series E[n] to present the lower ends for each element of k[n] , then Eq. (1) can be written as:

S'[j]=S[E[j]]+S[E[j]+1]S[E[j]]k[E[j]+1]k[E[j]](k'[j]k[E[j]]).
(3)

E[n] can be easily obtained before interpolation by comparing k[n] and k'[n] . From Eq. (3), one would notice that S'[j] is independent of other values in the series S'[n] , therefore this LSI algorithm is highly suitable for the parallel computation. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Flowchart of parallelized LSI. Blue blocks: memory for pre-stored data; yellow blocks: memory for real-timely refreshed data.
shows the flowchart of parallelized LSI, where the parallel loops are distributed onto the GPU’s 240 stream processors. The values of E[n] , k[n] and k'[n] are all stored in graphics global memory prior to interpolation, while the S[n] and S'[n] are allocated in real-timely refreshed memory blocks.

3. Interactive volume rendering by ray-casting

Volume rendering is a numeric simulation of the eye’s physical vision process in the real world, which provides better presentation of the entire 3D image data than the 2D slice extraction [19

19. J. Kruger, and R. Westermann, “Acceleration techniques for GPU-based volume rendering,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Visualization Conference (VIS’03) (IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2003), pp. 287–292.

21

21. M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from volume data,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 8(3), 29–37 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. Ray-casting is the simplest and most straightforward method for volume rendering, shown as Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of ray-casting CPU-GPU hybrid architecture; (b) flowchart of interactive volume rendering by GPU.
. An imaging plane is defined between the observer’s eye and the data volume, and each pixel of the imaging plane is the integration along the specific eye ray through the pixel, which can be presented by the following recursive back-to-front compositing equations [21

21. M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from volume data,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 8(3), 29–37 (1988). [CrossRef]

]:
C(λ)out(uj)=C(λ)in(uj)(1α(xi))+C(λ)(xi)*α(xi),
(4)
αout(uj)=αin(uj)*(1α(xi))+α(xi),
(5)
where C(λ)(xi) and α(xi) stands for the color and opacity values of a single voxel at the spatial position xi . C(λ)out(uj) , αout(uj) , C(λ)in(uj) and αin(uj) are the color and opacity values on a particular eye ray in and out of this voxel. The eye ray corresponds to a pixel position ui on the image plane, and voxels along the ray will be taken into account for color and opacity accumulation.

The principle of ray-casting demands heavy computing duty, so in general real-time volume rendering can only be realized by using hardware acceleration devices like GPU. Figure 4(b) illustrates the details of the interactive volume rendering portion for Fig. 2. After post-FFT processing, the 3D data set is mapped into 3D texture, a pre-allocated read-only section on the graphics memory. A certain modelview matrix is obtained through the GUI functions to determine the relative virtual position between data volume and imaging plane [22

22. D. Shreiner, M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis, OpenGL Programming Guide, Sixth Edition (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007), chap. 3.

]. Then the GPU performs ray-casting method to render the 2D frame from the 3D texture according to the modelview matrix. To insure compatibility with the NI-IMAQ Win32 API and simplify the software structure, we have developed and implemented the ray-casting function using the CUDA language and the 2D frames are finally displayed using an NI-IMAQ window.

4. OCT data processing capability

To test the GPU’s OCT data processing ability, we processed a series of large numbers of A-scan lines in one batch. The complete processing time is recorded in millisecond from the interval between the data transfer-in (host memory to graphics memory) and data transfer-out (graphics memory to host memory), and the time for interpolation is also recorded. Here both 2048-pixel and 1024-pixel OCT modes were tested and the 1024-pixel mode was enabled by the CMOS camera’s area-of-interest (AOI) output feature. The processing time versus one-batch line number is shown as Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) GPU processing time versus one-batch A-scan number; (b) GPU processing line rate versus one-batch A-scan number.
. The corresponding processing line rate can be easily calculated and shown in Fig. 5(b). The interpolation speed averages at >3,000,000 line/s for 1024-OCT and >1,400,000 line/s for 2048-OCT. The complete processing speed goes up to 320,000 line/s for the 2048-OCT and 680,000 line/s for the 1024-OCT. This is equivalent to approximately 1GBytes/s processing bandwidth at 12 bit/pixel. Since commonly used high-end frame grabbers (i.e. PCIe-1429) has an acquisition bandwidth limit of 680MBytes/s, the GPU processing should be able to process all the OCT data in real-time. As one can see, the processing bandwidth decreases in the case of smaller A-scan batch numbers (1000~10,000) due to the GPU’s hardware acceleration feature but it is still above 140,000 line/s for 2048-pixel and above 200,000 line/s for 1024-pixel, which is adequate enough to over-speed the camera and also leaves enough time for volume rendering.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 System sensitivity roll-off: (a) 1024-OCT; (b) 2048-OCT.
shows the system sensitivity roll-off at both 1024-OCT and 2048-OCT modes, where the A-scans are processed by GPU based LSI and FFT. As one can see, the background noise increases with imaging depth due to the error of linear interpolation, and this issue can be solved by a more complex zero-filling method [23

23. C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. Likforman, and M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(10), 1795–1802 (2000). [CrossRef]

], which will be implemented on GPU in our future work.

Then we tested the actual imaging speed by performing the real-time acquisition and display of 2-D B-scan images. The target used is an infrared sensing card, as in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 B-scan images of an infrared sensing card: (a) 1024-OCT, 10,000 A-scan/frame, 12.8 frame/s; (b) 2048-OCT, 10,000 A-scan/frame, 7.0 frame/s. The scale bars represent 250µm in both dimensions.
. Each frame consists of 10,000 A-scans and we got 12.8 frame/s for 1024-OCT (minimum line period = 7.8µs) and 7.0 frame/s for 2048-OCT (minimum line period = 14.2 µs), corresponding to 128,000 and 70,000 A-scan/s respectively, which is limited by the CMOS camera’s acquisition speed.

To demonstrate the higher acquisition speed case and evaluate the possible bus and memory contention issue, for each frame the raw data transferring-in and processing were repeated for 4 times within each frame period, while achieving the same frame rate for both OCT modes. Therefore the minimum effective processing speeds of 512,000 A-scan/s for 1024-OCT and 280,000 A-scan/s for 2048-OCT can be expected. These speeds represents more than double the currently highest acquisition speed using a CMOS camera, which is 215,000 A-scan/s for 1024-OCT [9

9. J. Probst, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Real-time 3D rendering of optical coherence tomography volumetric data,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720Q (2009). [CrossRef]

] and 135,000 A-scan/s for 2048-OCT [3

3. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Volumetric visualization by en face slicing

Here it is necessary to compare an en face FD-OCT imaging with another en face OCT imaging technology—time-domain transverse-scanning OCT/OCM (TD-TS-OCT/OCM) which acquires only one resolution element per A-scan. A typical TD-TS-OCT/OCM system can achieve a large en face image size (250,000 pixels) at 4 frame/s [24

24. A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2064–2066 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], giving 1,000,000 transverse points per second. In contrast, en face FD-OCT has less transverse scan rate (typically <500,000 A-scan/s) because a whole spectrum has to be acquired for each A-scan. However, en face FD-OCT provides a complete 3D data set so multiple en face images at different depth of the volume can be extracted simultaneously, which is not available by TD-TS-OCT/OCM.

6. Volumetric visualization by ray-casting

Then we implemented the real-time volume rendering of continuous acquired data volume and realized the 10 volume per second 4D FD-OCT “live” image. The acquisition line rate is set to be 125,000 line/s at 1024-OCT mode. The acquisition volume size is set to be 12,500 A-scans, providing 125(X) × 100(Y) × 512(Z) voxels after the signal processing stage, which takes less than 10 ms and leaves more than 90 ms for each volume interval at the volume rate of 10 volume/s. As noticed from Fig. 6(a), the 1024-OCT has a 10-dB roll-off depth of about 0.8mm, and the background noise also increases with the depth. Therefore the optimum volume for the rendering in the visualization stage is truncated in half from the acquisition volume to be 125(X) × 100(Y) × 256(Z) voxels excluding the DC component and the low SNR portion in each A-scan. Nevertheless, the whole volume rendering is available if a larger image range is required. The image plane is set to 512 × 512 pixels, which means a total number of 5122 = 262144 eye rays are used to accumulate though the whole rendering volume for the ray-casting process according to Eq. (4) and Eq. (5). The actual rendering time is recorded during the imaging processing to be ~3ms for half volume and ~6ms for full volume, which is much shorter than the volume interval residual (>90ms). Also for the purpose of demonstrating the higher acquisition speed case, the data transfer-in, the complete FD-OCT processing and the volume rendering of the same frame were repeated 3 times within each volume period, while still maintaining 10 volume/s real-time rendering. Therefore a minimum effective processing and visualization speeds of 375,000 A-scan/s for 1024-OCT can be expected.

First we tested the real-time visualization ability by imaging non-biological samples. Here the half volume rendering is applied and the real volume size is approximately 4mm × 4mm × 0.66mm. The dynamic scenarios are captured by free screen-recording software (BB FlashBack Express). Figure 9(a)
Fig. 9 (a) (Media 1) The dynamic 3D OCT movie of a piece of sugar-shell coated chocolate; (b) sugar-shell top truncated by the X-Y plane, inner structure visible; (c) a five-layer phantom.
presents the top surface of a piece of sugar-shell coated chocolate, which is moving up and down in axial direction with a manual translation stage. Here the perspective projection is used for the eye’s viewpoint [19

19. J. Kruger, and R. Westermann, “Acceleration techniques for GPU-based volume rendering,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Visualization Conference (VIS’03) (IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2003), pp. 287–292.

], and the rendering volume frame is indicated by the white lines. As played in Media 1, Fig. 9(b) shows the situation when the target surface is truncated by the rendering volume’s boundary, the X-Y plane, where the sugar shell is virtually “peeled” and the inner structures of the chocolate core is clearly recognizable. Figure 9(c) illustrates a five-layer plastic phantom mimicking the retina, where the layers are easily distinguishable. The volume rendering frame in Fig. 9(c) is configured as “L” shape so the tapes are virtually “cut” to reveal the inside layer structures.

Then we implemented the in vivo real-time 3D imaging of a human finger tip. Figure 10(a)
Fig. 10 In vivo real-time 3D imaging of a human finger tip. (a) (Media 2) Skin and fingernail connection; (b) (Media 3) Fingerprint, side-view with “L” volume rendering frame; (c) (Media 4) Fingerprint, top-view.
shows the skin and fingernail connection, the full volume rendering is applied here giving a real size of 4mm × 4mm × 1.32mm considering the large topology range of the nail connection region. The major dermatologic structures such as epidermis (E), dermis (D), nail fold (NF), nail root (NF) and nail body (N) are clearly distinguishable from Fig. 10(a). Media 2 captured the dynamic scenario of the finger’s vertical vibration due to artery pulsing when the finger is firmly pressing against the sample stage. The fingerprint is imaged and shown in Media 3 in Fig. 10(b), where the epithelium structures such as sweat duct (SD), stratum corneum (SC) can be clearly identified. Figure 10(c) offers a top-view of the fingerprint region in Media 4, where the surface is virtually peeled by the image frame and the inner sweat duct are clearly visible. The volume size for Fig. 10(b) and Fig. 10(c) is 2mm × 2mm × 0.66mm.

Finally, to make full use of the ultrahigh processing speed and the whole 3D data, we implemented multiple 2D frames real-time rendering from the same 3D data set with different model view matrix in Media 5, including side-view [Figs. 11(a, b, d, e)
Fig. 11 (Media 5) Multiple 2D frames real-time rendering from the same 3D data set with different model view matrix.
], top-view [Fig. 11(c)] and bottom-view [Fig. 11(f)], where Fig. 11(a) and Fig. 11(d) are actually using the same model view matrix but the later displayed with the “L” volume rendering frame to give more information of inside. All frames are rendered within the same volume period and displayed simultaneously, thus gives more comprehensive information of the target. The two vertexes with the big red and green dot indicate the same edge for each rendering volume frame.

The processing bandwidth showed in Section 4 is much higher than most of the current FD-OCT system’s acquisition speed, which indicates a huge potential for improving the image quality and volume speed of real-time 3D FD-OCT by increasing the acquisition bandwidth. The GPU processing speed can be increased even higher by implementing a multiple-GPU architecture using more than one GPU in parallel. Therefore the bottleneck for 3D FD-OCT imaging would now lie in the acquisition speed.

For all the experiments described above, the only additional device required to implement the real-time high speed OCT data processing and display for most cases is a high-end graphics card which cost far less compared to the most optical setup and acquisition devices. The graphics card is a plug-and-play computer hardware without need for any optical modifications. And it is much simpler than adding a prism to build a linear-k spectrometer or developing a linear-k swept laser. The both are complicated to build and will change the overall physical behavior of the OCT system.

7. Conclusion

In conclusion, we realized GPU based real-time 4D signal processing and visualization on a regular FD-OCT system with nonlinear k-space for the first time to the best of our knowledge. An ultra-high speed linear spline interpolation (LSI) method for interpolation for λ-to-k spectral re-sampling is implemented in GPU architecture. The complete FD-OCT signal processing including interpolation for λ-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and post-FFT processing have all been implemented on a GPU. 3D Data sets are continuously acquired in real time, immediately processed and visualized by either en face slice extraction or ray-casting based volume rendering from 3D texture mapped in graphics memory. For standard FD-OCT systems, a GPU is the only additional hardware needed to realize this improvement and no optical modification is needed. This technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant R21 1R21NS063131-01A1.

References and links

1.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-19-15149. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14880. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-13-10786. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(2), 736–748 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-736. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Probst, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Real-time 3D rendering of optical coherence tomography volumetric data,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720Q (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

U. Sharma and U. Jin, “Common-path optical coherence tomography with side-viewing bare fiber probe for endoscopic OCT,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113102 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. Zhang, E. Katz, D. H. Kim, J. U. Kang, and I. K. Ilev, “Common-path optical coherence tomography guided fiber probe for spatially precise optical nerve stimulation,” Electron. Lett. 46(2), 118–120 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

NVIDIA, “NVIDIA CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture Programming Guide Version 2.3.1,” (2009).

18.

NVIDIA, “NVIDIA CUDA CUFFT Library Version 2.3,” (2009).

19.

J. Kruger, and R. Westermann, “Acceleration techniques for GPU-based volume rendering,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Visualization Conference (VIS’03) (IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2003), pp. 287–292.

20.

A. Kaufman, and K. Mueller, “Overview of Volume Rendering,” in The Visualization Handbook, C. Johnson and C. Hansen, ed. (Academic Press, 2005).

21.

M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from volume data,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 8(3), 29–37 (1988). [CrossRef]

22.

D. Shreiner, M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis, OpenGL Programming Guide, Sixth Edition (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007), chap. 3.

23.

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. Likforman, and M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(10), 1795–1802 (2000). [CrossRef]

24.

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2064–2066 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(200.4560) Optics in computing : Optical data processing

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: March 5, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 29, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 18, 2010
Published: May 19, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Kang Zhang and Jin U. Kang, "Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system," Opt. Express 18, 11772-11784 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11772


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References

  1. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-19-15149 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-6-4842 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-17-14880 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, D. L. Wilson, and A. M. Rollins, “High temporal resolution OCT using image-based retrospective gating,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10786–10799 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-13-10786 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-16-12313 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. W. Jenkins, F. Rothenberg, D. Roy, V. P. Nikolski, Z. Hu, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, “4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(2), 736–748 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-2-736 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, T. Xie, and Z. Chen, “Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6365–6370 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Probst, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Real-time 3D rendering of optical coherence tomography volumetric data,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73720Q (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Watanabe and T. Itagaki, “Real-time display on Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system using a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060506 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3525–3527 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Han, and J. U. Kang, “A surface topology and motion compensation system for microsurgery guidance and intervention based on common-path optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(9), 2318–2321 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. U. Sharma and U. Jin, “Common-path optical coherence tomography with side-viewing bare fiber probe for endoscopic OCT,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113102 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Zhang, E. Katz, D. H. Kim, J. U. Kang, and I. K. Ilev, “Common-path optical coherence tomography guided fiber probe for spatially precise optical nerve stimulation,” Electron. Lett. 46(2), 118–120 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber common optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 799–805 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. NVIDIA, “NVIDIA CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture Programming Guide Version 2.3.1,” (2009).
  18. NVIDIA, “NVIDIA CUDA CUFFT Library Version 2.3,” (2009).
  19. J. Kruger, and R. Westermann, “Acceleration techniques for GPU-based volume rendering,” in Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Visualization Conference (VIS’03) (IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2003), pp. 287–292.
  20. A. Kaufman, and K. Mueller, “Overview of Volume Rendering,” in The Visualization Handbook, C. Johnson and C. Hansen, ed. (Academic Press, 2005).
  21. M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from volume data,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 8(3), 29–37 (1988). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Shreiner, M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis, OpenGL Programming Guide, Sixth Edition (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007), chap. 3.
  23. C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. Likforman, and M. Joffre, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(10), 1795–1802 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2064–2066 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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