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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 12 — Jun. 7, 2010
  • pp: 12076–12087
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Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure, strain and temperature in birefringent dual-core microstructured polymer fiber

Marcin K. Szczurowski, Tadeusz Martynkien, Gabriela Statkiewicz-Barabach, Waclaw Urbanczyk, and David J. Webb  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 12, pp. 12076-12087 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.012076


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Abstract

We experimentally characterized a birefringent microstructured polymer fiber of specific construction, which allows for single mode propagation in two cores separated by a pair of large holes. The fiber exhibits high birefringence in each of the cores as well as relatively weak coupling between the cores. Spectral dependence of the group and the phase modal birefringence was measured using an interferometric method. We have also measured the sensing characteristics of the fiber such as polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure, strain and temperature. Moreover, we have studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure and strain on coupling between the cores.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) made of silica have been the subject of extensive research for over a decade [1

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It has been already demonstrated that silica PCFs can be used in numerous applications such as the generation of supercontinuum, compensation of chromatic dispersion, improvement in efficiency of fiber-optic lasers, and many others. There is also an increasing interest concerning metrological applications of silica PCFs [2

2. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001). [CrossRef]

6

6. O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]

], involving interferometric and polarimetric sensors of different physical parameters as well as evanescent field sensors for monitoring specific chemical compounds in gases and liquids [3

3. J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004). [CrossRef]

,5

5. C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In the last few years, interest in sensing applications of conventional polymer optical fibers (POFs) significantly increased. It is driven by the fact that POF possesses several advantages compared to silica fiber. In particular, POF is biocompatible, offers greater numerical aperture, more flexibility (lower Young’s modulus) and can be exposed to much greater strain compared to silica. For these reasons, conventional POF has been already studied in numerous sensing applications including measurements of large strains [7

7. S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 416–418 (2008). [CrossRef]

9

9. M. Silva-López, A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Strain and temperature sensitivity of a single-mode polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3129–3131 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], humidity [10

10. S. Muto, O. Suzuki, T. Amano, and M. Morisawa, “A plastic optical fibre sensor for real-time humidity monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(6), 746–750 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and pH [11

11. X. H. Yang and L. L. Wang, “Fluorescence pH probe based on microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16478–16483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The inscription of Bragg gratings in POF, first demonstrated in [12

12. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999). [CrossRef]

], opens now new sensing possibilities [13

13. K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer,and silica fibre bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

In the last decade the fabrication technology of microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) was mastered by several groups and mPOF of many different types has been reported in the literature. This new class of fibers combines the interesting physical and chemical properties of PMMA with the wide engineering freedom of microstructured fibers. The first single mode mPOF of hexagonal symmetry was demonstrated in [15

15. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Express 9(7), 319–327 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As mPOF fabrication is based on preform drilling it assures more flexibility in shaping fiber geometry than the stack and draw approach. Fibers with symmetry other than hexagonal can be fabricated [16

16. G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, “Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(4), 325–335 (2004). [CrossRef]

], including structures with concentric rings of holes [17

17. A. Argyros, I. Bassett, M. van Eijkelenborg, M. Large, J. Zagari, N. A. Nicorovici, R. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Ring structures in microstructured polymer optical fibres,” Opt. Express 9(13), 813–820 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], dual core mPOF [18

18. W. E. P. Padden, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and N. A. Issa, “Coupling in a twin-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1689–1691 (2004). [CrossRef]

,19

19. X. Yu, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and P. Shum, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of the coupling effect in twin-core microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 46(7), 075002 (2007). [CrossRef]

], elliptical core mPOF [20

20. Y. Zhang, L. Ren, K. Li, H. Wang, W. Zhao, L. Wang, R. Miao, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Guiding mode in elliptical core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, 194–196 (2007).

], mPOF with elliptical holes in the cladding [21

21. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, “Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1336–1338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and hollow core mPOF [22

22. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. Large, and I. M. Bassett, “Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 172–174 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The possibility of fabrication of Bragg gratings and long period gratings in mPOF was also demonstrated and several sensing applications of such elements have been already studied [23

23. H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3296–3298 (2005). [CrossRef]

,24

24. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, W. Padden, and J. A. Besley, “Mechanically induced long-period gratings in microstructured polymer fibre,” Opt. Commun. 236(1-3), 75–78 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

To our knowledge, so far there are no reports in the literature on the sensing characteristics of birefringent mPOF. In this paper, we present the results of investigations of a highly birefringent dual-core mPOF and report on the polarimetric and intermodal sensitivity of this fiber to hydrostatic pressure, strain and temperature.

2. Investigated mPOF

The investigated mPOF was purchased from Kiriama Pty Ltd. of Sydney, Australia. A SEM image of the fiber cross-section is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM image of the investigated mPOF.
. In the microstructured region of this fiber there are two very large holes and a tiny bridge of PMMA between them. This bridge is so narrow that it does not permit light propagation. As a result, the modes are localized at both ends of the bridge where its thickness is greater. The diameter of small holes in the microstructured cladding vary in the fiber cross section in the range of 2-6 μm, the large holes have elliptical shape with axes measuring 14 × 17.5 μm and the separation of the cores’ centers is about 11μm. Both cores are single mode and possess high birefringence induced by lack of hexagonal symmetry in their surroundings. Numerical simulations show that higher order modes are strongly attenuated. The calculated loss for the first higher order mode is greater that 2 dB/cm In the measurements no higher order modes were observed for propagation lengths longer than 20cm.

Because of the short distance between the cores a coupling effect is observed. In such a case, light is guided in the form of orthogonally polarized even and odd supermodes spreading simultaneously over both cores. This effect was investigated previously in silica microstructured fibers [18

18. W. E. P. Padden, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and N. A. Issa, “Coupling in a twin-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1689–1691 (2004). [CrossRef]

,19

19. X. Yu, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and P. Shum, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of the coupling effect in twin-core microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 46(7), 075002 (2007). [CrossRef]

,25

25. L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu, T. Luo, and A. E. Willner, “PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3558–3565 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized maps of electric field distributions in all supermodes supported by the fiber (a) and cross-sections of field distributions in respective supermodes (b-c), λ = 560 nm.
, we show the calculated amplitude distribution in quasi-symmetrical and quasi-antisymmetrical supermodes of orthogonal polarizations (respectively Se x, Se y, So x, So y) that can propagate in the investigated fiber. The amplitude distributions were calculated using finite element method (FEM), with the geometry of the fiber cross section obtained from the SEM image. The results of numerical simulations suggest that a relatively small fraction of the supermode power is confined in the non-excited core.

When a light beam is focused by a microscope objective on one core only, both quasi-symmetrical and quasi-antisymmetrical supermodes are excited at the fiber input. They propagate along the fiber with different velocities thus giving rise to energy transfer between the cores. The coupling strength is determined by the power division between the cores in the supermodes. When the power of the supermode is confined mostly in one core, the effect of coupling is weak. More equal distribution of power between the cores results in stronger coupling.

The coupling effect is clearly visible in the investigated fiber. In Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectrograms registered at the output of the core 1 arising because of interference between the supermodes Se x, So x (a) and Se y, So y (b). The spectrograms were registered for straight fiber of length L = 0.362 m, core 1 was excited at the fiber input with x- and y-polarized light, respectively.
, we present spectrograms obtained by collecting the light from the excited core on the slit of a miniature spectrometer. The spectrograms were registered for x- and y-polarization of light at the fiber input. The contrast of interference fringes in the registered spectrogram is about 0.6, which corresponds to power division between dominant and weak supermodes in the ratio of about 90:10. Certain variations in contrast of a random character present in the registered spectrograms are caused by unwanted coupling between the supermodes guided in the fiber cores and the cladding modes originating in the microstructured region because of its lack of periodicity. The spacing between successive interference fringes is lower for the y-polarization, thus showing that the difference of group refractive indices for y-polarized supermodes is greater than for x-polarized supermodes. The estimated power division between the supermodes confined in the excited core, leads to the conclusion that relatively weak coupling takes place in the investigated fiber. This is also in agreement with the results of numerical simulations obtained for the actual fiber geometry, Fig. 2.

Finally, we have observed a very high impact of the fiber bending on the coupling effect. Therefore, in all measurements reported in this paper, care was taken not to bend the fiber when the applied measurand was changed. In particular, the spectrograms shown in Fig. 3 were registered for straight fiber.

3. Measurements of phase and group modal birefringence

LB=λ/B.
(1)

B(λ)=Δϕ(λ)λ2πL.
(2)

G(λ)=λ22πLd(Δϕ(λ))dλ.
(3)

4. Measurements of the polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure, strain and temperature

The polarimetric sensitivity of the fiber to a specific parameter, X, represents the phase difference between polarization modes induced by unit change of the parameter over unit length of the fiber and can be expressed in the following way:

KX=1LXd(ϕxϕy)dX=2πλ[BX+BLXLXX].
(4)

An interferometric system used to measure the sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation is shown in Fig. 4. A microscope objective formed a sharp image of the fiber endface on the entrance slit of the spectrometer. In this way, we could register spectral interference fringes for different values of applied measurand individually for each core thus making it possible to measure the polarimetric sensitivity for each core. To measure sensitivity in core 1, we introduced into this core a light beam polarized at 45° to the fiber symmetry axes and monitored the spectral interference signal at the output of this core. For such excitations Se x, Se y supermodes contribute primarily to the interference signal. A similar procedure was applied to measure the sensitivity in core 2, in which the supermodes So x, So y are predominantly confined. By aligning the input polarizer in parallel to one of the fiber symmetry axes, we could also selectively excite the supermodes of the same polarization and measure the intermodal phase sensitivity named by KXintx and KXinty, respectively for pairs of supermodes of x- and y-polarization.

To determine the KX, the shift of spectral interference fringes was recorded as a function of applied measurand, Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Displacement of spectral interference fringes induced by increasing hydrostatic pressure. Length of the fiber exposed to pressure changes is LP = 0.362 m, total fiber length is L = 0.66 m, spectrogram registered for core 1.
. By registering the displacement of interference minima λmin(X) versus measurand change, we determined the polarimetric sensitivity from the following relation:
KX=2πLXddX(λmin(X)Δλ),
(5)
where Δλ is the fringe spacing and LX is the length of the fiber exposed to measurand change. One should note that displacement of the interference fringes towards shorter wavelength induced by increasing measurand corresponds to a positive sign of KX.

In measurements of the pressure sensitivity, the tested fiber was installed in a specially designed oil chamber and subjected to pressure changes in the range from 0 to 2 MPa. The results of measurements of the polarimetric sensitivity KP in core 1 are presented in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Phase shift between polarization supermodes (KP) and supermodes of y-polarization (KPinty) induced by increasing and decreasing hydrostatic pressure. Measurements were carried out for core 1, λ = 710 nm. Length of the fiber exposed to pressure changes is LP = 0.362 m, total fiber length is L = 0.66 m.
. The fiber shows a repeatable response to hydrostatic pressure with small hysteresis in the investigated pressure range up to 2 MPa (20 bars) and relatively high polarimetric sensitivity up to KP = 72 rad/(MPa × m) at λ = 710 nm. The polarimetric sensitivity measured for core 2 is only 5% greater than that of core 1. In Fig. 8, we also present the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the interference of the supermodes of y-polarization. An increase of the phase shift between the supermodes is observed in response to applied pressure, with the rate of about KPinty = 13.5 rad/(MPa × m). The value of KPintx is the same within the measurement precision of about 3%.

dBdp=   λKX2π.
(6)

To measure sensitivity to strain, a fiber of length Lε = 0.662 m was attached with epoxy glue to two mechanical stages and stretched up to 8 mstrain. The measurements were conducted in the same way as for hydrostatic pressure. The interference fringes clearly shift towards short wavelengths for increasing strain, which indicates that the sensitivity Kε has a positive sign. The results of measurements of Kε at λ = 710 nm are presented in Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Phase shift between polarization supermodes (Kε) and supermodes of y-polarization (Kεinty) induced by increasing and decreasing strain, λ = 710 nm. Length of the fiber subjected to elongation is Lstrain = 0.662 m, total fiber length is L = 0.78 m, measurement carried out for core 1.
.

The investigated fiber shows repeatable response to elongation with small hysteresis and medium polarimetric sensitivity Kε = 3.1 rad/(mstrain × m). The sensitivity in core 2 is only about 4% greater than in core 1. In Fig. 10, we also show the effect of strain on interference of the supermodes of y-polarization propagating in the two cores. The phase shift between the supermodes changes linearly against applied strain with the rate of about Kεinty = 0.9 rad/(mstrain × m). The value of Kεintx is only about 3% lower than Kεinty.

The strain sensitivity of the investigated PMMA fiber Kε = 3.1 rad/(m × mstrain) is small compared to conventional birefringent silica fibers such as Bow-Tie (Kε = 18 rad/m × mstrain) or elliptical core fiber (Kε = −5 rad/m × mε) [31

31. S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(1), 23–33 (1990). [CrossRef]

,32

32. W. Xu, X. F. Yao, H. Y. Yeh, and G. C. Jin, “Fracture investigation of PMMA specimen using coherent gradient sensing (CGS) technology,” Polym. Test. 24(7), 900–908 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. It is worth mentioning that the measured sensitivity Kε is almost the same as the sensitivity of the birefringent microstructured silica fiber reported in [4

4. G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004). [CrossRef]

] (Kε = -2.8 rad/m × mε) except that the signs of Kε in the PMMA and silica fibers are opposite.

Measurement of the polarimetric sensitivity to temperature was conducted for several pieces of the investigated fiber in the temperature range of 3-60°C. Depending on the thermal history of the specific piece of the fiber, we observed very different polarimetric responses to temperature, typically with high nonlinearity and hysteresis. The fiber sensitivity KT averaged over the full temperature span changes from −1 rad/K × m to 1 rad/K × m depending on the temperature cycle. The origin of such high differences in KT between successive temperature cycles is not clear. Perhaps they are caused by release of frozen-in stress at increased temperatures. In Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Phase shift between polarization supermodes induced by increasing and decreasing temperature measured for annealed fiber at λ = 710 nm. The length of the fiber subjected to temperature changes is LT = 0.22 m, total fiber length is L = 0.78 m, measurement carried out for core 1.
, we present the temperature response of a fiber that was annealed for 20 h at a temperature of 100°C. We observed that annealing improves repeatability and decreases the amplitude of the temperature response, however, nonlinearity and hysteresis is still observed. For annealed fiber the local temperature coefficients change from −0.6 rad/K × m to 0.7 rad/K × m.

5. Conclusions

The fiber shows repeatable response to strain with small hysteresis in the strain range up to 8 mstrain. The measured polarimetric sensitivity Kε = 3.1 rad/(mstrain × m) at λ = 710 nm in the investigated fiber is similar in absolute value but different in sign compared to silica microstructured fibers of the same geometry [4

4. G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This is most probably caused by the much greater Poisson’s ration of PMMA compared to silica. Finally, we have also measured the intermodal phase sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and strain. These parameters are much lower than corresponding polarimetric sensitivities and equal KPint = 13.5 rad/(MPa × m) and Kεint = 0.9 rad/(mstrain × m).

Acknowledgements

The work described in this paper was partially carried out with the support of the Photonic Skins for Optical Sensing project (PHOSFOS), a small/medium-scale focused project funded by the European Commission through the 7th ICT-Framework Programme and the Statutory Grant at Wroclaw University of Technology. M. K. Szczurowski, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach and W. Urbanczyk acknowledge support of the FNP Program MISTRZ.

References and links:

1.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 854–858 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

J. M. Fini, “Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 416–418 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3144–3154 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Silva-López, A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Strain and temperature sensitivity of a single-mode polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3129–3131 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. Muto, O. Suzuki, T. Amano, and M. Morisawa, “A plastic optical fibre sensor for real-time humidity monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(6), 746–750 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

X. H. Yang and L. L. Wang, “Fluorescence pH probe based on microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16478–16483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, “Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 352–354 (1999). [CrossRef]

13.

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8844–8850 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer,and silica fibre bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Express 9(7), 319–327 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, “Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 10(4), 325–335 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Argyros, I. Bassett, M. van Eijkelenborg, M. Large, J. Zagari, N. A. Nicorovici, R. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Ring structures in microstructured polymer optical fibres,” Opt. Express 9(13), 813–820 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

W. E. P. Padden, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and N. A. Issa, “Coupling in a twin-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1689–1691 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

X. Yu, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and P. Shum, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of the coupling effect in twin-core microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 46(7), 075002 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Zhang, L. Ren, K. Li, H. Wang, W. Zhao, L. Wang, R. Miao, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Guiding mode in elliptical core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, 194–196 (2007).

21.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, “Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1336–1338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. Large, and I. M. Bassett, “Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 172–174 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3296–3298 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, W. Padden, and J. A. Besley, “Mechanically induced long-period gratings in microstructured polymer fibre,” Opt. Commun. 236(1-3), 75–78 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu, T. Luo, and A. E. Willner, “PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3558–3565 (2005). [CrossRef]

26.

P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Dispersion of group and phase modal birefringence in elliptical-core fiber measured by white-light spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2793–2798 (2003). [PubMed]

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R. M. Waxler, D. Horowitz, and A. Feldman, “Optical and physical parameters of Plexiglas 55 and Lexan,” Appl. Opt. 18(1), 101–104 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(1), 23–33 (1990). [CrossRef]

32.

W. Xu, X. F. Yao, H. Y. Yeh, and G. C. Jin, “Fracture investigation of PMMA specimen using coherent gradient sensing (CGS) technology,” Polym. Test. 24(7), 900–908 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: March 8, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 5, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 5, 2010
Published: May 24, 2010

Citation
Marcin K. Szczurowski, Tadeusz Martynkien, Gabriela Statkiewicz-Barabach, Waclaw Urbanczyk, and David J. Webb, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure, strain and temperature in birefringent dual-core microstructured polymer fiber," Opt. Express 18, 12076-12087 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-12076


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