OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 12 — Jun. 7, 2010
  • pp: 13250–13257
« Show journal navigation

Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers

Fatih Yaman, Neng Bai, Benyuan Zhu, Ting Wang, and Guifang Li  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 12, pp. 13250-13257 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.013250


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (4299 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Using multimode fibers for long-haul transmission is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In particular few-mode fibers (FMFs) are demonstrated as a good compromise since they are sufficiently resistant to mode coupling compared to standard multimode fibers but they still can have large core diameters compared to single-mode fibers. As a result these fibers can have significantly less nonlinearity and at the same time they can have the same performance as single-mode fibers in terms of dispersion and loss. In the absence of mode coupling it is possible to use these fibers in the single-mode operation where all the data is carried in only one of the spatial modes throughout the fiber. It is shown experimentally that the single-mode operation is achieved simply by splicing single-mode fibers to both ends of a 35-km-long dual-mode fiber at 1310 nm. After 35 km of transmission, no modal dispersion or excess loss was observed. Finally the same fiber is placed in a recirculating loop and 3 WDM channels each carrying 6 Gb/s BPSK data were transmitted through1050 km of the few-mode fiber without modal dispersion.

© 2010 OSA

The limitations of fiber nonlinearity became clear early on with the introduction of WDM [11

11. A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(10), 1548–1557 (1990). [CrossRef]

] and there have been significant efforts to reduce, mitigate or remove nonlinear penalties since then. Using dispersion maps [12

12. A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, and R. M. Derosier, “8 x 10 Gb/s transmission through 280 km of dispersion-managed fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(10), 1233–1235 (1993). [CrossRef]

], more nonlinearity tolerant modulation formats such as DPSK [13

13. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5 tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, Paper PD-FC2.

,14

14. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, “A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1933–1943 (2003). [CrossRef]

], or amplification schemes such as Raman amplification [14

14. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, “A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1933–1943 (2003). [CrossRef]

], designing fibers with large effective area [2

2. P. Nouchi, P. Sansonetti, S. Landais, G. Barre, C. Brehm, J. Y. Boiort, B. Perrin, J. J. Girard, and J. Auge, "Low-loss single-mode fiber with high nonlinear effective area," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper ThH2.

,3

3. H. T. Hattori and A. Safaai-Jazi, “Fiber designs with significantly reduced nonlinearity for very long distance transmission,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3190–3197 (1998). [CrossRef]

], and recently compensating nonlinear impairments using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques [15

15. G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, “Transmission of 40Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2006.

,16

16. F. Yaman and G. Li, “Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1(2), 144–152 (2009). [CrossRef]

] are among the methods used. All these methods are limited in the extent that they can reduce the nonlinear impairments. Employing large dispersion fibers and maps help with inter-channel nonlinearities but eventually they increase intra-channel nonlinearities [17

17. R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, “Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 35(18), 1576–1578 (1999). [CrossRef]

,18

18. P. V. Mamyshev and N. A. Mamysheva, “Pulse-overlapped dispersion-managed data transmission and intrachannel four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 24(21), 1454–1456 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. DSP techniques require a significant amount of computation and cannot compensate nonlinear impairments completely because of ASE noise coupling through nonlinearity [16

16. F. Yaman and G. Li, “Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1(2), 144–152 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Increasing the core size on the other hand can reduce the fiber nonlinearity directly and dramatically. It can also be used in tandem with the aforementioned mitigation techniques, to reduce the nonlinear impairments even further.

The most straight forward way to reduce mode coupling is to make sure that the supported modes have propagation properties, especially propagation constants, as different as possible. It is well known that as the difference between the propagation constants of two modes increases the coupling between these modes reduces dramatically [28

28. R. Olshansky, “Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 14(4), 935–945 (1975). [PubMed]

31

31. D. Donlagic, “A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22081–22095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The simplest way to increase the index difference between different modes is to reduce the number of modes. Therefore as a first step we propose and demonstrate using few-mode fibers (FMFs) rather than SMMFs in single-mode operation as transmission fibers in each span for long distance transmission.

Since few-mode fibers with losses compatible with long-distance propagation are not readily available, a large-mode area but still single-mode fiber at 1550 nm is used. The fiber has a cut off wavelength close to 1.5 μm, therefore it is dual mode at 1310 nm. This fiber is used at 1310 nm in the long-haul transmission experiment. The fiber is 35 km long, it has a loss coefficient of 0.2 dB/km, and mode-field diameter of 11 μm at 1550 nm.

The first step is to establish that the fiber indeed supports a few modes at 1310 nm by directly imaging the higher-order modes if there are any. The setup shown in Fig. 1a
Fig. 1 a) Setup used for imaging the higher-order modes supported by the few-mode fiber. b) Setup used for measuring the phase delay between the two spatial modes supported by the few-mode fiber. PC: polarization controller, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer
is used to isolate and image the higher-order modes [32

32. N. Shibata, M. Tateda, S. Seikai, and N. Uchida, “Spatial technique for measuring modal delay differences in a dual-mode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 19(9), 1489–1492 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the setup, a continuous wave (CW) laser at 1304 nm is used as the source. After the polarization controller the light is launched from the single-mode fiber (SMF) into the FMF, using free-space butt coupling. Splicing was not used because even with misaligned splicing, the excited light was predominantly in the fundamental mode. With free space coupling, the SMF is offset from the center of the FMF by a few microns and higher-order modes were excited efficiently. At the input end of the FMF, a cladding mode stripper is inserted to make sure that cladding modes are not excited. The cladding mode stripper was obtained by removing the plastic coating of the fiber from a 10-cm long section, placing the bare fiber on a microscope slide, bending it by several degrees and pouring index matching gel on the bare fiber with a refractive index of 1.64. Placing the cladding mode stripper did not make any difference in the measurements. Output of the 100-m-long FMF is imaged to a CCD camera through a polarizer. The polarization controller following the diode laser is adjusted so that the fundamental mode is completely blocked by the polarizer. As expected the distinct two-lobe intensity profile of the LP11 mode was clearly observed as shown in Fig. 2a
Fig. 2 a) Intensity profile of the LP11 mode captured by the CCD. b) Optical spectrum measured by the OSA in Fig. 1b before (red, thick line) and after (blue, thin line) the few-mode fiber. The vertical scale is in arbitrary linear units.
confirming the multimode nature of the fiber. Adjusting the input polarization and the launching offset it was possible to obtain both the even and odd modes of the LP11 mode. However no higher order mode is observed.

To verify that this FMF can be used for optical transmission, the 35-km-long fiber was spliced to SMF fibers at both ends. Splicing was performed using a standard Fujikura 30S splicer. The default SMF-to-SMF splicing mode is used. No special procedures such as long arc times or tapering are used. As a first check, the insertion loss of the fiber is measured. With this setup the fundamental mode of the FMF is easily excited. If at the launching point the LP11 mode is also excited, or if there is mode coupling along the fiber, the LP11 mode should be mostly filtered out at the output splice resulting in excess loss. After splicing the fibers, the insertion loss is measured to be 11.9 dB including the connector losses, the splice losses from the single mode patches to the single-mode pigtails and finally the splice losses between the SMF pigtails and the FMF. All the SMF fibers and patches are standard single-mode fibers. Noting that at 1310 nm SMF fibers typically have losses between 0.33- 0.35 dB/km resulting in a total loss between 11.55 dB and 12.25 dB after 35 km, it is safe to conclude that the FMF fiber does not have excess loss. The lack of excess loss is very crucial for confirming the lack of mode coupling since in the presence of mode coupling it is almost impossible to avoid excess loss.

The core diameters of the SMF and the FMF are approximately 9 μm and 11 μm, resulting in low splicing loss obtained. This is not surprising because efficient coupling from SMF fibers to large core area fibers with diameter ratios up to 2 or 3 times are routinely achieved by using slightly more involved procedures still achievable by standard fusion splicers [34

34. M. Faucher, and Y. K. Lizé, `”Mode field adaptation for high power fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, Paper CF17.

]. More sophisticated techniques are also available such as fiber gratings to efficiently couple light from SMF fibers to higher order modes of multimode fibers and back if desired [35

35. S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Once it is established that signals can be transmitted with no penalties through one span it is obvious that long-haul transmission is possible simply by concatenating such spans with amplification in between to balance the loss. The setup in Fig. 5 shows the setup used to verify such a long-haul transmission. The transmitter consists of three WDM BPSK channels centered at 1307 nm with a bit rate of 6 Gb/s and channel spacing of 25 GHz. All the channels carry the same pseudo random bit sequence of length 223-1, but the center channel is delayed from the rest by several bit periods. After all the WDM channels are aligned to the same polarization and same average power, they are combined and amplified by a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) before they are launched into the loop.

The loop consists of the 35-km-long FMF with the SMF pigtails, followed by an SOA to balance the loop loss, then a 10-nm-wide band-pass filter and a polarization controller. Loop switching is obtained by acousto-optic modulators with a 3 dB insertion loss. Total power at the input of the FMF is −3 dBm. The total loop loss including the fiber is approximately 22 dB.

Figure 6a
Fig. 6 (a) Back-to-back eye diagram with Q = 21.6 dB and (b) eye diagram after 1050 km with Q = 15.8 dB.
and 6b show the eye diagrams for the central channel before and after propagating 30 loops corresponding to a total length of 1050 km. The Q value dropped from its back-to-back value of 21 dB to 16 dB after 1050 km. Because the eye diagrams are plotted after the matched ASE filters, the Q value is larger and the eye diagrams look different compared to the eye diagrams after single span showed in Fig. 4.

References and links

1.

N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4125–4139 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

P. Nouchi, P. Sansonetti, S. Landais, G. Barre, C. Brehm, J. Y. Boiort, B. Perrin, J. J. Girard, and J. Auge, "Low-loss single-mode fiber with high nonlinear effective area," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper ThH2.

3.

H. T. Hattori and A. Safaai-Jazi, “Fiber designs with significantly reduced nonlinearity for very long distance transmission,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3190–3197 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-raman-amplified 100-km ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 203–207 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J. Dupuy, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 16.4Tbit/s Capacity over 2,550km Using PDM QPSK Modulation Format and Coherent Receiver," in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP3.

6.

H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, Y. Takatori, M. Mizoguchi, K. Okada, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, and S. Kamei, "13.5-Tb/s (135 x 111-Gb/s/ch) No-Guard-Interval Coherent OFDM Transmission over 6,248 km Using SNR Maximized Second-Order DRA in the Extended L-Band," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPB5.

7.

G. Charlet, M. Salsi, P. Tran, M. Bertolini, H. Mardoyan, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, and S. Bigo, “72x100Gb/s transmission over transocenic distance, using large effective area fiber, hybrid raman-erbium amplification and coherent detection,” in Proc of OFC, San Diego, USA, 2009, Paper PDPB6.

8.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winver, S. Chanrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “10x224-gb/s WDM transmission of 28-G baud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-Ghz Grid over 1,200 km of fiber,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB8.

9.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, 64-Tb/s (640x107-Gb/s) PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital equalization,” in Proc. of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB9.

10.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, and N. S. And, Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.

11.

A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(10), 1548–1557 (1990). [CrossRef]

12.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, and R. M. Derosier, “8 x 10 Gb/s transmission through 280 km of dispersion-managed fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(10), 1233–1235 (1993). [CrossRef]

13.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5 tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, Paper PD-FC2.

14.

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, “A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1933–1943 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, “Transmission of 40Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2006.

16.

F. Yaman and G. Li, “Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1(2), 144–152 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, “Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 35(18), 1576–1578 (1999). [CrossRef]

18.

P. V. Mamyshev and N. A. Mamysheva, “Pulse-overlapped dispersion-managed data transmission and intrachannel four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 24(21), 1454–1456 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

M.-J. Li and D. A. Nolan, “Optical transmission fiber design evolution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1079–1092 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, “A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(7), 1125–1131 (1993). [CrossRef]

21.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

Z. Tong, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “21.4 Gbit/s transmission over 200 km multimode fiber using coherent optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1373–1374 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

W. Shieh, “OFDM for adaptive ultrahigh-speed optical networks,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC-NFOEC'2010, paper OWO1, San Diego, California, USA, 2010.

24.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis, and G. Kuyt, “15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 717–719 (2002). [CrossRef]

25.

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, and P. Pleunis, “Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-μm multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1256–1275 (2003). [CrossRef]

26.

L. G. Cohen and S. D. Personick, “Length dependence of pulse dispersion in a long multimode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 14(6), 1357–1360 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, and N. Uchida, “Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km long graded-index fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 356–362 (1980). [CrossRef]

28.

R. Olshansky, “Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 14(4), 935–945 (1975). [PubMed]

29.

N. Lagakos, J. H. Cole, and J. A. Bucaro, “Microbend fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 26(11), 2171–2180 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Microbend sensor structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(10), 1856–1868 (1999). [CrossRef]

31.

D. Donlagic, “A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22081–22095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

N. Shibata, M. Tateda, S. Seikai, and N. Uchida, “Spatial technique for measuring modal delay differences in a dual-mode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 19(9), 1489–1492 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

C. Emslie, “Polarization maintaining fibers,” in Specialty Optical Fibers Handbook, A. Méndez and T.F. Morse, eds. (Academic, 2007), pp. 243–277.

34.

M. Faucher, and Y. K. Lizé, `”Mode field adaptation for high power fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, Paper CF17.

35.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 674–676 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 16, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 2, 2010
Published: June 4, 2010

Citation
Fatih Yaman, Neng Bai, Benyuan Zhu, Ting Wang, and Guifang Li, "Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers," Opt. Express 18, 13250-13257 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-13250


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4125–4139 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Nouchi, P. Sansonetti, S. Landais, G. Barre, C. Brehm, J. Y. Boiort, B. Perrin, J. J. Girard, and J. Auge, "Low-loss single-mode fiber with high nonlinear effective area," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper ThH2.
  3. H. T. Hattori and A. Safaai-Jazi, “Fiber designs with significantly reduced nonlinearity for very long distance transmission,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3190–3197 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-raman-amplified 100-km ultrawave fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 203–207 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J. Dupuy, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 16.4Tbit/s Capacity over 2,550km Using PDM QPSK Modulation Format and Coherent Receiver," in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP3.
  6. H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, Y. Takatori, M. Mizoguchi, K. Okada, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, and S. Kamei, "13.5-Tb/s (135 x 111-Gb/s/ch) No-Guard-Interval Coherent OFDM Transmission over 6,248 km Using SNR Maximized Second-Order DRA in the Extended L-Band," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPB5.
  7. G. Charlet, M. Salsi, P. Tran, M. Bertolini, H. Mardoyan, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, and S. Bigo, “72x100Gb/s transmission over transocenic distance, using large effective area fiber, hybrid raman-erbium amplification and coherent detection,” in Proc of OFC, San Diego, USA, 2009, Paper PDPB6.
  8. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winver, S. Chanrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “10x224-gb/s WDM transmission of 28-G baud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-Ghz Grid over 1,200 km of fiber,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB8.
  9. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, 64-Tb/s (640x107-Gb/s) PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital equalization,” in Proc. of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB9.
  10. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, and N. S. And, Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.
  11. A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(10), 1548–1557 (1990). [CrossRef]
  12. A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, and R. M. Derosier, “8 x 10 Gb/s transmission through 280 km of dispersion-managed fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(10), 1233–1235 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5 tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in Proc. of OFC 2002, Paper PD-FC2.
  14. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, “A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1933–1943 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, “Transmission of 40Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2006.
  16. F. Yaman and G. Li, “Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1(2), 144–152 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, “Intra-channel cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in high-speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 35(18), 1576–1578 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. P. V. Mamyshev and N. A. Mamysheva, “Pulse-overlapped dispersion-managed data transmission and intrachannel four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 24(21), 1454–1456 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. M.-J. Li and D. A. Nolan, “Optical transmission fiber design evolution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1079–1092 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Haas and M. A. Santoro, “A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(7), 1125–1131 (1993). [CrossRef]
  21. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Tong, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “21.4 Gbit/s transmission over 200 km multimode fiber using coherent optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1373–1374 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. W. Shieh, “OFDM for adaptive ultrahigh-speed optical networks,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference OFC-NFOEC'2010, paper OWO1, San Diego, California, USA, 2010.
  24. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis, and G. Kuyt, “15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 717–719 (2002). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, and P. Pleunis, “Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-μm multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1256–1275 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. L. G. Cohen and S. D. Personick, “Length dependence of pulse dispersion in a long multimode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 14(6), 1357–1360 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, and N. Uchida, “Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km long graded-index fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 356–362 (1980). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Olshansky, “Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 14(4), 935–945 (1975). [PubMed]
  29. N. Lagakos, J. H. Cole, and J. A. Bucaro, “Microbend fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 26(11), 2171–2180 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, “Microbend sensor structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(10), 1856–1868 (1999). [CrossRef]
  31. D. Donlagic, “A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22081–22095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. N. Shibata, M. Tateda, S. Seikai, and N. Uchida, “Spatial technique for measuring modal delay differences in a dual-mode optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 19(9), 1489–1492 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. Emslie, “Polarization maintaining fibers,” in Specialty Optical Fibers Handbook, A. Méndez and T.F. Morse, eds. (Academic, 2007), pp. 243–277.
  34. M. Faucher, and Y. K. Lizé, `”Mode field adaptation for high power fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, Paper CF17.
  35. S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 674–676 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited