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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 13 — Jun. 21, 2010
  • pp: 13510–13515
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Multi-channel silicon photonic receiver based on ring-resonators

Qing Fang, Yu Ting Phang, Chee Wei Tan, Tsung-Yang Liow, Ming Bin Yu, Guo Qiang Lo, and Dim Lee Kwong  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 13, pp. 13510-13515 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.013510


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Abstract

We demonstrated a high performance monolithically integrated multi-channel receiver fabricated on the SOI platform. This receiver is composed of a 1 x 8 Si-based ring-resonators filter and an array of high speed waveguided Ge-on-Si photodetectors. The optical channel spacing is about 1.5 nm. The responsivity of Ge-on-Si photodetector is about 1.0 A/W at the wavelength range of 1554 nm to 1564 nm. Each channel is capable of operating at a data rate of 20 Gbps, resulting in an aggregate data rate of 160 Gbps. At a BER of 1 × 10−11, the receiver showed an optical input sensitivity of between −20 dBm and −21 dBm for each channel at 10 Gbps data rate.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The optoelectronics devices based on the Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform have many advantages, such as low cost, high reliability, ultra-small size, and mature process technology which is compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). It is easy to realize the high volume manufacturability of the Si-based optoelectronics devices with low cost for the huge market demand. In the past decade, silicon photonic has attracted many research groups in the world and many optical silicon-based components have been demonstrated, including compact and low loss Si-based passive waveguide devices [1

1. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006). [CrossRef]

4

4. J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Passive ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interleaver on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8359–8365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], high speed silicon modulator [5

5. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Article In Press).

], silicon Raman lasers [9

9. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 14, 4261–4268 (2004).

], thermo-optic devices [12

12. R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]

,13

13. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and SiGe Photodetector [14

14. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006). [CrossRef]

20

20. Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic silicon photonic DWDM receiver for terabit data communications at 1550 nm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OMI4, San Diego, March 2010.

].

In this work, a monolithically integrated multi-channel silicon photonic receiver chip was designed and fabricated. The receiver is composed of a 1 x 8 Si-based ring-resonators de-multiplexer (DEMUX) and an array of high speed waveguided Ge-on-Si photodetectors on the SOI wafer with 220 nm top Si layer and 2 μm buried oxide (BOX). The diameter of each ring-resonator is about 16 µm, so the entire size of the receiver is small. The ring-resonators DEMUX with 1.5 nm channel spacing is designed and the drop channel of each ring-resonator is connected to a waveguided Ge-on-Si photodetectors (WGPD).

2. Design and fabrication

The multi-channels receiver was fabricated on an 8-inch silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with 220 nm top Si layer and 2 μm BOX. The Microscope image of the entire processed receiver is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Images of processed multi-channels receiver. Inset 1: Cross-section of WGPD; Inset 2: SEM image of WGPD; Inset 3: SEM image of ring-resonator; Inset4: Cross-section of ring-resonator waveguide.
. In order to fabricate this multi-channels receiver, the PECVD SiO2 of 60 nm was first deposited as the hard mask (HM). Then, the ridge arrayed waveguides were formed by partially etching 110 nm of Si, shown in Fig. 2 (Inset 4). Figure 2 (Inset 3) is the SEM image of ring-resonator and Inset4 is the TEM image of the ring-resonator. The remaining 110 nm of Si was etched after a second lithography step to form the channel waveguides. To form the Ge photodetectors, separate masks were used to implant boron into the photodetector regions to form the p anode regions and the p + Ohmic contacts. The implants were activated via rapid thermal anneal of 1050 °C for 5 seconds prior to the selective epitaxial growth of Ge in an ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) epitaxy reactor. After depositing a thin layer of oxide, windows were opened in the Ge active regions by a combination of dry and wet etching to expose the underlying Si. After growing a thin SiGe buffer layer at 350 °C, Ge was selectively grown to a thickness of 800 nm at 550 °C. The n + ohmic contact was formed by implanting phosphorus into Ge, followed by an annealing at 500 °C for 5 min. For both of p + and n + Ohmic contacts, double implantations with different energies and doses were used to reduce the contact resistance. Then, a screen SiO2 of 100 nm and a SiN etch stop layer of 50 nm were deposited subsequently. After this, an inter-level dielectric (ILD) SiO2 layer of 1 µm was deposited and etched to form the contact hole. Finally, a TaN/Al metal stack was deposited and etched to form top and bottom contacts after contact holes opening. Figure 2 (Inset 2) is the SEM image of the WGPD and Inset1 is the TEM image of the WGPD.

3. Measured results and analysis

The stand-alone 1 × 8 ring-resonators DEMUX was evaluated first. The stand-alone reference ring-resonators DEMUX with identical parameters of the actual DEMUX in the multi-channels receiver was fabricated on the same chip, and was used for optical characterization. After dicing process, a polarization-maintaining (PM) lensed fiber with 2.5 µm spot diameter was used to couple the light into the nano-taper of the Si waveguide. The normalized power spectrum of transverse-electric (TE) for each of the 8 ring-resonators drop waveguides and the through waveguide is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical transmission spectra of the 1 × 8 Si ring-resonators DEMUX for TE mode
. The power spectra were normalized by the transmission power spectrum of a short waveguide test structure, so as to decouple the coupling losses. The on-chip transmission loss of the ring-resonators DEMUX is 0.3 dB and the non-uniformity of transmitted power between the 8 drop channels was less than 0.5 dB. Good crosstalk performances were obtained. The crosstalk between the dropped signals and the through signal is about 18 dB; and the adjacent crosstalk of the dropped signals is more than 20 dB. The measured FSR is 12.3 nm and the measured channel spacing is in the range of 1.5 ± 0.3 nm. The 1-dB bandwidth for each channel is about 12.5% of the average channel spacing.

The WGPD of the first channel of the multi-receiver is chosen to analyze the speed. For the frequency roll-off measurement, the RF signal generator is swept from 100 MHz to 18 GHz. The applied bias is −1 V and the wavelength is 1554.2 nm. The measured result is given in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency response of the 1st channel of the multi-receiver with the bias of −1V as a function of the RF frequency, showing 15 GHz frequency at the 3 dB roll-off point.
, which shows that the frequency of the WGPD is about 15 GHz at the 3 dB roll-off point. We also measured the eye diagram of this WGPD. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Eye diagram of the 1st channel of the multi-receiver: 15 Gbps (left) and 20 Gbps (right)
shows the eye diagram at a bit rate of 15 Gbps (left) and 20 Gbps (right). We used the Subminiature-A (SMA) RF cable with the 18 GHz transmission limitation for characterization, so the actual result of 20 Gbps should be better. The open eye diagram suggests that each channel of the receiver is capable of transmitting data at 20 Gbps, so the receiver can be capable of aggregately transmitting data rate of 160 Gbps.

The photocurrent spectrum of each channel of the receiver is collected by scanning the input optical wavelength at the bias of −1 V. The photocurrent spectra of 8 channels of the receiver are plotted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photocurrent spectra of multi-channels receiver at about −5 dBm optical power entering input waveguide
. The optical power entering the input waveguide of the receiver is about −5 dBm, with the input coupling loss decoupled. The dark current of the Ge PD is less than 1 μA and the adjacent crosstalk is more than 20 dB, which is the same to the result of reference DEMUX tested by the external photodetector. The channel spacing of the receiver is also closed to the DEMUX performance. The photocurrent non-uniformity of the WDM receiver is about 1.0 dB; and it is also near to the optical non-uniformity of the reference DEMUX. Based on the photocurrent spectra, the WGPD responsivity for all 8 channels of the receiver is plotted in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Responsivity of each WGPD of the 8 channels of the receiver, showing good responsivities of about 1.0 A/W at the wavelength of 1554 ~1564 nm.
. The responsivity of the receiver is about 1.0 A/W at the wavelength of 1554 ~1564 nm. At a bias of −1V, the responsivity decreases slightly with increasing wavelength. The uniform responsivities of the receiver also make the non-uniformity of the receiver closed to that of the DEMUX.

Later, the receiver chip is packaged with the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) of 10 Gbps on an electrical evaluation board to enable sensitivity measurement. The Al pad of the 1st channel is difficult for wire-bonding after scratched by the RF probe in the former test, so we used the second channel to analyze the sensitivity. The bias from the TIA into the photodetector is also −1 V. The bit error rate (BER) of channel 2 is measured for decreasing input optical power using a 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence, shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 BER vs. input optical power at the central wavelength of channel 2
. At the same time, according to the photocurrent spectra of the receiver, the optical input sensitivity of the receiver is extracted to be between −20 to −21 dBm for all 8 channels in the wavelength of 1554 ~1564 nm at a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10−11.

In conclusion, we have presented the design, fabrication and characterization of a high performance multi-channels silicon photonics receiver on the SOI platform. The receiver is composed of a 1 × 8 ring-resonators DEMUX and a Ge-on-Si waveguided photodetector array. The crosstalk between adjacent channels of the receiver is more than 20 dB. The responsivities of the receiver are about 1.0 A/W at the wavelength of 1554 ~1564 nm. With each channel being capable of operating at a data rate of at least 20 Gbps, the aggregate data rate of the receiver is at least 160 Gbps. At a BER of 1 × 10−11, the receiver showed an optical input sensitivity between −20 dBm and −21 dBm for all 8 channels for 10 Gbps data rate.

References and links:

1.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low loss (~ 6.45 dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6425–6432 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Q. Fang, F. Li, and Y. L. Liu, “Compact SOI arrayed waveguide garting demultiplexer with broad spectral response,” Opt. Commun. 258(2), 155–158 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Passive ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interleaver on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8359–8365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Article In Press).

9.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 14, 4261–4268 (2004).

12.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. F. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic silicon photonic DWDM receiver for terabit data communications at 1550 nm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OMI4, San Diego, March 2010.

21.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. Jacobsen and P. Wildhagen, “A general and rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10-40-Gb/s channel bit rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(7), 966–976 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 4, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 19, 2010
Published: June 8, 2010

Citation
Qing Fang, Yu Ting Phang, Chee Wei Tan, Tsung-Yang Liow, Ming Bin Yu, Guo Qiang Lo, and Dim Lee Kwong, "Multi-channel silicon photonic receiver based on ring-resonators," Opt. Express 18, 13510-13515 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-13-13510


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References

  1. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and G. R. Baets, “Compact wavelength-selective functions in Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wires,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394–1401 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low loss (~ 6.45 dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6425–6432 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Fang, F. Li, and Y. L. Liu, “Compact SOI arrayed waveguide garting demultiplexer with broad spectral response,” Opt. Commun. 258(2), 155–158 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Passive ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interleaver on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8359–8365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Article In Press).
  9. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 14, 4261–4268 (2004).
  12. R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, G. Zhang, M. B. Yu, Y. L. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic integration of a multiplexer/demultiplexer with a thermo-optic VOA array on an SOI platform,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 319–321 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. F. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Monolithic silicon photonic DWDM receiver for terabit data communications at 1550 nm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OMI4, San Diego, March 2010.
  21. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Jacobsen and P. Wildhagen, “A general and rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10-40-Gb/s channel bit rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(7), 966–976 (2001). [CrossRef]

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