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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 13 — Jun. 21, 2010
  • pp: 13745–13753
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Proportional enlargement of movement by using an optically driven multi-link system with an elastic joint

Yu Jin Jeong, Tae Woo Lim, Yong Son, Dong-Yol Yang, Hong-Jin Kong, and Kwang-Sup Lee  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 13, pp. 13745-13753 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.013745


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Abstract

Diverse movements using optical manipulation have been introduced. These are generally performed in the focal region of the laser beam. To achieve a wider range of movements based on precise motion transformation, an effective method for optical manipulation that overcomes the important obstacles such as small optical trapping forces, friction, and the viscosity of fluids is required. A multi-link system with an elastic joint is introduced that provides precise motion transformation and amplification. By considering the physical properties of the structure and the optical trapping force, an elastic micron-scale joint with the simple shape of a thin plate was designed. As a further example of a multi-link system with an elastic joint, a double 4-link system for motion enlargement was designed and fabricated. By performing experimental evaluations of the fabricated structures, it was confirmed that multi-link systems with an elastic joint were effective tools for precise motion transformation through optical manipulation.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical manipulation is an attractive technique for mechanical and biological applications such as optical tweezers, micro-pumps, and micro-needles. Since optical manipulation is conducted by remote control without any electrical actuating structures or mechanical contact, it has been usefully applied in micro-fluidic systems. In addition, by using optical scanners, advantages such as nano-scaling, high speed, and diverse motion control can be achieved with optical manipulation techniques.

There have been a number of recent reports of the development of optical manipulators [1

1. E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997). [CrossRef]

21

21. T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Optical manipulators employ the torque or trapping forces that are generated at the focus of a laser beam. The extremely small torque at the focus, on the order of 10−17 Nm, which is induced by two major mechanisms, namely the change in angular momentum that results from the effects of polarized light on a birefringent material and the light scattering from an object with a helical shape, has been effectively applied to micro-rotors and micro-pumps [1

1. E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997). [CrossRef]

10

10. G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The trapping force has been used in the patterning of nano/micro-beads [11

11. A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. Y. Tanaka, H. Kawada, S. Tsutsui, M. Ishikawa, and H. Kitajima, “Dynamic micro-bead arrays using optical tweezers combined with intelligent control techniques,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24102–24111 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. When light collides with a particle, its momentum changes due to its change in path, and a force with a certain direction is applied to the particle in accord with the conservation of momentum for the whole system. The direction of the force applied to the particle is determined by the relative positions of the laser focus and the particle. The particle is then moved toward the focus of the incident ray. The resulting translation and rotation of parts of micro-structures have enabled micro-gears, micro-tweezers, and micro-needles to be realized [15

15. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003). [CrossRef]

21

21. T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. These results imply that optical manipulators have the potential to realize so-called “nano-robots” that can implement cell capture, cell transport, and drug injection, etc.

Thus far, the range of motion in optical manipulation has been limited to the focal plane of the laser beam. There have been relatively few studies of techniques for optical movements such as multiple-motion, conversion of direction, and the amplification of displacement or force. For the implementation of such motion control, a mechanical system that enables precise motion transformation is required.

2. Experimental system

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of (a) the two-photon stereolithography system for the 3D fabrication of movable nano/micro structures, and (b) the optical manipulation system.
shows a schematic diagram of the two-photon stereolithography (TPS) system for the fabrication of 3D micro-structures [21

21. T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009). [CrossRef]

23

23. T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In the TPS system, a Ti:sapphire laser mode-locked at 80 MHz and a 780 nm wavelength (with pulses of less than 100 fs) is utilized as the light source. The laser beam is tightly focused into the resin volume by using a high numerical aperture (NA: 1.4, with immersion oil) objective lens. The focus of the laser beam is fixed at a given position during the fabrication. A thin glass plate with a droplet of resin (a mixture of SU-8 and photo acid generator) on its surface is then moved by controlling the movements in the x, y, and z directions of a piezoelectric stage with a resolution of 0.1 nm. After the scanning process, the nonpolymerized resin is removed by rinsing with a developer (PGMEA). 3D structures can be fabricated with this single process. A high-magnification CCD camera is used for the optical adjustment of the focused beam, and also for the monitoring of the fabrication process.

After the fabrication of the movable structures, the substrate was sealed by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slabs with inlet and outlet holes and a cavity. The PDMS cavity was then filled with PGMEA solution to eliminate the flow of solution. Figure 1(b) shows the optical manipulating system. Unlike in the TPS system, which requires a high intensity of photons for two-photon absorption, a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser was used as the light source. For the precise manipulation of the fabricated movable structure, a beam scanning method that uses a Galvano mirror was employed. This method is commonly used in the manipulation of optical trapping structures because of its ability to produce precise manipulations that are free from tremors in the substrate. In beam scanning systems, however, the working area is limited to the focal plane of the objective lens, which is one important obstacle to overcome in the area of optical manipulation.

3. Optical manipulation with an elastic joint

3.1 Measurement of the optical trapping force

The optical trapping force was measured via a bending test with a cantilever. The high laser power of 5 mW was used for large deformation and stable observation without disturbance of the surrounding fluids; the use of a laser power that exceeds 5 mW would damage the fabricated structures. As shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic diagram of the beam bending test with a cantilever for the measurement of the optical trapping force. CCD images of (b) the cantilever in the initial state, and (c) the cantilever bent by optical manipulation.
, a spherical trapping point was placed at the end of the cantilever. To reduce any errors due to deflection in the z-direction, the height of the cantilever was four times larger than its width.

When the focus of the laser beam is adjusted onto the trapping point, which is then moved perpendicularly, the cantilever bends a certain distance. If the displacement of the focus is larger than a critical distance, the bent cantilever returns to its original state of elastic deformation. From this maximum displacement of the trapping point, the optical trapping force can be obtained. Figures 3(b) and 3(c) show the initial state and the deflection of the cantilever respectively, as obtained with a CCD camera during the experiment.

First, the diameter of the spherical trapping point that provided the maximum trapping force was determined to be 3 µm by carrying out tests for spheres with diameters of 1, 3, and 5 µm. Thus a sphere with a diameter of 3 µm was used as the trapping point in this study. The trapping forces for the cantilever with the cross-sectional dimension (a width of 0.31 µm and a height of 1.15 µm) were obtained. It was assumed that the deflection of the cantilever is affected dominantly by the trapping force in y direction (Fy)
FFysec(θ)=3EIδL3×sec(tan13δ2L),
(1)
The trapping force (F) was obtained from Eq. (1), where δ is the maximum displacement of the trapping point in the y direction, θ is the slope at the end of the cantilever, L is the length of the cantilever (30 µm), E is the elastic modulus of photo-cured SU-8, which was found to be 4.67 GPa by using a nano-indentation test, and I is the moment of inertia of the cantilever (w3h/12 for a square). The deflection of the cantilever was measured by increasing the laser power. The scanning speed was set at 1 µm/s, which is slow enough that the influence of the forces of the surrounding fluids can be disregarded. For a laser power of 5 mW, the trapping force was measured to be 13.2 nN.

3.2 Design of the elastic joint

3.3. Evaluation of the unit elastic joint structure

4. Multi-link system with elastic joints

To evaluate the effectiveness of the precise motion transformation, the experimental results were compared with the results obtained with FEM simulation. The displacements of the trapping point and the observation point were measured as shown in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c). For an optical drive of 3.8 µm at the trapping point, the amplification ratio of the displacement was estimated to be 1.70 from the results of the FEM analysis and found from the experimental measurements to be approximately 1.66. Thus the movement of the trapped point was transferred precisely by the elastic joint. As shown in Fig. 6(d), the experimental results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation, with a small error of 2.4% on average. This conclusion implies that the optical manipulation working area can be increased to an area larger than the focal region. In addition, the limitations on various and multiple motions can be overcome by using the proposed method.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the Nano R&D program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (20090082831).

References and links

1.

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4653–4655 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Tanaka, H. Kawada, S. Tsutsui, M. Ishikawa, and H. Kitajima, “Dynamic micro-bead arrays using optical tweezers combined with intelligent control techniques,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24102–24111 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144101 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Basdogan, A. Kiraz, I. Bukusoglu, A. Varol, and S. Doğanay, “Haptic guidance for improved task performance in steering microparticles with optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11616–11621 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. Pacoret, R. Bowman, G. Gibson, S. Haliyo, D. Carberry, A. Bergander, S. Régnier, and M. Padgett, “Touching the microworld with force-feedback optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10259–10264 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 100(1), 70–76 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication
(230.4685) Optical devices : Optical microelectromechanical devices
(350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 22, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2010
Published: June 11, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Yu Jin Jeong, Tae Woo Lim, Yong Son, Dong-Yol Yang, Hong-Jin Kong, and Kwang-Sup Lee, "Proportional enlargement of movement by using an optically driven multi-link system with an elastic joint," Opt. Express 18, 13745-13753 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-13-13745


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References

  1. E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4653–4655 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Tanaka, H. Kawada, S. Tsutsui, M. Ishikawa, and H. Kitajima, “Dynamic micro-bead arrays using optical tweezers combined with intelligent control techniques,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24102–24111 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144101 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Basdogan, A. Kiraz, I. Bukusoglu, A. Varol, and S. Doğanay, “Haptic guidance for improved task performance in steering microparticles with optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11616–11621 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Pacoret, R. Bowman, G. Gibson, S. Haliyo, D. Carberry, A. Bergander, S. Régnier, and M. Padgett, “Touching the microworld with force-feedback optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10259–10264 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 100(1), 70–76 (2002). [CrossRef]
  23. T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008). [CrossRef]
  24. S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006). [CrossRef]

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