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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 13 — Jun. 21, 2010
  • pp: 13863–13873
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Observation of Transparency of Erbium-doped Silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

Yiyang Gong, Maria Makarova, Selçuk Yerci, Rui Li, Martin J. Stevens, Burm Baek, Sae Woo Nam, Luca Dal Negro, and Jelena Vučković  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 13, pp. 13863-13873 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.013863


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Abstract

One dimensional nanobeam photonic crystal cavities are fabricated in an Er-doped amorphous silicon nitride layer. Photoluminescence from the cavities around 1.54 µm is studied at cryogenic and room temperatures at different optical pump powers. The resonators demonstrate Purcell enhanced absorption and emission rates, also confirmed by time resolved measurements. Resonances exhibit linewidth narrowing with pump power, signifying absorption bleaching and the onset of stimulated emission in the material at both 5.5 K and room temperature. We estimate from the cavity linewidths that Er has been pumped to transparency at the cavity resonance wavelength.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The interest in combining electronics and optics has sparked a large effort to fabricate light emitting devices with Silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si-CMOS) compatible materials. One possible material system for this application is Er-doped amorphous silicon nitride (Er:SiNx), which emits at the telecom wavelength of 1.54 µm [1

1. S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 µm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107-031107 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041111 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The Er emission can be sensitized by the host through a nanosecond-fast energy transfer mechanism from the amorphous nitride matrix (SiNx), which provides four orders of magnitude larger absorption cross-section than Er in silica (SiO2) [1

1. S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 µm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107-031107 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041111 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Low field electrical injection in this material is also possible, as demonstrated by electroluminescence of silicon nano-crystals in silicon-silicon nitride superlattices [3

3. J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

In order to explore the possibility to achieve stimulated emission in this system, we couple emission from Er to photonic crystal (PC) cavities with high quality (Q-) factor and low mode volume (Vmode), as the interaction between the emitter and cavity mode can be tailored with design. The Purcell effect (∞ Q/Vmode) [4

4. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

] in such cavities leads to enhanced spontaneous emission rates into the cavity mode and thus decreases the lasing threshold. We have already demonstrated enhancement of Er photoluminescence (PL) in Er doped silicon nitride coupled to two dimensional (2D) silicon PC cavities, including linewidth narrowing of the PC cavity mode and Purcell enhancement of the Er emission rate [5

5. M. Makarova, V. Sih, J. Warga, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vučković, “Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161107 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vučković, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18, 2601–2612 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although silicon-based PC cavities have high Q and small Vm, the overlap of the cavity mode with the active material (Er-doped nitride cladding on silicon cavities) is small. In addition, absorptive losses, stemming mostly from the Si portion of the membrane, also limit the gain. Here we report on a PC cavity design made entirely of the Er:SiNx material with improved mode overlap with the active material and reduced absorptive losses. We observe two times larger linewidth narrowing relative to silicon PC cavities with Er-doped nitride, indicating a larger gain coefficient in the cavity [6

6. Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vučković, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18, 2601–2612 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, some cavities were pumped to transparency.

While the high indices of refraction of Si and GaAs (n > 3) have enabled high Q 2D PC cavities, recently there have been numerous efforts to develop high-Q PC cavities in low-index materials such as diamond (n = 2.4) [7

7. C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, and E. L. Hu, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. C. Kreuzer, J. Riedrich-Möller, E. Neu, and C. Becher, “Design of Photonic Crystal Microcavities in Diamond Films,” Opt. Express 16, 1632–1644 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], silicon nitride (n = 2.0) [9

9. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. M. W. McCutcheon and M. Lončar, “Design of an ultrahigh Quality factor silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity for coupling to diamond nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 16, 19136–19145 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and silicon dioxide (n = 1.5) [11

11. Y. Gong and J. Vučković, “Photonic Crystal Cavities in Silicon Dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031107 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Two dimensional PC cavities confine light by distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) in the 2D PC plane and total internal reflection (TIR) in the surface normal direction. However, since it is difficult to achieve a large 2D photonic band in low index-contrast material systems [12

12. M. Makarova, J. Vučković, H. Sanda, and Y. Nishi, “Silicon based photonic crystal nanocavity light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221101 (2006). [CrossRef]

], it is preferable to design low index photonic crystal cavities in a one dimensional geometry, relying on DBR in the direction along a narrow beam, and total internal reflection in the other two directions. In particular, the cavity is formed by modifying the size and spacing of several holes at the center of the beam, thus forming linear or parabolic optical potential wells. Quality factors as high as 105 have been experimentally achieved in silicon nitride by employing such designs [9

9. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 1. (a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fabricated Er:SiNx nanobeam cavity. (b) The |E|2 profile of the fundamental cavity mode from FDTD simulations. The area of each marker illustrates the (c) Q and (d) Vmode of the cavity as the width and height of the beam is changed, while hx = 0.5a, hy = 0.7w, and the design of the holes are fixed.

2. Nanobeam cavity design and fabrication

In this work, we apply the parabolic design [9

9. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. Y. Gong and J. Vučković, “Photonic Crystal Cavities in Silicon Dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031107 (2010). [CrossRef]

] to the Er:SiNx material, which has an index of refraction approximately the same as that of SiNx (n = 2.05). The hole spacing at the center of the cavity is 0.88a, where a is the lattice constant of the PC mirror outside of the cavity. The beam has thickness d = 0.8a and width w = 1.5a. The width of the rectangular holes in the direction along the beam is hx = 0.5a, and the width perpendicular to the beam is hy = 0.7w (Figure 1(b)). We employ 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to calculate the field profile of the fundamental transverse-electric (TE)-like mode, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The mode has theoretical normalized frequency a/λ = 0.36, quality factor Q = 30,000, with mode volume Vm = 0.95(λ/n)3. In addition, the mode overlap Γ, defined as the fraction of the electric field energy in the active material, is Γ = 52%, in the structures that have the active material distributed throughout the beam (i.e., the whole beam composed of Er:SiNx), which is 12 times improved relative to a hybrid Er:SiNx/Si membrane [6

6. Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vučković, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18, 2601–2612 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

We also vary the beam width (w) between 1.0a and 3.2a and the beam thickness (d) between 0.6a and 1.0a, fixing hx = 0.5a, hy = 0.7w, and the same design of holes for the cavity, and find Q and Vmode for the cavities. We observe that the Q of the cavity has little dependence on the width of the beam, but does increase with the beam thickness (Fig. 1(c)). This is the case as SiNx has a fairly high index of refraction, and beam widths in the studied range can still support waveguide modes. In addition, we find that Vmode is minimized around w/a = 1.6 for various beam thicknesses (Fig. 1(d)). As expected, there is a tradeoff between the Q-factor and the mode volume of the resonator.

Er:SiNx is grown on top of an oxidized silicon wafer by N2 reactive magnetron co-sputtering from Si and Er targets in a Denton Discovery 18 confocal-target sputtering system, as discussed elsewhere [1

1. S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 µm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107-031107 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041111 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The sacrificial oxide layer is 700nm thick, while the Er:SiNx layer is 500nm thick with an Er concentration of 3.0 × 1020 cm−3 (referred to as type I in the inset of Fig. 2(a)). Type II samples, shown in the inset of Fig. 2(b), have only the middle third of the membrane doped with Er. The growth is followed by a post-annealing process in a rapid thermal annealing furnace at 1180°C for 480 s under forming gas (5% H2, 95% N2) atmosphere. The fabrication of the resonators employs electron beam lithography with 400 nm of ZEP-520A as the resist. The written pattern is then etched into the Er:SiNx or SiNx slab with a CHF3:O2 chemistry. Finally, suspended PC membranes can be formed by undercutting the oxide layer with a 6:1 buffered oxide etch, and further undercutting of 3 µm of the silicon substrate with a XeF2 etcher. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fabricated beam with a width of w = 1.5a is shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 2. (a) Photoluminescence from the cavity at room temperature and the unpatterned film at room temperature and 5.5 K. The whole membrane is composed of Er:SiNx in this case (type I, shown in inset). (b) Spectrum of a cavity fabricated in SiNx with only the middle third doped with Er (type II, shown in inset). Dots correspond to the spectrum obtained by a laser scan in cross-polarization reflectivity, and circles to PL measured by the spectrometer. Fits to a Lorentzian lineshape gives a Q = 52,000 from the reflectivity scan and a spectrometer resolution limited Q = 25, 000.

3. Photoluminescence measurements

Fig. 3. The pump power dependence of the (a) integrated PC cavity intensity and PL spectrally decoupled from the cavity, (b) the cavity resonance wavelength, and (c) the cavity Q, all at 5.5K and 290K. The shift in wavelength between the two temperatures is most likely due to a shift of the sample position in the cryostat as temperature is varied. The pump power is measured in front of the objective lens.

4. Time-resolved measurements of bulk and cavity emission

Fig. 4. (a) The Qs of the cavities at 5.5K and 290K, both with low pump power (less than 10 µW). The dashed lines connect the data for the same cavity at the two different temperatures. The shift in wavelength between the two temperatures is most likely due to a shift of the sample position in the cryostat as temperature is varied. (b) The change in the linewidth (full-width at half-max, FWHM) for individual cavities as pump power is switched from less than 10 µW to 40 mW, at 5.5 K and room temperature. The scaled and shifted Er spectrum is shown in gray as a reference.
1τcav=Fpτr+1τnr.
(1)

The lower bound of the radiative lifetime of Er in bulk Si3N4 is 7 ms, as it is the longest total (combined radiative and non-radiative) lifetime observed for such a system [18

18. A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, and J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. Using this figure, we conservatively approximate Fp = 6 at 3 K at the lowest pump power.

Fig. 5. (a) Time-resolved PL measurements of the cavity resonance for various pump powers at ~3 K, as well as unpatterned film (integrated for all wavelengths). Solid lines for the cavity time traces are fits to a bi-exponential model for the cavity emission, and a single exponential model for the bulk emission. (b) The fast and slow components from the fits in part (a), as well as for an unpatterned film lifetimes for various pump powers.

5. Analysis and discussion of results

We also observe that the Qs of the cavities with the type I membrane at 5.5K and at high pump powers can sometimes exceed the Qs of the same cavities at high pump powers at room temperature. We find the difference between the linewidths of the cavity resonances at the two different temperatures at the same high pump power and plot them in Fig. 6(a). We observe that a cluster of cavities between 1535 nm–1539 nm exhibit narrower linewidth at low temperature than at room temperatures. Understandably, this range lies on the longer wavelength side of the Er emission peak, where absorption from Er is lower compared to the shorter wavelength side of the Er emission peak. The observation of narrower linewidth at 5.5 K indicates that larger gain is achievable at low temperatures than at room temperature.

ω0Qobs=ω0Qcavγ(P,T),
(2)

Next, we use the time-resolved data to estimate the Er inversion fraction. We may write for a single cavity that γ(290K) = γa, where γa is the cavity dependent absorption rate, and that γ(5.5K) = ηγa, where η is the factor by which the Er homogeneous linewidth decreases between room temperature and 5.5 K. By using η = 6 as observed from time-resolved spectroscopy, along with Qobs (deconvolved from the spectrometer response) at low pump powers at 290 K and 5.5 K, we can find γa and Qcav for each cavity using Eq. (2). We plot γa in Fig. 6(b) and (c) for room temperature and 5.5 K, respectively, and the data matches well with the expected absorption spectrum of Er. In addition, we find the effective gain (or absorption) rate, namely, ω0/Qobsω0/Qcav, achieved at the cavity resonance wavelength for each cavity. We plot the results for room temperature and 5.5 K in Fig. 6(b) and (c), respectively, with the cases of η = 4 and η = 8 as the error bar bounds. As with the data in Fig 6(a), we observe that the fraction of inverted Er rises above transparency, i.e. γa equal to or greater than zero (otherwise γa < 0 denotes absorption loss), for the cavities coupled to the longer wavelength side of the main Er emission peak at both room temperature and 5.5 K. Once again, such an effect matches well with the pump power dependent gain curves of Er in glass [16

16. E. Desurvire, Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: principles and applications, pp. 230–298. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1994.

]. The absorption coefficient (α) can be calculated from the absorption rate by α = −γa/(2π)/(cΓ/neff), where for this cavity mode the effective index is neff = 1.6 and mode overlap with the active material is Γ = 0.52. At the Er emission peak, we obtain an absorption rate of γa = −2π × 6 GHz, which corresponds to an absorption coefficient of 0.6 cm−1 and is consistent with absorption rate of Er doped materials in silicon nanocrystal doped oxide and phosphate glass waveguide systems [22

22. Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Similarly, the maximum gain (γa > 0) obtained at 5.5 K and 290 K is γa = 2π × 2 GHz, which corresponds to α = −0.22 ± 0.05 cm−1. In general, we observe that at the long wavelength edge of the main Er emission peak, cavities are pumped to transparency.

Finally, we confirm that the Purcell enhancement is degraded by the large homogeneous linewidth of the Er transition at both 5.5 K and room temperature. We plot the change in the cavity linewidth at low pump power between 5.5 K and room temperature for various cavities and simultaneously plot Qcav as the area of the points in Fig. 7. We observe that the change in the linewidth (i.e. the change in absorption) between the two temperatures is not strongly correlated with the intrinsic cavity Q-factor, i.e. the size of the points does not increase for larger changes in linewidth. Thus, we observe that the linewidth broadening effect due to Purcell-enhanced absorption at low temperatures is saturated for high-Q cavities. Therefore, minimizing the cavity mode volume while keeping the cavity linewidth comparable to the homogeneous Er linewidth would achieve the maximum Purcell enhancement in nano-cavity structures.

Fig. 6. (a) The difference in between the cavity linewidth at 5.5 K and 290 K, under high pump power (greater than 40 mW). The scaled and shifted Er spectrum is shown as a reference. (b) The absorption rate achieved at room temperature using high pump power (circles) and low pump power (squares) calculated using the cavity Qs measured in experiment, with error bounds assuming that the Er homogeneous linewidth is between η = 4 and η = 8 times narrower at 5.5K than at room temperature. (c) The absorption rate achieved at 5.5 K at high pump power (circles) and low pump power (squares), with the same error bounds as part (b). Regions with positive γa correspond to gain achieved with the system.
Fig. 7. (a) The change in linewidth between 5.5 K and room temperature, both measured at low pump powers (below 10 µW). The size of the points represents the intrinsic cavity Q-factor (Qcav). The scaled and shifted Er spectrum is shown as a reference.

This work was supported in part by the grants from the Interconnect Focus Center, one of six research centers funded under the Focus Center Research Program (FCRP), a Semiconductor Research Corporation entity, the AFOSR and the U.S. Air Force MURI program under Award No. FA9550-06-1-0470, on “Electrically-Pumped Silicon-Based Lasers for Chip-Scale Nanophotonic Systems” supervised by Dr. Gernot Pomrenke. We also thank Sander Dorenbos, Robert Hadfield, and Val Zwiller for providing the superconducting nano-wire single photon detector. PC Devices were fabricated in part at the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility of NNIN supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant ECS-9731293. We also acknowledge support from the Intel (MM) and the NSF (YG) fellowships.

References and links

1.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 µm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107-031107 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041111 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

5.

M. Makarova, V. Sih, J. Warga, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vučković, “Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161107 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vučković, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 18, 2601–2612 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, and E. L. Hu, “Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Kreuzer, J. Riedrich-Möller, E. Neu, and C. Becher, “Design of Photonic Crystal Microcavities in Diamond Films,” Opt. Express 16, 1632–1644 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. W. McCutcheon and M. Lončar, “Design of an ultrahigh Quality factor silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity for coupling to diamond nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 16, 19136–19145 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Gong and J. Vučković, “Photonic Crystal Cavities in Silicon Dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031107 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Makarova, J. Vučković, H. Sanda, and Y. Nishi, “Silicon based photonic crystal nanocavity light emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221101 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Makarova, Y. Gong, S-L. Cheng, Y. Nishi, S. Yerci, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vučković. “Photonic Crystal and Plasmonic Silicon Based Light Sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 16, 132–140 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Altug and J. Vučković, “Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111102 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Controlling Cavity Reflectivity With a Single Quantum Dot,” Nature 450, 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: principles and applications, pp. 230–298. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1994.

17.

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. G. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13, 10846–10853 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, and J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991). [CrossRef]

19.

Thomas Böttger, C. W. Thiel, Y. Sun, and R. L. Cone, “Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion at 1.5 µm in Er3+:Y2SiO5 versus magnetic field, temperature, and Er3+ concentration,” Phys Rev. B 73, 075101 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

H. J. Kimble, “Structure and dynamics in cavity quantum electrodynamics,” in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, edited by P. Berman, pp. 203–267, Academic Press, 1994.

21.

R. Hostein, R. Braive, M. Larqué, K.-H. Lee, A. Talneau, L. Le Gratiet, I. Robert-Philip, I. Sagnes, and A. Beveratos, “Room temperature spontaneous emission enhancement from quantum dots in photonic crystal slab cavities in the telecommunications C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123101 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997). [CrossRef]

23.

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(230.6080) Optical devices : Sources
(260.3800) Physical optics : Luminescence
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: May 17, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 5, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 7, 2010
Published: June 14, 2010

Citation
Yiyang Gong, Maria Makarova, Selcuk Yerci, Rui Li, Martin Stevens, Burm Baek, Sae Woo Nam, Luca Dal Negro, and Jelena Vuckovic, "Observation of Transparency of Erbium-doped Silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Opt. Express 18, 13863-13873 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-13-13863


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References

  1. . S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. van Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031107-031107 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. . R. Li, S. Yerci, and L. Dal Negro, “Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041111 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. . J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. . E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  5. . M. Makarova, V. Sih, J. Warga, R. Li, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vučkovič, “Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161107 (2008). [CrossRef]
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