OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 13 — Jun. 21, 2010
  • pp: 14123–14128
« Show journal navigation

Tunable photonic metamaterials in the near infrared frequencies

Qiuze Li and Guo Ping Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 13, pp. 14123-14128 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.014123


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (3056 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

By using interference lithography and electron-beam evaporation and lift-off, we fabricate a series of pairs of elliptical metal-dielectric-metal plates with varying lengths of major and minor axis. Transmission measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the structures show linear shift with both the axis length of the elliptical plates and polarization direction of the incident light in a region of from 1.26 μ m to 2.10 μ m . Our structures offer opportunities for oversimply constructing bulk photonic metamaterials for various applications.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Negative index metamaterials are attracting considerable interests due to their distinguishing electromagnetic properties from naturally occurring materials [1

1. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and various strange potential applications such as perfect lenses [4

4. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and invisibility cloaks [5

5. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To get a material with negative index and low loss, both permittivity and permeability being simultaneously negative are generally required. While most noble metals show negative permittivity in a broad optical frequency region, no natural material exhibiting negative permeability at optical frequencies is discovered so far. To produce negative permeability, diverse artificial magnetic metamaterial structures have been proposed. Typical examples include split-ring resonators [1

1. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], pairs of cut wires and plates (with circular, rectangular, and square shapes) [6

6. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]

10

10. J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245117 (2009). [CrossRef]

], etc. While great progress has been made by combing the above magnetic structures and noble metal materials in constructing negative index metamaterials working at microwave [11

11. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and optical frequencies [3

3. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007). [CrossRef]

16

16. E. Pshenay-Severin, U. Hübner, C. Menzel, C. Helgert, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tünnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Double-element metamaterial with negative index at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1678–1680 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], magnetic response frequency of the most current magnetic metamaterials is generally limited within a narrow band for a given structure. Here we report experimental observation of tunable magnetic response of pairs of elliptical metal-dielectric-metal plates (PEMDMPs) in the near-infrared region. By selecting polarization direction of the incident light and varying the length of axis of the PEMDMPs simultaneously, the magnetic response wavelength can be tuned in the range of from 1.26 μm to 2.10 μm.

2. Experiment

We employ our established single-prism holographic lithography [17

17. G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, “Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155–2161 (2003).

, 18

18. Y. Yang, Q. Li, and G. P. Wang, “Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11275–11280 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to create templates for the PEMDMPs. The optical recording set-up is exactly the same as that of Refs. 17

17. G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, “Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155–2161 (2003).

. A top-cut rectangular prism is used as a beam splitter to produce multiple beams for creating required two-dimensional elliptical hole profiles. The lengths of the major and minor axis of the elliptical holes are determined by the period of the interference profiles in the x and y directions, respectively, which are controlled by the angles between the adjacent interference beams for a given laser wavelength λ. Photosensitive emulsion used to record the interference patterns is a positive photoresist (S9918M PHOTO RESIST, Shipley Co.), which is prepared and processed according to standard procedure as described in Ref. 18

18. Y. Yang, Q. Li, and G. P. Wang, “Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11275–11280 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

. The recording light is a laser beam with wavelengthλ=442nm irradiated from a He-Cd laser (70mW) with a linear polarization direction perpendicular to the plane of the recording platform. Exposure dose in the recording process can be adjusted in the range of 6090mJcm2. After exposure, development, rinsing, and post baking, we can obtain a dielectric template with elliptical holes on the glass substrate. By electron-beam evaporating two tm=30nm thick Ag layers separated by a td=40nm thick SiO2 layer and taking a lift-off procedure, we can get an array of the PEMDMPs.

3. Results and discussion

Figures 1(b)-(d)
Fig. 1 (color online) (a) Scheme of PEMDMPs and SEM images of the fabricated PEMDMPs with fixed minor axis (a = 350 nm) but varied major axis b = (b) 350 nm, (c) 420 nm, and (d) 504 nm, respectively. Bar, 2μm. Insets: magnified view. Bar, 500nm.
are the oblique view of field emission scanning electron microscopy images (SEM, taken with SIRION TMP, FEI Co.) of the resultant structures with fixed minor axis a (~350 nm) but varied major axis b from 350 nm to 420 nm and 504 nm, respectively. The insets show the magnified normal view of the SEM images. Due to the deposition and lift-off process, the samples have about 20 degree sidewall angle, we determine the lengths of the axes from the SEM images through the lengths of the samples at the top surface and the sidewall angle, which leads to an error of about ± 20 nm. The transmission spectra are measured by a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (Nicolet 6700, Themofisher Co.) combined with a continuum infrared microscope (15 × Infinity corrected Reflachromat Objective, numerical aperture NA = 0.58, InGaAs detector, infrared polarizer, resolution 0.09 cm−1). The transmittance of all the samples are normalized to that of the bare glass substrate, which are directly obtained by the tied software of the spectrometer from the measured transmittance of the samples and a bare glass substrate, respectively.

On the other hand, from the above LC circuit model, we see that the thickness of SiO2 tdalso influences the magnetic resonance frequency: The resonance frequency increases with the thickness of SiO2 [25

25. V. D. Lam, N. T. Tung, M. H. Cho, J. W. Park, W. H. Jang, and Y. P. Lee, “Effect of the dielectric layer thickness on the electromagnetic response of cut-wire-pair and combined structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115404 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Additionally, the pitches of the structures will affect the coupling effect between the adjacent PEMDMPs and will finally affect the resonance frequency of the structures [22

22. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, to avoid such coupling effect, we design the distance of adjacent PEMDMPs larger than 100 nm in our experiments [24

24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

To further confirm the underlying mechanism, we measured the evolution of the transmission spectra of a PEMDMP (a = 360 nm, b = 540 nm) as the polarization direction of the normally incident light is changed from the major axis to the minor of the PEMDMP (see Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (color online) Measured transmittance of a PEMDMP with a = 360 nm and b = 540 nm as the polarization of a normally incident light changes from 0° to 90° with a step of 10°.
). We see that as the incident polarization is parallel to the major axis, a strong magnetic response around 2.1 μm appears [Fig. 3, red line]. As the incident polarization gradually changes to parallel to the minor axis, the other magnetic response peak at around 1.46 μmappears and becomes stronger to stronger, accompanying by the gradual damping of the other response around 2.1 μm and finally disappearance as the polarization is along the minor axis [Fig. 3, black line]. What should be noted is that the two response wavelengths are completely independent on the variation of the incident polarization. As the incident polarization direction is between the two axis directions, two magnetic response peaks around two fixed wavelengths 1.46 μm and 2.10 μm can be observed simultaneously (see Fig. 3, blue line, the angle between the incident polarization direction and the major axis of the elliptical plates is 40 degree). This can be understood that electromagnetic field of the incident light is split into the x and y directions and works on the plate pairs simultaneously in the major and minor axes. The additional peak around 1.1 μm is attributed to the electric coupling between the structures with the incident light [10

10. J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245117 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In what following, we fabricated a class of PEMDMPs with fixed period (by fixing the angle among the interference beams) but varied major and minor axes by modulating exposure dose in the recording process. Figures 4(a)-(e)
Fig. 4 (color online) SEM images of the PEMDMPs with (a) a = 290 nm, b = 414 nm, (b) a = 314 nm, b = 446 nm, (c) a = 330 nm, b = 466 nm, (d) a = 350 nm, b = 504 nm, and (e) a = 368 nm, b = 540 nm, respectively. Bar, 500nm. Measured (first row) and simulated (second row) transmittance of the above PEMDMPs as the incident polarization is parallel to (f) minor axis and (g) major axis, respectively. The inset of Fig. 4(f) shows the dependence of the measured magnetic response wavelength on the minor axis (red stars) and the major axis (blue stars), respectively. The solid line is obtained from the equivalent LC circuit model.
show the SEM images of the resultant PEMDMPs with increased axis length gradually. Figures 4(f)-(g) show the measured (first row) and simulated (second row) transmission spectra as the polarization of normally incident light is parallel to the minor axis [Fig. 4(f)] and major axis [Fig. 4(g)], respectively. From the figures we see that the magnetic response shows obvious red shift with the length of the axis of the incident polarization direction parallel to, which is further confirmed by FDTD simulations [Figs. 4(f)-(g), second row]. For instance, as the incident polarization is parallel to the minor axis, which changes from 290 nm to 314, 330, 350, and 368 nm, the strong magnetic response around 1262, 1315, 1385, 1444, and 1495 nm occurs, respectively [see Fig. 4(f)]. While the incident polarization is parallel to the major axis, which changes from 414 nm to 446, 466, 504, and 540 nm, the corresponding magnetic response at 1731, 1810, 1905, 2005, and 2102 nm occurs, respectively [see Fig. 4(g)]. As shown in the inset of Fig. 4(f), the magnetic response also shows a good linear dependence on the length of the axis. Our results reveal that, by selecting polarization direction of the incident light and varying the axis length of the PEMDMPs, a tunable magnetic response ranging from 1.26 μm to 2.10 μmfrequencies is achieved.

Note that from the simulation results, the transmittance is monotonically decreased with the length of the axis. This is resulted from the variation of filling fraction and wavelength dependent absorption of silver. The measurements [Figs. 4(f) and 4(g), curves c, d and e] also show a good monotone change. The discrepancy of some measured transmittance [Figs. 4(f) and 4(g), curves a and b] from the monotone trend is resulted from the experimental errors in the fabrication process.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have experimentally obtained tunable near infrared magnetic metamaterials by using a single-prism interference lithography and electron-beam evaporation and lift-off technique. The fabricated metamaterials are pairs of elliptical metal-dielectric-metal plates and exhibit linearly dependent magnetic response on the axis length of the elliptical plates. By selecting polarization direction of the incident light and varying the axis length of the elliptical plates simultaneously, we have achieved the magnetic response in a range of from 1.26 μm to 2.10 μm. The measured results are confirmed by the FDTD numerical simulations. Our structures offer the oversimplified opportunities for robust construction of bulk photonic metamaterials for various device applications.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by 973 Program (Grant 2007CB935300), NSFC (Grant Nos. 60925020, 60736041, and 10774116), and the Science and Technology Bureau of Wuhan City, Hubei, China (Grant No. 200951830552).

References and links

1.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

N. Feth, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Large-area magnetic metamaterials via compact interference lithography,” Opt. Express 15(2), 501–507 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Y. Jeyaram, S. K. Jha, M. Agio, J. F. Löffler, and Y. Ekinci, “Magnetic metamaterials in the blue range using aluminum nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1656–1658 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245117 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2623–2625 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. Pshenay-Severin, U. Hübner, C. Menzel, C. Helgert, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tünnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Double-element metamaterial with negative index at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1678–1680 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, “Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155–2161 (2003).

18.

Y. Yang, Q. Li, and G. P. Wang, “Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11275–11280 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3599–3601 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Chen and G. P. Wang, “Pyramid-shaped hyperlenses for three-dimensional subdiffraction optical imaging,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3903–3912 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3620–3622 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009). [CrossRef]

25.

V. D. Lam, N. T. Tung, M. H. Cho, J. W. Park, W. H. Jang, and Y. P. Lee, “Effect of the dielectric layer thickness on the electromagnetic response of cut-wire-pair and combined structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115404 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: April 28, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 4, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 4, 2010
Published: June 16, 2010

Citation
Qiuze Li and Guo Ping Wang, "Tunable photonic metamaterials in the near infrared frequencies," Opt. Express 18, 14123-14128 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-13-14123


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Feth, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Large-area magnetic metamaterials via compact interference lithography,” Opt. Express 15(2), 501–507 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Jeyaram, S. K. Jha, M. Agio, J. F. Löffler, and Y. Ekinci, “Magnetic metamaterials in the blue range using aluminum nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1656–1658 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245117 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2623–2625 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73(4), 041101 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Pshenay-Severin, U. Hübner, C. Menzel, C. Helgert, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tünnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Double-element metamaterial with negative index at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1678–1680 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. P. Wang, C. Tan, Y. Yi, and H. Shan, “Holography for one-step fabrication of three-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals with a single continuous wavelength laser beam,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2155–2161 (2003).
  18. Y. Yang, Q. Li, and G. P. Wang, “Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11275–11280 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3599–3601 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Chen and G. P. Wang, “Pyramid-shaped hyperlenses for three-dimensional subdiffraction optical imaging,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3903–3912 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the Magnetic Response of Split-Ring Resonators at Optical Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. F. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3620–3622 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. V. D. Lam, N. T. Tung, M. H. Cho, J. W. Park, W. H. Jang, and Y. P. Lee, “Effect of the dielectric layer thickness on the electromagnetic response of cut-wire-pair and combined structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115404 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited