OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15523–15530
« Show journal navigation

Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides

Candice Tsay, Elvis Mujagić, Christi K. Madsen, Claire F. Gmachl, and Craig B. Arnold  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15523-15530 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.015523


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (964 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

An etch-free and cost-effective deposition and patterning method to fabricate mid-infrared chalcogenide glass waveguides for chemical sensing applications is introduced. As2S3 raised strip optical waveguides are produced by casting a liquid solution of As2S3 glass in capillary channel molds formed by soft lithography. Mid-IR transmission is characterized by coupling the output of a quantum cascade (QC) laser (λ = 4.8 µm) into the 40 µm wide by 10 µm thick multi-mode waveguides. Loss as low as 4.5 dB/cm is achieved using suitable substrate materials and post-processing. Optical absorption and surface roughness measurements indicate that the solution-processed films are of sufficient quality for optical devices and are promising for further development of waveguide-based mid-IR elements.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The solution-casting and molding approach we employ to fabricate As2S3 waveguides (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Solution casting and molding method. (a) Generating the PDMS mold. (L-R) Master mold patterned by photolithography using SU-8 photoresist. PDMS precursor cast on master mold. Cured PDMS mold peeled away. (b) Forming As2S3 structures by capillarity. (L-R) PDMS mold placed on substrate, forming channels. Droplets of As2S3 solution pipetted to inlets. Channels fill by capillary action. Sample is baked in vacuum oven to solidify structures. PDMS mold is removed.
) is a low-cost, low temperature, and etch-free process [23

23. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. Unlike conventional thin film processing techniques, solution-molding readily produces structure heights exceeding a few microns. This enables waveguides with dimensions that are comparable to the ridge widths and heights of an edge-emitting (Fabry-Pérot) QC laser, and to the wavelengths of interest. Thus alignment to QC lasers for cut-back measurement of the waveguide propagation loss at the mid-IR is straightforwardly accomplished. Here we demonstrate the formation of multi-mode waveguide structures and examine how the optical properties of the substrate and post-process annealing steps affect the propagation loss.

2. Experimental

The process to create a solution of As2S3 by dissolving As2S3 in propylamine or butylamine solvent was first described by Chern et al. with the aim of using spin-coated films as high resolution photo-patternable material [24

24. G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982). [CrossRef]

]. We find that by using various methods to deposit solutions, these types of materials can successfully be carried over to photonic applications [9

9. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006). [CrossRef]

,25

25. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Bulk As2S3 (Cerac Specialty Inorganics) is crushed into a powder and dissolved in anhydrous propylamine solvent (>99.0%, Fluka) at a concentration of 0.2 g ml−1. After complete dissolution, the stability of the solution is such that, with minimal exposure to ambient humidity or light, the solution remains precipitate-free over several weeks. When baked, the excess solvent evaporates, leaving solid structures that retain compositions close to bulk [25

25. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. To ensure high film quality, processing is done in a N2 environment.

In order to fabricate As2S3 structures we employ a micromolding technique, in which an elastomeric poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is filled with a fluid precursor by capillarity and post-processed [23

23. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. In the past, such a technique has shown itself to be versatile, in the variety of materials patterned, including polymers [28

28. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996). [CrossRef]

] and ceramics from sol-gel precursors [29

29. C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and in the variety of shapes and dimensions generated, from serpentines to stars. To generate the PDMS mold (Fig. 1(a)), first a thick-film photoresist (SU-8 2025, MicroChem) is patterned by photolithography into a relief pattern on a Si substrate. PDMS (Sylgard 184, Dow Corning) is then cast over the master mold and cured for 6 hours at 65° C, forming a soft mold with rectangular channels that defines the shape of the waveguides. The SU-8 master molds can be conveniently reused for rapid fabrication of samples.

The PDMS mold is placed on the waveguide substrate, making conformal contact and forming enclosed channels with open ends through which the As2S3 solution flows (Fig. 1(b)). As droplets of As2S3 solution are pipetted to an open end of the channels, capillary forces draw the liquid in, filling the channels. Oven-baking for 1 hr at 60° C and 2 hrs at 80° C forms solid waveguide structures, after which, the compliant PDMS mold is peeled away from the substrate. The resulting waveguides preferentially adhere to the substrate rather than the mold due to the comparatively low surface energy of PDMS.

Since the solution fills the mold purely by capillary forces, the channel incursion length depends on the channel dimensions, surface energies of the mold and substrate, and viscosity of the liquid [28

28. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. The As2S3 in propylamine solution does not fill the channels adequately due to the high volatility of the propylamine. Therefore the solution is diluted with ethanol, a solvent with higher vapor pressure, which also decreases the solution’s viscosity. As a result, using a 40 µm wide by 20 µm high PDMS mold on a glass substrate, a solution diluted to a ratio of 1 part ethanol to 3 parts As2S3-propylamine solution has a filling length of over 2 cm, compared to 0.2 cm with the unmodified solution. As a route to longer, single mode waveguides, the PDMS mold may be interfaced with microfluidic pumps. It has been shown that such vacuum-assisted molding yields increased filling lengths [30

30. N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

In mid-IR waveguide design, the absorbance of the substrate material is an important criterion for low loss. Waveguides are fabricated on three different substrate materials: SiO2, LiNbO3, and NaCl. For the SiO2 samples, As2S3 waveguides are fabricated on a 2 µm thick SiO2 cladding layer deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on highly doped (n + ) GaAs wafers. For the other samples, the waveguides are fabricated directly on x-cut LiNbO3 wafers (0.5 mm thick, Thorlabs) or polished NaCl crystals (4 mm thick, International Crystal Laboratories). The waveguides adhere well to all of the substrate types, allowing for sample cleavage without delamination from the substrate.

Mid-IR propagation measurements at λ = 4.8 µm are carried out on the waveguides, which are aligned and butt-coupled to an edge-emitting buried heterostructure QC laser [31

31. A. J. Hoffman, S. Schartner, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, F. Towner, and C. Gmachl, “Low voltage-defect quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous injector regions,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15818–15823 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] under pulsed operation at room temperature (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of mid-IR propagation loss measurement setup. Inset photo: Top view of an As2S3 waveguide aligned and butt-coupled to a QC laser. Laser biased at 50V, pulsed at 0.8% duty cycle, at room temperature (with exception of measurement on SiO2 sample: laser biased at 72V, pulsed at 2% duty cycle).
). The waveguide output is collected by 2” diameter ZnSe lenses and focused onto a liquid-nitrogen cooled HgCdTe (MCT) detector. The detector signal is read out on a lock-in amplifier used to discriminate the actual signal from ambient background. The cut-back method is employed to determine the propagation loss. For each sample length, waveguide faces are prepared by cleaving the wafer, but are not polished.

3. Propagation loss due to substrate absorbance

4. Loss reduction through post-process annealing

It has been shown that post-deposition annealing can have a significant effect on the loss parameters of vapor deposited waveguide structures [20

20. D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010). [CrossRef]

,32

32. J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and we find similar results for molded structures albeit through different mechanisms. The loss reduction we see for these structures primarily stems from densification of the material due to solvent removal and an accompanying change in the overall shape of the waveguide, all occurring at temperatures below the 185°C glass transition temperature [25

25. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In a parallel study conducted on spin-coated As2S3 films, we observe improved optical quality of the solution-processed As2S3 films with additional heat treatment [25

25. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Annealing the films in vacuum at temperatures between 120°C to 150°C is found to result in complete solvent removal through evaporation, as well as material densification (manifested as an increase in refractive index) that brings the solution-processed glass structure closer to the amorphous network structure of bulk As2S3. In FTIR transmission spectra, absorption peaks associated with solvent residue lie between 2200 and 3200 cm−1, well away from the experimental wavelength, 4.8 µm (2083 cm−1). Figure 4
Fig. 4 FTIR transmission spectra of 3 µm thick As2S3 films. Films processed from As2S3-propylamine solution with ethanol dilution, baked at 80°C (un-annealed) and 120°C (annealed). A weak absorption band centered at 1900 cm−1 (5.26 µm) levels off with annealing.
shows that on the solution-processed, ethanol-diluted As2S3 films, there is high transmittance at 2083 cm−1 and that solvent absorption does not significantly affect waveguide loss at this particular wavelength region. However, we still benefit largely from improved optical propagation stemming from the stabilization of bonds and densification of the amorphous glass network.

An additional effect of post-process annealing is a change in the waveguide shape. A micrograph of a typical cleaved, un-annealed waveguide, shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Waveguide morphology and calculated mode profiles. Both SEM images taken at 45° tilt, with scale bars of 20 µm. (a) Cross-section of an un-annealed waveguide, 40 µm x 10 µm. (b) Cross-section of a waveguide annealed at 120° C, displaying reflowing and rounding of initially retangular structures and densification of the As2S3. (c) Calculated fundamental mode profiles corresponding to the observed waveguide morphologies.
, displays inwardly curved sidewalls and a slight depression in the top caused by shrinkage and de-bonding of the structure from the mold as the solvent evaporates [29

29. C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. With the mold still attached to the substrate, annealing the waveguides above 100° C results in a smoothed out morphology as the As2S3 densifies and surface tension dominates the shape, as Fig. 5(b) illustrates. This shape change occurs under conditions well below fiber-drawing temperatures, but happens over a relatively long time scale of hours rather than seconds. Moreover, this change, from a concave structure into a convex structure, translates into reduced modal mismatch loss. Figure 5(c) shows field intensity profiles of the fundamental mode of each of the observed waveguide morphologies, calculated using BeamPROP modeling software. In un-annealed waveguides the profile of the lowest order mode is deformed due to the dip at the center of the structure.

Attenuation due to surface scattering also decreases with annealing. The top surfaces of the waveguides are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine surface roughness. RMS surface roughness values decrease from 2.0 nm for un-annealed waveguides to 0.45 nm for annealed waveguides. Moreover, since we do not perform an etching step, we are able to avoid etching-induced roughness that occurs in dry-etched waveguides [12

12. S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Edge roughness may be a significant source of loss, however. Waviness of the line edges on the order of the mid-IR wavelength is present in the measured samples. Since the waveguides support multiple modes, and higher order modes are more greatly affected by surface scattering, waveguide loss due edge roughness is amplified. This edge roughness can be reduced with better control of the surface properties of the substrate, for example by careful cleaning or surface treatment of the substrates prior to molding, to ensure that the solution wets all surfaces evenly. Another measure to improve performance includes adding a top cladding to reduce evanescent loss. The implementation of such design improvements are underway.

5. Conclusion

We demonstrate that solution-casting and molding provides a unique and viable pathway to fabricating mid-IR chalcogenide glass waveguides. 4.5 dB/cm propagation loss over more than 1 cm length is measured in cut-back measurements at the mid-IR using a λ = 4.8 µm QC laser source. Selecting NaCl substrates over highly absorbing SiO2 substrates leads to improved guiding. Annealing has a significant and positive effect on the solution-processed As2S3 optical and structural properties, waveguide shape, and surface roughness, all contributing to reduced insertion loss. Characterization of the waveguide material and morphology shows that the measured loss is primarily due to sidewall scattering, not material absorption. Further improvement in processing should lead to improved edge roughness and reduction in loss.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NSF grant EEC-0540832 through the Mid-Infrared Technologies for the Health and Environment (MIRTHE) Center. The authors thank X. Xia and P. F. Murphy for assisting the measurements and S. Song for discussions on As2S3 solution-processing. We acknowledge the usage of PRISM Imaging and Analysis Center, which is supported in part by the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (NSF grant DMR-0819860).

References and links

1.

Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

D. J. Treacy, “Arsenic Sulfide (As2S3),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E.D. Palik, ed., (Academic Press, Orland, Fla., 1985).

7.

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N.-N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier Jr., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995). [CrossRef]

24.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982). [CrossRef]

25.

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983). [CrossRef]

27.

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984). [CrossRef]

28.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996). [CrossRef]

29.

C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003). [CrossRef]

30.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999). [CrossRef]

31.

A. J. Hoffman, S. Schartner, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, F. Towner, and C. Gmachl, “Low voltage-defect quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous injector regions,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15818–15823 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.3060) Integrated optics : Infrared
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 6, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 25, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 25, 2010
Published: July 7, 2010

Citation
Candice Tsay, Elvis Mujagić, Christi K. Madsen, Claire F. Gmachl, and Craig B. Arnold, "Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides," Opt. Express 18, 15523-15530 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-15523


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Treacy, “Arsenic Sulfide (As2S3),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E.D. Palik, ed., (Academic Press, Orland, Fla., 1985).
  7. V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1184–1191 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N.-N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983). [CrossRef]
  27. K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984). [CrossRef]
  28. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003). [CrossRef]
  30. N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999). [CrossRef]
  31. A. J. Hoffman, S. Schartner, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, F. Towner, and C. Gmachl, “Low voltage-defect quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous injector regions,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15818–15823 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited