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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15784–15789
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Tunable fabry-perot interferometer from ferroelectric polymer based on surface energy modification

Hongyu Zhen, Guolong Li, Keyu Zhou, and Xu Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15784-15789 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.015784


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Abstract

Surface energy modification was utilized in the fabrication of hollow transmission Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for the first time. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to modify the surface energy of substrate for the self-assembly of poly(vinylidenefluoride -trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] 70/30 mol% copolymer film on given areas, which is simple and low destructive for the photoelectric device. A strain of 7.12% under a field of 22.3 MV/m was observed from the copolymer film, which led to the FPI with a tunable range of 54 nm at wavelength of 604 nm.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs), which can serve as dispersive component for imaging spectrometers, have drawn increasing attention due to their high resolution and compact construction [1

1. R. Gamble and P. H. Lissberger, “Reflection filter multilayers of metallic and dielectric thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28(14), 2838–2846 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. J. Xu, L. Zhou, and M. Thakur, “Electro-optic modulation using an organic single crystal film in a Fabry–Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 153–154 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. A great deal of efforts have been devoted to developing high performance tunable FPIs [7

7. A. A. M. Saleh and J. Stone, “Two-stage Fabry-Perot filters as demultiplexers in optical FDMALANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 323–330 (1989). [CrossRef]

,8

8. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. At present, large area, high transmittance and wide tuning range are the main demands for FPI application in imaging spectrometer. Compared with inorganic crystals and liquid crystals, polymer materials have the advantage in large area film fabrication [9

9. N. Benter, R. P. Bertram, E. Soergel, K. Buse, D. Apitz, L. B. Jacobsen, and P. M. Johansen, “Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6235–6239 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since tunable FPI is operated by changing of refraction index and/or physical thickness of the spacer layer between two mirrors, one key parameter in selecting a material is its large electro-optic (EO) effect or electromechanical properties. FPIs based on EO polymers [10

10. R. U. A. Khan, O.-P. Kwon, A. Tapponnier, A. N. Rashid, and P. Günter, “Supramolecular ordered organic thin films for nonlinear optical and optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(2), 180–188 (2006). [CrossRef]

13

13. H. Y. Gan, H. X. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Pérot étalon device tunable filters using poledhybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006). [CrossRef]

] are promising to be used in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication system for their fast response and low working voltage, but the limited tuning range could not satisfy the need for imaging spectrometers. With huge electrostriction effect, ferroelectric polymers can only act as spacers to vary optical path length, which cast light on the broad tuning. In hollow transmission FPI, the insertion loss introduced by cavity material and electrode film can be eliminated, let alone the counteraction from EO effect [14

14. D.-Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos, and F. Bauer, “Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene terpolymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 316–319 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Comparing with numerous literatures on ferroelectric polymers materials [15

15. T. T. Wang, J. M. Herbert, and A. M. Glass, The applications of the Ferroelectric Polymers (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1988).

20

20. G. S. Buckley, C. M. Roland, R. Casalini, A. Petchsuk, and T. C. Chung, “Electrostrictive properties of poly(vinylidenefluoride− trifluoroethylene−chlorotrifluoroethylene),” Chem. Mater. 14(6), 2590–2593 (2002). [CrossRef]

], there are few reports about FPI device based on ferroelectric polymers [14

14. D.-Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos, and F. Bauer, “Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene terpolymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 316–319 (2004). [CrossRef]

,21

21. H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, X. Liu, D. X. Zhu, H. F. Li, Y. Y. Lu, and Q. Wang, “Widely tunable reflection-type Fabry-Perot interferometer based on relaxor ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene-trifluoroethylene),” Opt. Express 16(13), 9595–9600 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The mechanically clamped condition of the FPI will put a restriction onto strain realization, so the device optimization is very important for achieving a large tunable range. To fabricate a hollow FPI, patterning the ferroelectric polymer film is a key but difficult process. Unlike the vacuum evaporation of metal and inorganic materials, mask cannot be applied to preparation of polymer films by solution. Etching technology [22

22. X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Picosencond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008). [CrossRef]

] is generally used to remove polymer to obtain hollow structure, which not only makes fabrication complicated but also brings unexpected destructive effect on polymer film. However, both problems can be avoided if the polymer film self-assembles on given areas. In this letter, we report a hollow transmission FPI based on a durable ferroelectric polymer-poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer. For the first time, surface energy modification is used to prepare the pattern of ferroelectric polymer film in FPI, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is employed to modify the surface energy of substrate by infiltration [23

23. S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experiment

The P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer with a composition of 70/30 mol% was obtained from Solvay. The schematic of the hollow transmission type FPI is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the hollow transmission type FPI.
. Low-loss distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were deposited on two glass substrates with diameters of 25mm and 40mm respectively. The structure of the DBR mirror is (HL)4, where H is TiO2 layer with a refractive index of 2.18 and L is SiO2 layer with a refractive index of 1.45. PDMS prepolymer (Dow Corning Sylgard 184) was spin coated on the larger DBR mirror, and cured at 100 °C for 2 h, and then Aluminium (Al) was evaporated onto the modified DBR mirror with a mask after PDMS film was removed. The P(VDF-TrFE) 70/30 mol% copolymer was dissolved in dimethyformamide (DMF) at concentration of 15 wt %, and was spin coated on the modified substrate at 1000 rpm. Because of the different surface energy, the copolymer was only coated on the surface of Al film. After the solvent was evaporated at 80 °C for 24 h, the film was annealed at 140 °C for 4 h to improve the crystallization. Another Al electrode was evaporated onto the smaller DBR mirror with a central optical window for light transmission, as shown in Fig. 1. Finally, the two DBR mirrors were fixed using UV curable epoxy gel by side with Al electrode close contact with copolymer film.

Reflectance spectra of the DBR were measured using an Olympus USPM-RU spectral reflectivity measurement system. Transmittance spectra of FPI were recorded using a spectrophotometer (UV 3101PC) at normal incidence. Test liquids were placed on film surfaces by micro syringe and the images of droplets were recorded by a digital camera (Solon Tech. Co. Ltd SL 2008, China). Surface morphology of the copolymer film was examined with a Zeiss ULTRA 55 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were conducted using a Scitag diffractometer with a CuKα x-ray emitter (Rigaku, D/max-Ra).

3. Results and discussion

Besides high ferroelectric effect, P(VDF-TrFE) based polymers also attract intensive attention for the low surface energy of 20-30 mN/m. Surface energy is a direct manifestation of intermolecular force in surface, which determines the acceptance or rejection of other materials. Surface energy modification of the substrate is widely used to improve the quality and adhesion of film [24

24. N. V. Bhat and D. J. Upadhyay, “Plasma-induced surface modification and adhesion enhancement of polypropylene surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 925–936 (2002).

,25

25. D. Aronov and G. Rosenman, “Surface energy modification by electron beam,” Surf. Sci. 601(21), 5042–5049 (2007). [CrossRef]

], but it is the first time used in FPI to the best of our knowledge. PDMS prepolymer (Sylgard 184) is supplied in two parts as lot-matched base and curing agent that are mixed in a ratio of 10:1 by weight, which can be easily cross-linked at room or elevated temperature to form elastomer. Owing to the low surface energy around 20 mN/m, PDMS serves as surface energy modifying agent in our work. Because SiO2 has lower surface energy than TiO2, the structure of DBR is designed with SiO2 layer in the outermost. The contact angles of de-ionized water on different surfaces are shown in Table 1

Table 1. Water contact angles of different film

table-icon
View This Table
. The higher of water contact angle, the lower of surface energy. Before modification, the surface energy of DBR is higher than that of Al film, and after modification by PDMS, it decreases so dramatically as to lower than that of Al film.

Compared with de-ionized water, P(VDF-TrFE) 70/30 mol% copolymer solution with a concentration of 15 wt% in DMF has lower surface tension, the contact angles of 62.66 o and 29.04 o for the modified DBR and Al film have been observed respectively (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Images of droplets of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer solution on the modified DBR (a) and Al film(b) .
). Due to the surface energy gap between the two surfaces, the solution of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer was selectively deposited on the area of Al by spin coating for the fabrication of hollow transmission type FPI. The copolymer film then self-assembled on the Al film after evaporation of DMF.

In order to investigate the surface modification mechanism of PDMS, the quantitative analysis by energy dispersive spectrometer was conducted as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflectance spectra of the DBR before and after surface energy modification. Insert: energy dispersive spectra of the modified DBR surface.
. There are peaks of Si, O and C atoms on the spectra of modified DBR. For DBR with SiO2 film as the outmost layer, C atom is demonstrated to come from the methyl group of PDMS molecules. Combining the elementary analysis with the reflectance spectra, it is known that organosilane molecules form a nanolayer on oxide surface by infiltration during the high temperature curing of PDMS, which decreases the surface energy of DBR effectively with no effect on its reflectivity. To achieve this effect, the suitable thickness and curing temperature of the PDMS film are important for stripping the film from the substrate without residual. Solution or vapor phase self-assembled monolayers were also used for the surface energy modifycation [26

26. D. Chowdhury, R. Maoz, and J. Sagiv, “Wetting driven self-assembly as a new approach to template-guided fabrication of metal nanopatterns,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1770–1778 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,27

27. G. Y. Jung, Z. Y. Li, W. Wu, Y. Chen, D. L. Olynick, S. Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, and R. S. Williams, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayer for improved mold release in nanoimprint lithography,” Langmuir 21(4), 1158–1161 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which have a broader range of applications especially for complex mold, and our technique is simple and low destructive for the device.

Based on the surface modification, hollow transmission type FPI has been fabricated and tested. It is found that the resonant wavelength shifts to the shorter wavelength with the increase of voltage, which indicates the air gap space of FPI has shrunk under the applied electric field. Transmission spectra of the PFI at 0 V and 300 V are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of the FPI at 0 and 300 V.
. Because the thickness of the copolymer film is more than 13μm, there are many resonant peaks from 500 nm to 700 nm, the number of resonant peaks of FPI decrease from 19 to 17, which demonstrates an obvious space change.

The air gap space (d) equal to the thickness of the copolymer film can be calculated from the interference curve Eq. (1), where λ1, λ2 are wavelengths at the adjacent resonant peaks of the resonant wave, Δλ = λ21, and n = 1 for air gap space.
d=(λ1λ2)Δλ2n
(1)
Field-induced longitudinal strain of the copolymer film (Δd/d) in FPI reaches 7.12% at 22.3 MV/m. The great strain could be attributed to the combination of inverse piezoelectric and electrostriction effect of the copolymer (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Shift of resonant transmission peak at 604 nm at different voltages. Insert: field-induced longitudinal strains of the copolymer film at different voltages.
).

In the hollow transmission FPI, P(VDF-TrFE) 70/30 mol% copolymer only serves as a spacer. The tuning range can be expressed as Eq. (2):

Δdd=ΔλλΔλ=λΔdd
(2)

Due to many resonant peaks from 500 nm to 700 nm, it is not clear for the shift of the resonant peak with the same interference order at certain wavelength. For the peaks of the resonant wave, the interference order m can thus be expressed as Eq. (3):
2ndcosθ=mλm=2ndcosθ/λ
(3)
Because of the normal incidence (θ = 0) and air gap space (n = 1), Eq. (3) can be rewritten as m = 2d/λ. The calculated air gap spaces are 13.20 and 12.26 μm at 0 and 300 V, respectively. The resonant transmission peak at 604 nm (m = 44) at 0 V shifts to 550 nm at 300 V (Fig. 4), and its shift at different voltages is shown in Fig. 5. The tuning range of 54 nm has been achieved for the resonant wavelength of 604 nm at 300 V.

The crystalline structure of P(VDF-TrFE) 70/30 mol% was investigated by wide-angle XRD and SEM. The XRD data show a single peak at 20° representative of the polar ferroelectricß-phase of P(VDF-TrFE), which corresponds to the (110, 200) reflection [28

28. Y. W. Tang, X. Z. Zhao, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, “Effect of electron irradiation on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1713 (2000). [CrossRef]

] (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM image and wide-angle XRD spectra (insert) of the copolymer film.
). The integral peak intensity of the non-polar phase is equal to that of the polarßphase. From the SEM image (Fig. 6), it is found that the polar-phase oriented copolymer chains intertwine and form crystalline grains. These crystalline grains array loosely with average size of 300 nm, which is thought to be helpful for the high strain, and the device optimization also contributes to the realization of this strain.

3. Conclusion

In summary, the hollow transmission FPI based on P(VDF-TrFE) 70/30 mol% copolymer has been fabricated by the means of surface energy modification. P(VDF-TrFE) film self-assembles in the electrode area and forms the pattern for transmission. The device optimization offers the potential for the high electromechanical responses, which casts light on surface energy modification application in optical filters and photoelectric devices.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by Science Foundation of Chinese University and Education Department of Zhejiang Province.

References

1.

R. Gamble and P. H. Lissberger, “Reflection filter multilayers of metallic and dielectric thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28(14), 2838–2846 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. R. Mallinson, “Wavelength-selective filters for single-mode fiber WDM systems using Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 26(3), 430–436 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Wang, K. K. Li, V. Fuflyigin, H. Jiang, J. Zhao, P. Norris, and D. Goldstein, “Thin ferroelectric interferometer for spatial light modulations,” Appl. Opt. 37(32), 7490–7495 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

E. Spiller, “Reflective multilayer coatings for the far uv region,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2333–2338 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J.-S. Sheng and J.-T. Lue, “Ultraviolet narrow-band rejection filters composed of multiple metal and dielectric layers,” Appl. Opt. 31(28), 6117–6121 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Xu, L. Zhou, and M. Thakur, “Electro-optic modulation using an organic single crystal film in a Fabry–Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 153–154 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

A. A. M. Saleh and J. Stone, “Two-stage Fabry-Perot filters as demultiplexers in optical FDMALANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 323–330 (1989). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

N. Benter, R. P. Bertram, E. Soergel, K. Buse, D. Apitz, L. B. Jacobsen, and P. M. Johansen, “Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6235–6239 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. U. A. Khan, O.-P. Kwon, A. Tapponnier, A. N. Rashid, and P. Günter, “Supramolecular ordered organic thin films for nonlinear optical and optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(2), 180–188 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

T.-D. Kim, J. D. Luo, J.-W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Q. Tian, Z. W. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from diels–alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Y. Gan, H. X. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, J. D. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid Fabry-Pérot étalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Y. Gan, H. X. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Pérot étalon device tunable filters using poledhybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

D.-Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos, and F. Bauer, “Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene terpolymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 316–319 (2004). [CrossRef]

15.

T. T. Wang, J. M. Herbert, and A. M. Glass, The applications of the Ferroelectric Polymers (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1988).

16.

Q. M. Zhang, V. Bharti V, and X. Zhao, “Giant electrostriction and relaxor ferroelectric behavior in electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer,” Science 280(5372), 2101–2104 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Z.-M. Li, M. D. Arbatti, and Z.-Y. Cheng, “Recrystallization study of high-energy electron-irradiated P(VDF−TrFE) 65/35 copolymer,” Macromolecules 37(1), 79–85 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

Y. Y. Lu, J. Claude, B. Neese, Q. M. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “A modular approach to ferroelectric polymers with chemically tunable curie temperatures and dielectric constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(25), 8120–8121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

F. Xia, Z. Y. Cheng, H. S. Xu, H. F. Li, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos, R. Y. Ting, G. A. Sadek, and K. D. Belfield, “High electromechanical responses in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer,” Adv. Mater. 14(21), 1574–1577 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

G. S. Buckley, C. M. Roland, R. Casalini, A. Petchsuk, and T. C. Chung, “Electrostrictive properties of poly(vinylidenefluoride− trifluoroethylene−chlorotrifluoroethylene),” Chem. Mater. 14(6), 2590–2593 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, X. Liu, D. X. Zhu, H. F. Li, Y. Y. Lu, and Q. Wang, “Widely tunable reflection-type Fabry-Perot interferometer based on relaxor ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene-trifluoroethylene),” Opt. Express 16(13), 9595–9600 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Picosencond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

S. H. Hur, D. Y. Khang, C. Kocabas, and J. A. Rogers, “Nanotransfer printing by use of noncovalent surface forces: Applications to thin-film transistors that use single-walled carbon nanotube networks and semiconducting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5730 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

N. V. Bhat and D. J. Upadhyay, “Plasma-induced surface modification and adhesion enhancement of polypropylene surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 925–936 (2002).

25.

D. Aronov and G. Rosenman, “Surface energy modification by electron beam,” Surf. Sci. 601(21), 5042–5049 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

D. Chowdhury, R. Maoz, and J. Sagiv, “Wetting driven self-assembly as a new approach to template-guided fabrication of metal nanopatterns,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1770–1778 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

G. Y. Jung, Z. Y. Li, W. Wu, Y. Chen, D. L. Olynick, S. Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, and R. S. Williams, “Vapor-phase self-assembled monolayer for improved mold release in nanoimprint lithography,” Langmuir 21(4), 1158–1161 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Y. W. Tang, X. Z. Zhao, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, “Effect of electron irradiation on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1713 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.2230) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fabry-Perot
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(130.2260) Integrated optics : Ferroelectrics

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: April 20, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 23, 2010
Published: July 12, 2010

Citation
Hongyu Zhen, Guolong Li, Keyu Zhou, and Xu Liu, "Tunable fabry-perot interferometer from ferroelectric polymer based on surface energy modification," Opt. Express 18, 15784-15789 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-15784


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References

  1. R. Gamble and P. H. Lissberger, “Reflection filter multilayers of metallic and dielectric thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28(14), 2838–2846 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. R. Mallinson, “Wavelength-selective filters for single-mode fiber WDM systems using Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 26(3), 430–436 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Wang, K. K. Li, V. Fuflyigin, H. Jiang, J. Zhao, P. Norris, and D. Goldstein, “Thin ferroelectric interferometer for spatial light modulations,” Appl. Opt. 37(32), 7490–7495 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Spiller, “Reflective multilayer coatings for the far uv region,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2333–2338 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.-S. Sheng and J.-T. Lue, “Ultraviolet narrow-band rejection filters composed of multiple metal and dielectric layers,” Appl. Opt. 31(28), 6117–6121 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Xu, L. Zhou, and M. Thakur, “Electro-optic modulation using an organic single crystal film in a Fabry–Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 153–154 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. M. Saleh and J. Stone, “Two-stage Fabry-Perot filters as demultiplexers in optical FDMALANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 323–330 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Benter, R. P. Bertram, E. Soergel, K. Buse, D. Apitz, L. B. Jacobsen, and P. M. Johansen, “Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6235–6239 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. U. A. Khan, O.-P. Kwon, A. Tapponnier, A. N. Rashid, and P. Günter, “Supramolecular ordered organic thin films for nonlinear optical and optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(2), 180–188 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. T.-D. Kim, J. D. Luo, J.-W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Q. Tian, Z. W. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Kang, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from diels–alder crosslinkable polymers containing binary chromophore systems,” Adv. Mater. 18(22), 3038–3042 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Y. Gan, H. X. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, J. D. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid Fabry-Pérot étalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Y. Gan, H. X. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Pérot étalon device tunable filters using poledhybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. D.-Y. Jeong, Y. K. Wang, M. Huang, Q. M. Zhang, G. J. Kavarnos, and F. Bauer, “Electro-optical response of the ferroelectric relaxor polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene terpolymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 316–319 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. T. T. Wang, J. M. Herbert, and A. M. Glass, The applications of the Ferroelectric Polymers (Chapman and Hall, New York, 1988).
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  17. Z.-M. Li, M. D. Arbatti, and Z.-Y. Cheng, “Recrystallization study of high-energy electron-irradiated P(VDF−TrFE) 65/35 copolymer,” Macromolecules 37(1), 79–85 (2004). [CrossRef]
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