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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15859–15869
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Ultrahigh-Q one-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities with modulated mode-gap barriers on SiO2 claddings and on air claddings

Eiichi Kuramochi, Hideaki Taniyama, Takasumi Tanabe, Kohei Kawasaki, Young-Geun Roh, and Masaya Notomi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15859-15869 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.015859


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Abstract

We report designs for a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with modulated mode-gap barriers based on the lowest dielectric band. These cavities have an ultrahigh theoretical quality factor (Q) of 107-108 while maintaining a very small modal volume of 0.6-2.0 (λ/n)3, which are the highest Q for any nanocavities with SiO2 under-cladding. We have fabricated these SOI 1D-PhC cavities and confirmed that they exhibited a Q of 3.6×105, which is also the highest measured Q for SOI-type PhC nanocavities. We have also applied the same design to 1D PhC cavities with air claddings, and found that they exhibit a theoretical quality factor higher than 109. The fabricated air-cladding 1D Si PhC cavities have showed a quality factor of 7.2×105, which is close to the highest Q value for 1D PhC cavities.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

2. 1D SOI modegap cavities

Design and FDTD analysis of cavities with rectangular holes/stacks

The dispersion of the waveguide modes of the 1D PhC corresponding to the SOI cavities (RS/SS) is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dispersion of the TE modes in the three 1D SOI PhCs obtained by 3D calculation of the R-Soft Bandsolve code. (Left:) rectangular hole ladder (RS), (Center:) rectangular stack (SS), (Right:) circular hole cavity (CS). Red dots correspond to even mode and orange dots do to odd mode. The parameters are as follows; RS/SS: W x(i)=0.45a; CS: r(i)=0.3a, W y=1.35a.
. The dispersion curves are basically similar to that of the 1D air-bridge PhC [9

9. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], thus allowing the use of the same mode-gap modulation approach. The lowest band used for the cavity mode is remotely located under the light line at the mode edge (K point) even with the SiO2 cladding, which would be advantageous in obtaining high Q. This is because the mode edge (at the Κ point) is very far from the light cone, which might suppress the impact of the high order lossy mode adjacent to light cone. Moreover, we believe that the large interval between the fundamental and higher order modes at the mode edge would allow the existence of an ultrahigh-Q mode in the stack cavity (SS) despite the lack of a mode-gap as shown in Fig. 2.

Design and FDTD analysis of cavities with circular holes

When we compare a circular hole cavity (CS) with a rectangular hole cavity (RS) we find two major differences. (1) The former exhibited a higher Q for a wide range of W y (although the latter showed a sufficiently high Q), and (2) V was 0.5~1 (λ/n)3 in the former and 1.4~2.1 (λ/n)3 in the latter. Although we have not yet determined the mechanism explaining why circular holes are better than rectangular ones, a detailed analysis of the FDTD data suggested that both the electric and magnetic field mode profiles for RS/RA exhibit singular distribution around the rectangular corners, which were not found in CS/CA. We speculate that the difference originates from this feature. Moreover, when we replaced every hole (i) of the circular hole cavity (CS) with a square hole with a side length of 1.8r(i) (this replacement roughly maintained the filling factor) Q fell to around 106 and V was larger than 1 (λ/n)3. Thus, our data demonstrated that numerically the circular hole cavity performed better than the rectangular hole cavity.

Experimental results

We fabricated Si PhC cavities in the thin (~210 nm) SOI layer of commercial SOI wafers that have a thick (3 μm) SiO2 layer (BOX). We used a previously reported fabrication process [8

8. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, M. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006). [CrossRef]

,21

21. E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities in very thin barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111112 (2008). [CrossRef]

,23

23. E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, K. Kawasaki, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q silicon-on-insulator one dimensional mode-gap nanocavity,” in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and The Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS:2010), Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, 2010, paper CWB2.

]. The PhC pattern was drawn in a positive electron beam resist film coated on the wafer with a 100 kV electron beam writer. Then the SOI layer was patterned with an inductively coupled plasma etcher using an SF6/C4F8 gas mixture. The resist film was then removed and the wafer was cleaned. Since the characteristics of the cavities were evaluated using a transmission measurement via input/output wavguides coupled with cavities, the thickness of the 1D barrier between cavities and waveguides, namely the number of holes/stacks, was changed to control the horizontal component of Q (Q H). When we define i of the element (rung/stack/circular hole) at the edge of the barrier as N max, it was between 14 and 21 in this study. In the rectangular hole cavity (RS) there was no air hole between the edge ladder rung and the external waveguide part. Total number of holes was 2×N max+1. In experiment, a of the rectangular hole cavity (RS) and stack cavity (SS) was reduced down to 378 and 362 nm, respectively from 420 nm assumed in calculation, where all other parameters except for the SOI layer thickness (constant at 210 nm) were scaled down with a. This reduction was designed to shift λ c in the range of our measurement system (the long wavelength limit was 1630 nm). Even after the great modification of the geometry, numarical data except λ c was preserved (Q, λ c, and V were 3.3×107, 1586 nm, and 1.4 (λ/n)3 for RS and 1.8×107, 1597 nm, and 1.9 (λ/n)3 for SS, respectively), which demonstrated again that the 1D ultrahigh-Q and small-V mode was robust for structural modification and thereby held wide tunablility of λ c as demonstrated in the cavities with circular holes (Fig. 5). In the circular hole cavities (CS), a was 400 nm both in calculation and in experiment. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) SEM images of the fabricated 1D SOI cavity samples. (b) Transmission spectrum of the fundamental resonant mode of the 1D SOI cavity samples. Linewidth (full width at half maximum: FWHM) was determined by Lorentz fitting (blue line). The lower right graph shows the Q L dependence on the cavity width W y .
shows scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of fabricated cavity samples. The following are the parameters of the fabricated samples measured with a SEM. For the rectangular hole cavity (RS), W x0, W y, and D y were ~190, 675, and 100 nm, respectively. For the rectangular stack cavity (SS), W y was 1450 nm and W x0 was 175 nm. For the circular hole cavity (CS), r 0 was 130 nm and m (21,33) and W y (450, 490, 530 nm) were modified.

We used the same measurement set-up that we employed for the measurements of ultrahigh-Q 2D PhC nanocavities [21

21. E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities in very thin barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111112 (2008). [CrossRef]

,26

26. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Large pulse delay and small group velocity achieved using ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7826–7839 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7826. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We focused on the TE (TE-like) mode and we chose the mode using a polarizer and a polarization maintained fiber. A pair of lensed fibers was used to maximize the coupling to the waveguides on the sample. The experimental Q (loaded Q, Q L) of the cavity mode was determined from the transmission spectrum. The unloaded Q (Q UL) expressed as Q UL=1/(Q L −1- Q H −1) is usually smaller than the calculated Q because of excess radiation loss mainly caused by fabrication errors and absorption loss. The experimental Q was evaluated by using the linewidth and λ c of the cavity mode. The spectra accompanied Fabry-Perot oscillations of several dB due to the facets at the edge of the sample. However, the impact of the oscillations on the determination of Q L by Lorentz fitting was negligible because the resonant mode (linewidth was 10 pm or less: here we focused on high- Q L/high-Q H samples) was completely distinguishable from the oscillations (it was over 20 pm) and the peak to background level ratio of the resonant mode was higher than 10. The input power was minimized as the carrier absorption loss and thermo-optic effect could be ignored.

Figure 6(b) shows transmission spectra corresponding to the best Q L value for every type of cavity. The accurate control of Q H by adjusting N max was difficult in this study and Q H fluctuated considerably for a specific N max value. As N max was increased from 14 (15) to 17 (18), the average transmittance value (averaged among many equivalent samples) normalized to the reference silicon wire waveguide decreased nearly linearly from −5 to −20 dB in the stack cavity (the rectangular hole cavity) but the error bar was 10 dB. In the circular hole cavity, the average transmittance varied more gradually (−5 dB at N max=14 and −20 dB at N max=18) but the error bar was also large (10 dB). Although we do not know exact origin of the error bar (it was partly affected by the Fabry-Perot oscillations), we believe that coupling between the 1D cavities studied here and the external waveguide is highly sensitive to fabrication errors in 1D PhC. The optimum N max values for Q L values of ~2×105 and ~6×105 were 15-18 and 17-20, respectively. Note that the relation between N max and transmittance depends on the strength of geometry modulation m.

3. 1D air-bridge modegap cavities

Design and FDTD analysis

Since the design and performance of the rectangular hole ladder cavity have already been reported [9

9. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], here we report only the design of the circular hole ladder cavity that is added because it demonstrated superior Q over the rectangular hole in the case of SOI cavity. The design shown in Fig. 7 and denoted by CA is the same as that of the SOI cavity (CS) except for the under-cladding material. The radius r(i) is also given as r(i)=r 0(1-(i/m)2) (r 0=0.3a). Figure 6(b) shows the calculated Q, λ c, and V values of the air-bridge circular hole cavity (CA). The results are qualitatively similar to those of the SOI cavity (CS) shown in Fig. 6(a) but the optimum W y for high Q was ~540 nm (W y /a~1.5) which was ~600nm in the SOI cavity. The circular hole cavity (CA) exhibited a Q value about one order of magnitude higher than that of the SOI cavity (CS) and the air-bridge rectangular hole cavity (RA, 107~108) [9

9. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The relationship between λ c and V shown in Fig. 6(b) was also almost the same as with the SOI cavity shown in Fig. 6(a), although λ c was blue-shifted in the air-bridge cavity. Regardless of this, the λ c of the cladding material was highly sensitive to the ladder width W y, and V was controlled by the strength of the modulation m in these 1D cavities. V was also in the 0.5~1 (λ/n)3 range in the air-bridge circular hole cavity (CA), which is difficult to achieve with the air-bridge rectangular hole cavity (RA) and the air-bridge rectangular stack cavity (SA) [9

9. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Experimental results

The air-bridge cavities were prepared and measured in the way described in section 2.3. To realize the air-bridge structure, the BOX layer around the PhC was removed by dipping it in buffered HF after the dry etching of the SOI layer. The a value of the rectangular hole cavity (RA) and the circular hole cavity (CA) were 386 nm and 400 nm, respectively. After rescaling of a (386 nm) the calculated Q, λ c, and V for RA were 2.4×108, 1581 nm, and 1.4 (λ/n)3, respectively. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 (a) SEM images of the fabricated Si air-bridge ladder cavity samples. (b) Transmission spectrum of the fundamental resonant mode of the air-bridge ladder cavity samples. (c) Plot of the experimental Q of the circular hole ladder cavities (CS: SOI, CA: air-bridge) as a function of the cavity width W y.
shows SEM images of fabricated cavity samples. The hole size and radius of these samples were the same as those of the corresponding SOI cavities described in Section 2.3. Both λ c and m were changed as with the SOI cavities.

Figure 8(b) shows transmission spectra corresponding to the best Q L value of every type of cavity. The best Q L (2.2×105) of the air-bridge cavity (RA) is the same as the previously reported value [12

12. L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By contrast, the best Q L of the air-bridge cavity (CA) was also increased to 7.2×105, which is nearly three times higher than the rectangular hole cavity and almost with the same as the data reported by P. B. Deotare et al. [10

10. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

4. Summary

We have reported detailed numerical characteristics of ultrahigh-Q 1D SOI mode-gap nanocavities with corresponding air-bridge nanocavities that we studied using 3D FDTD analysis. By employing circular holes, we reduced V to less than 1 (λ/n)3 while maintaining Q in the of 107-109 range, which is difficult to accomplish with a design using rectangular shaped elements. The advantage of the SOI circular hole cavity was clearly demonstrated in an experiment where it achieved a Q as high as 3.6×105, whereas in cavities with rectangular holes/stacks, Q was limited to around 2×105. The circular hole ladder cavity is unique not only for its ultrahigh Q and ultrasmall V but also for the wide range tunability of λ c that can be realized by changing the lateral width W y. A 1D SOI PhC cavity system has no disadvantage in comparison with 2D air-bridge PhC cavities as regards numerical performance, and so the former is a strong alternative to the latter although in practice the radiation loss and Q H fluctuation should be further reduced. The great advantage of the SOI circular hole cavity (CS) is clearly its very high compatibility with Si nanophotonics, whereas a wider waveguide width is needed for the rectangular hole/stack cavities (RS and SS). In terms of the air-bridge cavity, the performance is similar to that of the SOI cavity but an up to 10 times higher Q is expected. The meaning of achieving a Q value of 7.2×105 in a circular hole cavity (CA) is not simply that it reproduces the result reported by Deotare et al. [10

10. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. It also shows that the Q value is ready for integrated photonics applications [27

27. M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “On-Chip All-Optical Switching and Memory by Silicon Photonic Crystal Nanocavities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. (2008), 568936 (2008).

] since our data are achieved in a waveguide-cavity coupled system. Moreover, we revealed that the problem of the rectangular elements is also crucial for 1D air-bridge cavities. Therefore, we believe that this finding will be of considerable help in relation to the design of the various 1D cavities including cavities for opto-mechanics [11

11. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

,14

14. M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], photonics devices [12

12. L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and sensors [28

28. S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,29

29. C. E. Png and S. T. Lim, “Silicon optical nanocavities for multiple sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1524–1531 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Atsushi Yokoo, Dr. Akihiko Shinya, and Dr. Hisashi Sumikura for fruitful discussions. We thank Daisuke Takagi, Junichi Asaoka, and Dr. Toshiaki Tamamura for fabricating the samples.

References and links

1.

P. R. Villeneuve, J. S. Foresi, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, A. Talneau, and Y. Chen, “Short Bragg mirrors with adiabatic modal conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(5), 829–831 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-High Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16090–16096 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16090. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. R. Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI),” Opt. Express 16(16), 12084–12089 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-12084. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H.-Y. Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1551–1561 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1551. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1202. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, M. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11095. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-21108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Lončar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. A. Barrious, “Ultrasensitive nanomechanical photonic sensor based on horizontal slot-waveguide resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2419–2421 (2006). [CrossRef]

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C. Lee and J. Thillaigovindan, “Optical nanomechanical sensor using a silicon photonic crystal cantilever embedded with a nanocavity resonator,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), 1797–1803 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-10-1797. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T.-W. Lu, Y.-H. Hsiao, W.-D. Ho, and P.-T. Lee, “Photonic crystal heteroslab-edge microcavity with high quality factor surface mode for index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141110 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

Y. A. Vlasov, N. Moll, S. J. McNab, T.-W. Lu, Y.-H. Hsiao, W.-D. Ho, and P.-T. Lee, “Mode mixing in asymmetric double-trench photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4538–4544 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, R. Hatsuta, and S. Noda, “Investigation of point-defect cavity formed in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with one-sided dielectric cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011112 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities in very thin barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111112 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Notomi and H. Taniyama, “On-demand ultrahigh-Q cavity formation and photon pinning via dynamic waveguide tuning,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18657–18666 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-23-18657. [CrossRef]

23.

E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, H. Taniyama, K. Kawasaki, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q silicon-on-insulator one dimensional mode-gap nanocavity,” in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and The Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS:2010), Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, 2010, paper CWB2.

24.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Deterministic design of ultrahigh Q and small mode volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” in The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and The Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS:2010), Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA, 2010, paper CWB5.

25.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Large pulse delay and small group velocity achieved using ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7826–7839 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7826. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “On-Chip All-Optical Switching and Memory by Silicon Photonic Crystal Nanocavities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. (2008), 568936 (2008).

28.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1623–1631 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-3-1623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

C. E. Png and S. T. Lim, “Silicon optical nanocavities for multiple sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1524–1531 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: May 18, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 25, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 28, 2010
Published: July 12, 2010

Citation
Eiichi Kuramochi, Hideaki Taniyama, Takasumi Tanabe, Kohei Kawasaki, Young-Geun Roh, and Masaya Notomi, "Ultrahigh-Q one-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities with modulated mode-gap barriers on SiO2 claddings and on air claddings," Opt. Express 18, 15859-15869 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-15859


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References

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