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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15870–15875
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Simultaneous multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse generation using FWM effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

Fangzheng Zhang, Jian Wu, Songnian Fu, Kun Xu, Yan Li, Xiaobin Hong, Ping Shum, and Jintong Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15870-15875 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.015870


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Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to simultaneously realize multi-channel centimeter wave (CMW) band and millimeter wave (MMW) band ultra-wideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation using four wave mixing (FWM) effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). Two lightwaves carrying polarity-reversed optical Gaussian pulses with appropriate time delay and another lightwave carrying a 20 GHz clock signal are launched into the HNL-PCF together. By filtering out the FWM idlers, two CMW-band UWB monocycle signals and two MMW-band UWB monocycle signals at 20 GHz are obtained simultaneously. Experimental measurements of the generated UWB monocycle pulses at individual wavelength, which comply with the FCC regulations, verify the feasibility and flexibility of proposed scheme for use in practical UWB communication systems.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as a promising solution for short-range, high-capacity wireless communication systems and sensor networks because of its advantages, such as low cost, immunity to multipath fading, high-data-rate, low power consumption and high security [1

1. D. Porcine and W. Hirt, “Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(7), 66–74 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Modern UWB communication systems may be realized both in impulse form and in multiband (MB) form [2

2. M. Ran, B. I. Lembrikov, and Y. Ben Ezra, “Ultra-wideband Radio-Over-Optical fiber concepts, technologies and applications,” IEEE Photon. Journal 2(1), 36–48 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In the case of the impulse radio (IR), information is carried in a set of narrow pulses, and the pulses are directly radiated to the air for propagation. In the MB case, the MB-UWB orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique which combines the advantage of spectral efficiency (SE) data modulation formats and the advantage of OFDM technique such as small intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by a dispersive channel [2

2. M. Ran, B. I. Lembrikov, and Y. Ben Ezra, “Ultra-wideband Radio-Over-Optical fiber concepts, technologies and applications,” IEEE Photon. Journal 2(1), 36–48 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Despite of the large amount of recent research work on MW-UWB-OFDM, the UWB-IR system is still attractive because of its simplicity, low cost and low power consumption. In a UWB-IR system, the choice of the pulse shape is critical for the system performance. The Gaussian monocycle and doublet pulses are found to be promising alternatives in UWB-IR systems in terms of bit-error rate, multipath performance, and spectrum characteristics [3

3. X. Chen and S. Kiaei, “Monocycle shapes for ultra wideband system,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 1, pp. 597–600. Scottsdale, USA. May, 2002.

]. In order to integrate local UWB environment into fixed wired networks or wireless wide-area infrastructures, UWB-over-fiber is proposed. The emerge of UWB-over-fiber system brings many other advantages, such as reducing the high cost of millimeter wave (MMW) electrical circuits or devises, and overcoming the short distance of the UWB wireless transmission. In a typical UWB-over-fiber system, photonic generation, modulation and distribution of UWB signals are highly desirable. A number of experiments exploiting photonic technologies have successfully verified the feasibility of IR-UWB-over-fiber systems [2

2. M. Ran, B. I. Lembrikov, and Y. Ben Ezra, “Ultra-wideband Radio-Over-Optical fiber concepts, technologies and applications,” IEEE Photon. Journal 2(1), 36–48 (2010). [CrossRef]

,4

4. T. B. Gibbon, X. Yu, R. Gamatham, N. G. Gonzalez, R. Rodes, J. B. Jensen, A. Caballero, and I. T. Monroy, “3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution over a 50 km fiber with wireless transmission,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20(2), 127–129 (2010). [CrossRef]

,5

5. J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, and I. T. Monroy, “4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16898–16903 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

According to the regulations of the U.S. Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Part 15, a UWB signal has a 10-dB bandwidth larger than 500 MHz or a fractional bandwidth greater than 20% with a power spectral density no more than −41.3dBm/MHz. FCC regulated 7.5 GHz frequency band from 3.1 GHz to 10. 6 GHz in centimeter wave (CMW) band for the unlicensed use of UWB. Besides this CMW-band, several frequency bands (around 24 GHz or 60 GHz) have been allocated by FCC for UWB applications in MMW-band. Numerous schemes have been demonstrated to optically generate CMW-band UWB signal in the form of Gaussian monocycle pulses [6

6. S. W. Wang, H. W. Chen, M. Xin, M. H. Chen, and S. Z. Xie, “Optical ultra-wide-band pulse bipolar and shape modulation based on a symmetric PM-IM conversion architecture,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3092–3094 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. Z. Hu, J. Sun, J. Shao, and X. Zhang, “Filter-free optically switchable and tunable ultra-wideband monocycle generation based on wavelength conversion and fiber dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 42–44 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Meanwhile, approaches for MMW-band UWB monocycle signal generation based on photonic-assisted frequency up-conversion have also been demonstrated using nonlinear effects arising in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) [13

13. S. N. Fu, W. D. Zhong, Y. Jing, and P. Shum, “Photonic monocycle pulse frequency up-conversion for ultra-wideband-over-fiber applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1006–1008 (2008). [CrossRef]

] or a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) [14

14. J. Li, Y. Liang, and K. K. Wong, “Millimeter-wave UWB signal generation via frequency up-conversion using fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. To the best of our knowledge, the existing schemes for photonic generation of UWB signals are focused either on the CMW-band or on the MMW-band UWB signal generation, and generally only one channel of UWB signal is obtained. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel scheme for simultaneous generation of CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulses within a compact and cost-effective setup using four-wave-mixing (FWM) effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). The proposed scheme is especially favorable for UWB communication networks where both CMW-band and MMW-band applications are included. Furthermore, two channels of optical CMW-band monocycle signals and two channels of optical MMW-band monocycle signals are obtained simultaneously using our scheme. This multi-cannel signal generation is of grate help in the UWB-over-fiber systems, where the optically generated UWB signals carried by different wavelengths can be distributed to the corresponding end-user through optical fiber with wavelength-multiplexing (WDM) technique. In summary, our scheme is a promising solution for multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB signal sources.

2. Operation principle and experimental setup

3. Experimental results and discussion

The optical power launched into the HNL-PCF is measured at 21 dBm, and the optical spectrum after FWM effect at the output of the HNL-PCF is monitored by an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.01 nm resolution, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured optical spectrum at the output of HNL-PCF.
. It can be clearly observed that the desired FWM idlers at λ4, λ5, λ6 and λ7 are successfully generated. The optical signals at λ3, λ6 and λ7 all have the carrier suppression property with a frequency spacing of 20 GHz between two sidebands, which can be observed from the enlarged optical spectrum shown in the inset in Fig. 2. The FWM conversion efficiencies (which is defined as the power ratio of the newly generated component to the input lightwave with highest input power) of the four FWM idlers at λ4, λ5, λ6 and λ7 are −25dB, −26dB, −23dB and −23 dB, respectively. The relatively low FWM conversion efficiency is mainly due to the short length (60 m) of the HNL-PCF we used. If a HNL-PCF with longer length and/or larger nonlinear coefficient is used, the FWM conversion efficiency can be further improved [17

17. M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in Proc. ECOC(2009), Paper P1.08.

], and the system power consumption can be reduced. The temporal waveforms of generated CMW-band UWB monocycle pulses at λ4 and λ5 are shown in Figs. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Measurements of generated CMW- band UWB monocycle pulses: (a) temporal waveform at λ4 = 1542.8nm; (b) electrical spectrum at λ4 = 1542.8nm; (c) temporal waveform at λ5 = 1545.2nm; (d) electrical spectrum at λ5 = 1545.2nm.
and 3(c), respectively. The durations of the two monocycle pulses are both about 235 ps, while the two monocycle pulses have different shapes. The difference is determined by the input power of FWM participators, because P4 is proportional to the product of P1 2P2, while P5 is proportional to the product of P2 2P1, as shown in Fig. 1. However, both of the two CMW-band UWB signals with different pulse shapes have an electrical spectrum that agrees well with the regulations established by FCC part 15, as shown in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d), respectively. The electrical spectra in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d) have central frequencies of 4.3 GHz and 4.4 GHz, 10-dB bandwidths of both 7.5 GHz, fractional bandwidths of 174% and 170%, respectively. The spectra of our experimental results do not exactly comply with the FCC indoor spectrum mask and the UWB spectrum masks established by Europe and Japan. However, the shape and power of generated UWB monocycle pulses can be adjusted by tuning the optical delay time provided by the ODL and the power attenuation provided by the ATT, respectively. By reducing the delay time from the ODL, a narrower UWB monocycle pulse can be obtained, and the main power spectrum of generated monocycle pulse will be moved to much higher frequency band close to 3.1-10.6 GHz which is regulated as the main power distribution band by the FCC indoor spectrum mask. If the relative delay time between the polarity-reversed optical Gaussian pulses changes from positive to negative, polarity-reversed UWB monocycle pulse can be obtained at each FWM idler. The temporal waveforms of generated two monocycle signals in MMW-band are shown in Figs. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Temporal waveforms of generated UWB pulses: (a) MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse train at λ6 = 1548.4nm; (b) MMW-band monocycle pulse train at λ7 = 1550nm; (c) CMW-band UWB monocycle pulse train at λ6 = 1548.4nm when lightwave at λ3 is replaced by a CW light.
and 4(b), respectively. For the purpose of comparison, the CMW-band UWB monocycle pulse train obtained by replacing the optical clock signal at λ3 with a CW light is shown in Fig. 4(c). Since P6 and P7 are both proportional to the product of P1P2P3, the two MMW-band UWB monocycle signals have the same temporal waveform, as shown in Figs. 4(a) or 4(b). It is obvious that the UWB monocycle pulse is well mixed with a 20 GHz clock signal, and the envelope resembles the CMW-band UWB signal, as shown in Fig. 4(c). The electrical spectra of the two MMW-band UWB signals at λ6 and λ7 are shown in Figs. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Measurements of electrical spectra: (a) MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse train at λ6 = 1548.4nm; (b) MMW-band monocycle pulse train at λ7 = 1550nm;
and 5(b), respectively. The spectra of the CMW-band UWB monocycle pulses are successfully up-converted to the MMW-band at the central frequency of 20 GHz. Therefore, using our scheme, two CMW-band and two MMW-band UWB monocycle signals are simultaneously generated. Each UWB signal source can be modulated by an electro-optic intensity modulator before transmission in optical fiber or directly radiated to the air after optical-to-electrical conversion.

4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated a novel scheme for simultaneous generation of multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulses using D-FWM and ND-FWM effects in a 60-meter HNL-PCF. Two CMW-band and two frequency up-converted MMW-band UWB monocycle pulses are generated simultaneously. The proposed frequency up-conversion scheme has a large mixing bandwidth due to the ultrafast response property of FWM effect. Experimental results verify that the proposed scheme is a good candidate for multi-channel signal sources in UWB communication systems where both CMW-band and MMW-band signals are needed.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the 863 program (2009AA01Z256, 2009AA01Z253, 2008AA01A331), NFSF program (60702006, 60736002, 60837004, 60736036 and 60932004), the MOST Program (2008 DFA11670) and the project funded by State Key Lab of AOCSN, China.

References and links

1.

D. Porcine and W. Hirt, “Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(7), 66–74 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Ran, B. I. Lembrikov, and Y. Ben Ezra, “Ultra-wideband Radio-Over-Optical fiber concepts, technologies and applications,” IEEE Photon. Journal 2(1), 36–48 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

X. Chen and S. Kiaei, “Monocycle shapes for ultra wideband system,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 1, pp. 597–600. Scottsdale, USA. May, 2002.

4.

T. B. Gibbon, X. Yu, R. Gamatham, N. G. Gonzalez, R. Rodes, J. B. Jensen, A. Caballero, and I. T. Monroy, “3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution over a 50 km fiber with wireless transmission,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20(2), 127–129 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, and I. T. Monroy, “4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16898–16903 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. W. Wang, H. W. Chen, M. Xin, M. H. Chen, and S. Z. Xie, “Optical ultra-wide-band pulse bipolar and shape modulation based on a symmetric PM-IM conversion architecture,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3092–3094 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, “Ultra-wideband impulse radio signal generation using a high speed electro-optic phase modulator and a fiber-Bragg grating based frequency discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2062–2064 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

Q. Wang and J. P. Yao, “An electrically switchable optical ultra-wideband and pulse generator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3626–3633 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Q. Li, K. Xu, S. N. Fu, M. Tang, P. Shum, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Photonic polarity-switchable ultra-wideband pulse generation using a tunable Sagnac interferometer comb filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1320–1322 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

Q. Wang, F. Zeng, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Optical ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3083–3085 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Q. Li, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Wu, J. T. Lin, M. Tang, and P. Shum, “Photonic ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation using a single electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 288–290 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Z. Hu, J. Sun, J. Shao, and X. Zhang, “Filter-free optically switchable and tunable ultra-wideband monocycle generation based on wavelength conversion and fiber dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 42–44 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

S. N. Fu, W. D. Zhong, Y. Jing, and P. Shum, “Photonic monocycle pulse frequency up-conversion for ultra-wideband-over-fiber applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1006–1008 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Li, Y. Liang, and K. K. Wong, “Millimeter-wave UWB signal generation via frequency up-conversion using fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 538–547 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Inoue, “Four-wave missing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1553–1561 (1992). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in Proc. ECOC(2009), Paper P1.08.

OCIS Codes
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 21, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 30, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 2, 2010
Published: July 12, 2010

Citation
Fangzheng Zhang, Jian Wu, Songnian Fu, Kun Xu, Yan Li, Xiaobin Hong, Ping Shum, and Jintong Lin, "Simultaneous multi-channel CMW-band and MMW-band UWB monocycle pulse generation using FWM effect in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 18, 15870-15875 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-15870


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References

  1. D. Porcine and W. Hirt, “Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(7), 66–74 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ran, B. I. Lembrikov, and Y. Ben Ezra, “Ultra-wideband Radio-Over-Optical fiber concepts, technologies and applications,” IEEE Photon. Journal 2(1), 36–48 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. X. Chen and S. Kiaei, “Monocycle shapes for ultra wideband system,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 1, pp. 597–600. Scottsdale, USA. May, 2002.
  4. T. B. Gibbon, X. Yu, R. Gamatham, N. G. Gonzalez, R. Rodes, J. B. Jensen, A. Caballero, and I. T. Monroy, “3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution over a 50 km fiber with wireless transmission,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 20(2), 127–129 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, and I. T. Monroy, “4 Gbps impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission over 100 meters multi mode fiber with 4 meters wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16898–16903 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. W. Wang, H. W. Chen, M. Xin, M. H. Chen, and S. Z. Xie, “Optical ultra-wide-band pulse bipolar and shape modulation based on a symmetric PM-IM conversion architecture,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3092–3094 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Zeng and J. P. Yao, “Ultra-wideband impulse radio signal generation using a high speed electro-optic phase modulator and a fiber-Bragg grating based frequency discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2062–2064 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Wang and J. P. Yao, “An electrically switchable optical ultra-wideband and pulse generator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3626–3633 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Q. Li, K. Xu, S. N. Fu, M. Tang, P. Shum, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Photonic polarity-switchable ultra-wideband pulse generation using a tunable Sagnac interferometer comb filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1320–1322 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Wang, F. Zeng, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Optical ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3083–3085 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Q. Li, S. N. Fu, K. Xu, J. Wu, J. T. Lin, M. Tang, and P. Shum, “Photonic ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation using a single electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 288–290 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Hu, J. Sun, J. Shao, and X. Zhang, “Filter-free optically switchable and tunable ultra-wideband monocycle generation based on wavelength conversion and fiber dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 42–44 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. S. N. Fu, W. D. Zhong, Y. Jing, and P. Shum, “Photonic monocycle pulse frequency up-conversion for ultra-wideband-over-fiber applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1006–1008 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Li, Y. Liang, and K. K. Wong, “Millimeter-wave UWB signal generation via frequency up-conversion using fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 538–547 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Inoue, “Four-wave missing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1553–1561 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Takahashi, K. Mukasa, and T. Yagi, “Full C-L band tunable wavelength conversion by zero dispersion and zero dispersion slope HNLF,” in Proc. ECOC(2009), Paper P1.08.

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