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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15942–15947
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Highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with a nanometer-thick Ni silicide / polycrystalline p-Si composite anode

Y. Z. Li, Z. L. Wang, H. Luo, Y. Z. Wang, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, W. Q. Zhao, and H. Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15942-15947 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.015942


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Abstract

A phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) with a nanometer-thick (~10 nm) Ni silicide/ polycrystalline p-Si composite anode is reported. The structure of the PhOLED is Al mirror/ glass substrate / Si isolation layer / Ni silicide / polycrystalline p-Si/ V2O5/ NPB/ CBP: (ppy)2Ir(acac)/ Bphen/ Bphen: Cs2CO3/ Sm/ Au/ BCP. In the composite anode, the Ni-induced polycrystalline p-Si layer injects holes into the V2O5/ NPB, and the Ni silicide layer reduces the sheet resistance of the composite anode and thus the series resistance of the PhOLED. By adopting various measures for specially optimizing the thickness of the Ni layer, which induces Si crystallization and forms a Ni silicide layer of appropriate thickness, the highest external quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency have been raised to 26% and 11%, respectively.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

An efficient Si light source plays a key role in Si photonics and Si-based optoelectronics integration [1

1. B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4319–4324 (2000). [CrossRef]

5

5. M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, “Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon,” Physica E 16(3-4), 547–553 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, researchers combined organic materials with Si to realize a Si-based organic light emitting diode (OLED) [6

6. I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, “Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1774–1776 (1994). [CrossRef]

13

13. W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008). [CrossRef]

] where bulk Si is usually used as the anode and the substrate, and a top emission structure was adopted. The hole injection of a p-Si anode can be adjusted in a very large range by simply changing the p-Si resistivity to match the electron injection in order to achieve maximum efficiency. However, Si has high absorption in the visible light range, which is detrimental to the efficiency of the OLED. In 2005, Zhu et al. first reported a nanometer-thick (~50 nm) polycrystalline-Si anode OLED with the aim of simplifying the technique process of producing active-matrix OLEDs; besides, even though for emitting blue light the maximum luminance efficiency is 23% lower than that of a control ITO anode OLED, for emitting red and green light the maximum luminance efficiencies are 57% and 20% higher than those of the control ones, respectively [14

14. X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 083504 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In 2006 we reported a 1.54 μm electroluminescence (EL)from the nanometer-thick polycrystalline p-Si (NTPS) anode OLED and demonstrated that its efficiency is about 20 times higher than that of the control bulk Si anode counterpart [15

15. W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, W. J. Xu, L. Dai, W. M. Liu, P. F. Wang, and G. G. Qin, “Efficient 1.54 μm light emitting diode with nanometer thick polycrystalline Si anode and organic sandwich structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 022109 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In this work, we report an OLED with a bi-layer composite anode of Ni silicide/ NTPS. The composite anode originates from a bi-layer of Ni/ amorphous p-Si. At certain high temperatures, the Ni layer not only will induce Si crystallization but also will form a Ni silicide layer of appropriate thickness. The Ni/ amorphous p-Si bi-layer thus transfers to a Ni silicide/ NTPS composite anode. The NTPS plays a role in injecting holes into the hole transport layer (HTL), and the Ni silicide layer can reduce sheet resistance of the composite anode and is beneficial to the efficiency of the Si-based OLED because of the much lower resistivity (20~200 μΩcm) of Ni silicide than that of polycrystalline Si. By combing the NTPS/ Ni silicide composite anode with a phosphor organic material and adopting other measures, we achieve a highly efficient phosphor OLED.

2. Experimental

In our composite anode OLED, the Ni silicide/ NTPS was fabricated by magnetron sputtering, followed by metal-induced crystallization [16

16. J.-B. Ha, S.-W. Yun, and J.-H. Lee, “Effect of poly silicon thickness on the formation of Ni-FUSI gate by using atomic layer deposited nickel film,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(1), 41–46 (2010). [CrossRef]

18

18. S. W. Lee and S. K. Joo, “Low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor fabrication by metal-induced lateral crystallization,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 17(4), 160–162 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. The Ni silicide/ NTPS composite anode was fabricated as follows. An ultra-thin amorphous p-Si film (~10 nm) was first deposited onto a Corning 1737 glass substrate (130 μm thick) by magnetron sputtering as an isolation layer, which prevents the impure elements in the glass from diffusing into the composite anode and organics in the subsequent processes. Then a Ni layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering with a Ni target. The thicknesses of the Ni layers adopted in sequential experiments were 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 nm. Another ultra-thin amorphous p-Si film (~10 nm) was successively deposited onto the Ni layer by magnetron sputtering with a target of 0.01Ωcm p-Si. Then the glass substrate/ Si isolation layer/ Ni/ amorphous p-Si multilayer was annealed at 540°C for 10 min in an N2 atmosphere. For the annealed multilayer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling was finished (Axis Ultra, Kratos Analytical Ltd.). The sheet resistance of the annealed multilayer was measured at room temperature by the Hall Effect measurement system (Nanometrics HL5500). Raman spectra were measured with a microzone confocal Raman spectroscope (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, LabRam HR 800) in under-focused measure conditions. High-resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation was carried out with a Tecnai F30 field-emission-transmission electron microscope. At first, a 150 nm Al mirror was deposited onto the back side of the glass substrate of the annealed multilayer. A 5 nm V2O5 film was then evaporated onto the front side of annealed multilayer [19

19. C. W. Chu, C. W. Chen, S. H. Li, E. H. E. Wu, and Y. Yang, “Integration of organic light-emitting diode and organic transistor via a tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253503 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The HTL was N, N’-bis-(1-naphthl)-diphenyl-1, 1’-biphenyl- 4, 4’- diamine (NPB). The emitter was bis(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) acetylacetonate [(ppy)2Ir(acac)], which was doped into the host material, 4, 4’-N,N’-dicarbazole- biphenyl (CBP) [20

20. M. K. Nazeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker, D. Berner, S. Rivier, L. Zuppiroli, and M. Graetzel, “Highly phosphorescence iridium complexes and their application in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(29), 8790–8797 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The electron transport layer (ETL) was 4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BPhen) [21

21. J. F. Moulder, and J. Chastain, “Silicon(Si), Nickel(Ni),” in Handbook of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, (Physical Electronics Division, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1992).

], and a 15 nm Bphen layer doped with Cs2CO3 was used as an electron injection layer and a part of the ETL. The top-emission cathode was the Sm/Au bilayer, on which a 2, 9-dimethyl- 4, 7- diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP) layer was deposited to enhance the outcoupling efficiency [22

22. Z. Y. Wang, Z. J. Chen, L. X. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10(2), 341–345 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The organic materials and the cathode metals were thermally evaporated successively on the composite film in a chamber with a base pressure of 5 × 10−4 Pa. The typical deposition rate was ~1 Å/s, monitored by quartz crystal oscillators. The finished OLED, referred to as PhOLED, has the structure of an Al mirror 150 nm/ glass substrate 130 μm/ Si isolation layer ~10 nm/ Ni silicide/ NTPS/ V2O5 5 nm/ NPB 40 nm/ CBP: (ppy)2Ir(acac) (10 wt%) 40 nm/ Bphen 25 nm/ Bphen: Cs2CO3 (mass ratio of 1:1) 15 nm/ Sm 5 nm/ Au 15 nm/ BCP 45 nm. The EL spectrum and luminance of the PhOLED was measured in air by a PR705 spectrometer. The molecule structure of (ppy)2Ir(acac) and the EL spectrum of the PhOLED are shown in Fig. 1(b)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic structure of the PhOLED, (b) the electroluminescence spectrum of the PhOLED; the inset is the molecule structure of the phosphorescent emitter (ppy)2Ir(acac).
. Current voltage characteristics were measured by a computer-controlled Keithley 2400 Sourcemeter.

3. Results and Discussion

For the annealed Ni/ amorphous Si bi-layer, XPS depth profiling was carried out in an etching process with an etching rate of 2–3 nm/ min. The probing depth range of the equipment is about 5 nm. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 XPS spectra of (a) Si (2p) and (b) Ni (2p) for the annealed Ni/ amorphous p-Si bi-layer with an Ni layer thickness of 2 nm.
shows the XPS spectra of Si (2p) for the annealed bi-layer. Before etching, there are two binding energy peaks of 99.2 eV and 103.1 eV, which should originate from polycrystalline p-Si and SiO2, respectively. After the 120s and 240s etching, the former binding energy peak shifts to 99.7 eV and 99.8 eV, respectively, which can be explained by the existence of Ni silicides. As shown in [21

21. J. F. Moulder, and J. Chastain, “Silicon(Si), Nickel(Ni),” in Handbook of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, (Physical Electronics Division, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1992).

], the Si (2p) binding energy peaks of silicides are about 99.7 eV. Figure 2(b) shows the Ni (2p) XPS spectra for the annealed bi-layer. For the 0–240s etching, the binding energy peaks locate at constant energy of 853.9 eV, which also indicates the existence of Ni silicide. As shown also in [21

21. J. F. Moulder, and J. Chastain, “Silicon(Si), Nickel(Ni),” in Handbook of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, (Physical Electronics Division, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1992).

], the Ni (2p) binding energy peaks of Ni silicides are at about 853.3 eV. The XPS depth profiling results indicate that at the depth range of 0–5 nm of the annealed bi-layer, polycrystalline p-Si exists, and after 120s etching (4–6 nm) Ni silicide is detected. In the PhOLEDs, the NTPS layer injects holes into the HTL; however, its sheet resistance is very large, estimated to be larger than 1 × 106 Ω/□, and will result in large series resistance, high operating voltage, and low power efficiency. By contrast, the Ni silicide layer has low sheet resistance estimated to be about 100 Ω/□ [16

16. J.-B. Ha, S.-W. Yun, and J.-H. Lee, “Effect of poly silicon thickness on the formation of Ni-FUSI gate by using atomic layer deposited nickel film,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(1), 41–46 (2010). [CrossRef]

,23

23. D. Ma, D. Z. Chi, M. E. Loomans, W. D. Wang, A. S. W. Wong, and S. J. Chua, “Kinetics of NiSi-to-NiSi2 transformation and morphological evolution in nickel silicide thin films on Si(0 0 1),” Acta Mater. 54(18), 4905–4911 (2006). [CrossRef]

], which will reduce series resistance of the Ni silicide/ NTPS composite anode and increase power efficiency of the PhOLED.

The PhOLEDs are optimized by varying the initial Ni layer thickness in the Ni/ amorphous p-Si bi-layer. For the bi-layer annealed at 540°C for 10 min, the characteristics of sheet resistance and transmissivity at 520 nm versus the initial Ni layer thickness are shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Sheet resistance and transmissivity at 520 nm of Ni silicide/ NTPS bi-layer versus initial Ni layer thickness and (b) PhOLED efficiencies versus initial Ni layer thickness.
. Increasing the Ni layer thickness from 0.75 to 4 nm and thus the Ni silicide layer thickness, the sheet resistance decreases from 826 to 102 Ω/□, and the transmissivity at 520 nm decreases from 49% to 32%. As shown in Fig. 3(b), both the current and power efficiencies for the PhOLEDs are functions of the initial Ni layer thickness, and both of the efficiencies reach peak values at the same Ni layer thickness of 2.0 nm.

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Current–voltage and luminance–voltage curves, (b) current-efficiency voltage and power-efficiency voltage curves for the Ni-layer-thickness optimized PhOLED.
shows the current voltage and luminance voltage characteristics for the efficiency-optimized PhOLED. Figure 4(b) shows the current efficiency and power efficiency voltage characteristics for the same PhOLED. The highest current efficiency of 1.0 × 102 cd/A occurs at a voltage of 6.2 V, a current of 8.5 μA, and a luminance of 1.2 × 102 cd/m2; the highest power efficiency of 60 lm/W occurs at 4.2 V, 1.1 μA, and 12 cd/m2, corresponding to a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26% and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 11%, respectively. As far as we know, the external quantum efficiency is the highest one among the Si-based electroluminescence reported in the literature.

In order to explain why there is an efficiency peak with the variation in Ni layer thicknesses, we measure the Raman shift spectra of the annealed Ni/ amorphous Si bi-layer. As shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Raman shift spectra for the Ni silicide/ NTPS bi-layers with different initial Ni layer thicknesses of 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 nm; (b) a partial HRTEM top-view image for the Ni silicide/ NTPS composite anode with an initial Ni layer thickness of 2 nm.
, when the Ni layers are thinner than 1.5 nm the Raman shift peaks locate at about 480 cm−1, indicating that most of the amorphous Si layer in the annealed bi-layer is not crystallized. The composite anode with an amorphous Si layer at the top results in poor hole injection and large series resistance. For the annealed bi-layer with an initial 1.5 nm Ni layer the Raman shift peak locates at about 503 cm−1, the signal is weak, and the full width at half-maximum is wide, which probably suggests that in addition to the nanoscale Si crystals there is still a amount of amorphous Si in the annealed bi-layer. For the annealed bi-layer with an initial 2 nm Ni layer, the Raman shift peak still locates at 503 cm−1, but the peak signal is stronger and sharper than that of the 1.5 nm Ni layer case, which suggests that a large part of Si has been crystallized to nanoscale Si crystals. A partial HRTEM top-view image for the Ni silicide/ NTPS composite anode with the initial Ni layer thickness of 2 nm is shown in Fig. 5(b), where some nanoscale Si crystals can be seen. When the Ni layer thickness is in the range of 3–4 nm, as shown in Fig. 5(a), the Raman shift peak of 210 cm−1 appears, which can be attribute to Ni silicide [24

24. W. Hayes, and R. Loudon, Scattering of Light by Crystals [M], (Academic Press, 1978), 27–85.

], and the Raman shift peak of 503 cm−1 vanishes. The Ni silicide is not a suitable anode material for high-efficiency organic light emitting. Thus, either the initial Ni layer that is thinner or thicker than 2 nm leads to PhOLEDs with lower efficiencies compared with that of the Ni-layer thickness-optimized PhOLED.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have fabricated a high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with a Ni silicide/ polycrystalline p-Si composite anode. After optimizing the thickness of the initial Ni layer, the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode achieves a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26% and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 11%, respectively. As far as we know, the external quantum efficiency is the highest one among Si-based electroluminescence reported in the literature.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China grants 50732001, 10674012, 10874001, 60877022, and 60807010 and the National 973 Project grant 2007CB613402.

References and links

1.

B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4319–4324 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

K. J. Reeson, K. P. Homewood, D. Leong, and M. Harry, “A silicon/iron-disilicide light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5µm,” Nature 387(6634), 686–688 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes,” Nature 412(6849), 805–808 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature 410(6825), 192–194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, “Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon,” Physica E 16(3-4), 547–553 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, “Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1774–1776 (1994). [CrossRef]

7.

H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo, “Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 2107–2113 (1994). [CrossRef]

8.

L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, and A. Holmes, “Do-Hoon Hwang, and R. Stern, “CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1249–1252 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 609–611 (1999). [CrossRef]

10.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, “Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 086107 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 083504 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, W. J. Xu, L. Dai, W. M. Liu, P. F. Wang, and G. G. Qin, “Efficient 1.54 μm light emitting diode with nanometer thick polycrystalline Si anode and organic sandwich structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 022109 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

J.-B. Ha, S.-W. Yun, and J.-H. Lee, “Effect of poly silicon thickness on the formation of Ni-FUSI gate by using atomic layer deposited nickel film,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(1), 41–46 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

L. Hultman, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, I. Engström, and P. A. Psaras, “Crystallization of amorphous silicon during thin‐film gold reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(9), 3647–3655 (1987). [CrossRef]

18.

S. W. Lee and S. K. Joo, “Low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor fabrication by metal-induced lateral crystallization,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 17(4), 160–162 (1996). [CrossRef]

19.

C. W. Chu, C. W. Chen, S. H. Li, E. H. E. Wu, and Y. Yang, “Integration of organic light-emitting diode and organic transistor via a tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253503 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker, D. Berner, S. Rivier, L. Zuppiroli, and M. Graetzel, “Highly phosphorescence iridium complexes and their application in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(29), 8790–8797 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

J. F. Moulder, and J. Chastain, “Silicon(Si), Nickel(Ni),” in Handbook of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, (Physical Electronics Division, Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1992).

22.

Z. Y. Wang, Z. J. Chen, L. X. Xiao, and Q. H. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10(2), 341–345 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

D. Ma, D. Z. Chi, M. E. Loomans, W. D. Wang, A. S. W. Wong, and S. J. Chua, “Kinetics of NiSi-to-NiSi2 transformation and morphological evolution in nickel silicide thin films on Si(0 0 1),” Acta Mater. 54(18), 4905–4911 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

W. Hayes, and R. Loudon, Scattering of Light by Crystals [M], (Academic Press, 1978), 27–85.

OCIS Codes
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: May 7, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 17, 2010
Published: July 13, 2010

Citation
Y. Z. Li, Z. L. Wang, H. Luo, Y. Z. Wang, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, W. Q. Zhao, and H. Liu, "Highly efficient phosphorescent organic 
light-emitting diode with a nanometer-thick 
Ni silicide / polycrystalline p-Si composite anode," Opt. Express 18, 15942-15947 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-15942


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References

  1. B. Gelloz and N. Koshida, “Electroluminescence with high and stable quantum efficiency and low threshold voltage from anodically oxidized thin porous silicon diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4319–4324 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. K. J. Reeson, K. P. Homewood, D. Leong, and M. Harry, “A silicon/iron-disilicide light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5µm,” Nature 387(6634), 686–688 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes,” Nature 412(6849), 805–808 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature 410(6825), 192–194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. Castagna, S. Coffa, M. Monaco, L. Caristia, A. Messina, R. Mangano, and C. Bongiorno, “Si-based materials and devices for light emission in silicon,” Physica E 16(3-4), 547–553 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. I. D. Parker and H. H. Kim, “Fabrication of polymer light-emitting diodes using doped silicon electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(14), 1774–1776 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. H. H. Kim, T. M. Miller, E. H. Westerwick, Y. O. Kim, E. W. Kwock, M. D. Morris, and M. Cerullo, “Silicon compatible organic light emitting diode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 2107–2113 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. L. M. H. Heinrich, J. Muller, U. Hilleringmann, K. F. Goser, and A. Holmes, “Do-Hoon Hwang, and R. Stern, “CMOS-compatible organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1249–1252 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. X. Zhou, J. He, L. S. Liao, M. Lu, Z. H. Xiong, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, F. G. Tao, C. E. Zhou, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced hole injection in a bilayer vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting device using a p-type doped silicon anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 609–611 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. Huang, S. Han, D. Grozea, A. Turak, and Z. H. Lu, “Organic light-emitting devices with silicon anodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 086107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 083504 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, W. J. Xu, L. Dai, W. M. Liu, P. F. Wang, and G. G. Qin, “Efficient 1.54 μm light emitting diode with nanometer thick polycrystalline Si anode and organic sandwich structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 022109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. J.-B. Ha, S.-W. Yun, and J.-H. Lee, “Effect of poly silicon thickness on the formation of Ni-FUSI gate by using atomic layer deposited nickel film,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(1), 41–46 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Hultman, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, I. Engström, and P. A. Psaras, “Crystallization of amorphous silicon during thin‐film gold reaction,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(9), 3647–3655 (1987). [CrossRef]
  18. S. W. Lee and S. K. Joo, “Low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor fabrication by metal-induced lateral crystallization,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 17(4), 160–162 (1996). [CrossRef]
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