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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 16035–16041
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Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser

Jörg Siebenmorgen, Thomas Calmano, Klaus Petermann, and Günter Huber  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 16035-16041 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.016035


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Abstract

Using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser, micro-tracks of material damage were written into Yb:YAG crystals. Waveguiding was achieved in a channel between pairs of tracks with guiding losses of 1.3 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1063 nm, due to a stress induced change of the refractive index. Pumped at a wavelength of 941 nm, highly efficient laser oscillation in a Yb:YAG channel waveguide at a wavelength of 1030 nm was demonstrated. An output power of 0.8 W at 1.2 W of launched pump power was achieved, resulting in a record slope efficiency of 75%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Due to nonlinear absorption processes [1

1. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996). [CrossRef]

], femtosecond lasers are suitable for the fabrication of three dimensional micro structures in dielectric materials. By focusing the laser pulses inside a glass sample, which is moved transversally, the fabrication of channel waveguides and more complex passive devices has been reported [2

2. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 3

3. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. M. Pospiech, M. Emons, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, R. Osellame, N. Bellini, G. Cerullo, and U. Morgner, “Double waveguide couplers produced by simultaneous femtosecond writing,” Opt. Express 17, 3555–3563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Using rare-earth doped glasses, laser-oscillation with an output power up to 102mW and a maximum slope efficiency of 17% was obtained [6

6. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2626–2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 34, 247–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The fabrication of waveguides with the same technique was also successful in different crystalline materials [8

8. C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R.-P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Inscription of optical waveguides in crystalline silicon by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 964–966 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using fs-laser inscription efficient waveguide-lasers were realized in Neodymium doped Y3Al5O12-crystals (Nd:YAG) and ceramics with output powers up to 1.3W and slope efficiencies as high as 60% [13

13. A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2248–2250 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B DOI 10.1007/s00340-010-3929-6 (2010) [CrossRef]

].

Yb-doped YAG crystals are interesting for realizing ultra compact, and highly efficient waveguide lasers due to the relatively high emission cross-sections, long fluorescence lifetime of the upper laser level, low quantum defect, good thermal conductivity, and high mechanical stability. Recently Bain et al. demonstrated ultrafast laser inscribed diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers with a maximum slope efficiency of 14% and a maximum output power of 19mW [16

16. F.M. Bain, A.A. Lagatsky, R.R. Thomson, N.D. Psaila, N.V. Kuleshov, A.K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C.T.A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 22417–22422 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper we report on the fabrication of fs-laser written waveguides in Yb:YAG and present to the best of our knowledge the first fs-written waveguide laser in this material. With a slope efficiency of 75% and a maximum output power of nearly 0.8W this is the most efficient fs-written waveguide laser demonstrated so far.

2. Waveguide fabrication

Channel waveguides were produced in undoped YAG and Yb:YAG (7% Yb doping with respect to the Y-sites) crystals with typical dimensions of (10×15×3)mm3. Laser pulses delivered by a femtosecond laser system (Clark-MRX CPA-2010) with a wavelength of 775 nm, a pulse duration of 150 fs, pulse energies up to 1 mJ, and a repetition rate of 1 kHz were focused 300 µm below the polished surface of the crystals using a 50× microscope objective with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.65.

During the writing process, the crystals were moved transversally with respect to the incident fs-laser pulses by a motorized translation stage (miCos HPS-170) with a velocity of 10 µm/s. The threshold for a material modification is around 1 µJ for this setup. Different pairs of parallel tracks were inscribed with an optimal pulse energy of about 1.3 µJ. The distance between two adjacent tracks was between 15 µm and 34 µm. A more detailed discussion about the optimal writing parameters can be found in [17

17. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3 Al5 O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The polarization of the laser pulses had neither influence on the properties of the tracks nor on the waveguiding. The diameter of the focal spot in air was measured to be 2 µm (at 1/e2) by imaging the focus onto the sensor of a CCD-camera.

The tracks had a length of 9.25mm after polishing the end faces of the crystals.

3. Characterization of the fabricated structures

Figure 1(a) shows a bright-field microscope image of a pair of tracks with a distance of 26 µm written in a Yb:YAG crystal. The end facet of the crystal is shown in Fig. 1(c). Each track is around 25 µm in height and 5 µm in width. In both images the formation of cracks during the writing process can be observed. In Fig. 1(b) a microscope image obtained between crossed polarizers of the same pair of tracks as presented in Fig. 1(a) is shown. The tracks themselves exhibit strong birefringence as indicated by the white-blue color in the image. To obtain information about birefringence between two adjacent tracks a thin sample was cut from an undoped structured YAG-crystal and polished mechanically to a thickness of 45 µm. Figure 1(d) shows a microscope image of this sample obtained between crossed polarizers. Strong birefringence can be observed between the double-track structure.

The formation of cracks and the occurrence of strong birefringence are the result of stress caused by the written tracks. Due to the elasto-optical effect, local changes of the refractive index in the stress affected area occur. This results in regions with a local maximum of the refractive index, where waveguiding is possible. A detailed description of the underlying guiding effects can be found in [17

17. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3 Al5 O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. Microscope image of a pair of tracks written in Yb:YAG in bright-field (a) and between crossed polarizers (b); differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope image of the end facet of the crystal showing the cross-section of a pair of tracks (c); cross-section of a pair of tracks in a 45 µm thick undoped YAG sample between crossed polarizers (d)

Channel-waveguide experiments were performed by coupling a linear polarized Nd:YVO laser operating at a wavelength of 1063 nm with a lens (f = 25 mm) into a waveguide of the Yb:YAG crystal. The backside of the crystal was imaged by a 40× microscope objective (NA = 0.65) onto the sensor of a CCD camera. The near field intensity profile of the guided mode between two adjacent tracks is shown in Fig. 2. The nearly circular mode with a diameter of 15.8 µm (at 1/e2) is Gaussian as a fit to the intensity profile prooves. By rotating the polarization direction of the Nd:YVO laser with a λ/2-waveplate and measuring the transmitted light intensity using a CCD-camera, it was revealed, that only light polarized parallel to the y-axis (as defined in Fig. 2) was guided. The extinction ratio was higher than 256:1.

By determining the angle of aperture Θm of the guided mode in the far-field and assuming a step-index profile, the refractive index change was estimated using the equation

Fig. 2. Near field image obtained by a CCD camera of a guided mode at a wavelength of 1063 nm in a 9.25mm long channel in Yb:YAG between a pair of tracks (dashed lines) with a track distance of 26 µm. The arrow indicates the polarization of the guided light.
Δnsin2Θm2n,
(1)

with the refractive index n of the bulk material. For a measured far-field angular aperture of Θm = 3.4° the refractive index change was around Δn ≈ 1 · 10−3.

Waveguiding was also possible in different channels surrounding single tracks and outside the pair structure, but in contrast to the waveguide between a pair of tracks, the intensity profile of the guided mode was not circular and Gaussian anymore.

Waveguide losses were measured by coupling the Nd:YVO laser at a wavelength of 1063 nm into a single-mode, polarization maintaining, large mode-area photonic crystal fiber with a NA of 0.06 and a core diameter of d = 16 µm. At this wavelength absorption of light in the Yb:YAG waveguide is negligible. When butt-coupling this fiber to the waveguide, the transmitted power could be determined. To achieve minimal transmission losses of the fs-laser written waveguides, the guided light at the exit face of the fiber was polarized parallel to the y-axis. The coupling efficiency was calculated using the overlap integral

ηk=dxdyΨ1Ψ2*2dxdyΨ12·dxdyΨ22,
(2)

where Ψ1 and Ψ2 present the electrical field distribution of the fiber mode and the waveguide mode, respectively. A coupling efficiency of ηk = 92% was calculated. Considering the Fresnel reflections of 8.4% at each end facet of the crystal, waveguide losses were found to be about 1.3 dB/cm at 1063 nm. This values are in the same order of magnitude of the waveguide losses for a fs-laser written Cr4+:YAG waveguide (1.5 dB/cm) [11

11. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as well as a channel waveguide fabricated in a Nd:YAG ceramic (0.6 dB/cm) [14

14. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Minimal losses for fs-laser written waveguides in glasses are around 0.05 dB/cm [18

18. T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, “Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices,” Proc. of SPIE 5339, 524–538 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 3. Schematic of the laser setup

4. Laser experiments

Laser experiments were performed by coupling the light of a cw-Ti:Sapphire laser operating at a wavelength of 941 nm into the Yb:YAG waveguide with a f = 25mm lens. The coupling efficiency for this setup was calculated using Eq. 2. By measuring the intensity profile of the focal spot of the pump laser and assuming that the profile of the guided mode at a wavelength of 941 nm was similar to the profile of the guided laser mode at 1030 nm (see Fig. 5(b)), a coupling efficiency of ηk = 92%±7% was determined. A λ/2-waveplate and a polarizer were used to control the polarization and the power of the pump laser beam. Additionally a mirror high-reflective (HR) at a wavelength of 1030 nm and anti-reflective (AR) for the pump laser was inserted between polarizer and the coupling lens to separate laser and pump beam. Thus, the power of the waveguide laser at both sides could be measured (Fig. 3).

Laser oscillation at a center wavelength of 1030 nm was achieved without mirrors, but with the Fresnel reflection of about 9% at each facet of the waveguide. Thus, the total output coupling was about 99%. Best laser performance was achieved for a pair of tracks with a separation of 26 µm. The laser delivered a maximum combined output power of 765mW at 1240mW±90mW of launched pump power. The slope efficiency was 75%±5% with respect to launched pump power (Fig. 4) and 68% with respect to incident pump power. The maximum output power was limited only by the maximum available pump power. The Yb:YAG-crystal was not actively cooled, but due to the high thermal conductivity and the low quantum defect, no thermal effects occurred at maximum pump power.

The laser power emitted at each side of the waveguide was not equal. Depending on the coupling conditions, the ratio of the output powers P out,2/P out,1 varied from 2.85 to 1.1 at nearly constant combined output power. Further detailed investigations of this effect are necessary.

Fig. 4. Laser output power of each side of the waveguide as a function of launched pump power and the combined laser output power
Fig. 5. Emission spectrum of the Yb:YAG waveguide laser (a), and near-field image of the laser mode obtained by a CCD camera (b)

In Fig. 5(a) a representative spectrum of the laser emission at an output power of 435mW is shown. The laser oscillated in multiple longitudinal modes. The spectral width of the emission was 0.37 nm (FWHM).

The guided laser mode had a nearly Gaussian intensity profile (Fig. 5(b)) with a diameter of 16 µm (at 1/e2), which is very similar to the guided mode in Fig. 2. The light of the laser was polarized parallel to the y-axis, as expected from the waveguide experiments.

We determined the beam quality factor M 2 of the waveguide laser by measuring the beam radius (at 1/e2) of the focused laser beam at different positions around the beam waist using a CCD-camera. At a combined output power of the waveguide laser of 86mW, a fit to the measured beam radii resulted in an nearly diffraction limited beam with an M 2 of 1.1±0.1 and 1.2±0.1 in the x- and y-axis, respectively.

5. Summary and conclusion

A fs-laser has been used to write pairs of tracks in undoped and Yb-doped YAG crystals. The tracks are the result of a destruction of the crystalline lattice in the focus of the fs-pulses. Stress-induced birefringence was observed between and in the surroundings of the written pairs of tracks. Due to the resulting change of the refractive index, waveguiding could be demonstrated with guiding losses of 1.3 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1063 nm. These losses could be reduced by optimizing the writing parameters, i.e. pulse duration, repetition rate, the depth of the focal spot below the surface or by writing more complex three-dimensional structures. The near-field of the guided mode is nearly Gaussian with a diameter of 15.8 µm. Laser oscillation at a wavelength of 1030 nm with an outcoupling rate of 99% was achieved with a maximum output of 765mW at 1240mW of launched pump power. The slope efficiency was 75%. Experiments with mirrors coated directly to the end facets of the crystal to realize different outcoupling transmissions are in progress. For a miniaturization of the waveguide laser-system the Ti:Sapphire-laser as pump source will be replaced by laser diodes. Furthermore, single mode operation might be realized in future using direct fs-laser written Bragg gratings [19

19. G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written waveguide-Bragg gratings in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2690–2691 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Acknowledgments

The Yb:YAG crystals were provided by FEE GmbH, Germany. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Graduate School 1355) and the Joachim Herz Stiftung.

References and links

1.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Pospiech, M. Emons, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, R. Osellame, N. Bellini, G. Cerullo, and U. Morgner, “Double waveguide couplers produced by simultaneous femtosecond writing,” Opt. Express 17, 3555–3563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2626–2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 34, 247–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R.-P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Inscription of optical waveguides in crystalline silicon by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 964–966 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2248–2250 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B DOI 10.1007/s00340-010-3929-6 (2010) [CrossRef]

16.

F.M. Bain, A.A. Lagatsky, R.R. Thomson, N.D. Psaila, N.V. Kuleshov, A.K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C.T.A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 22417–22422 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3 Al5 O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

T. Fukuda, S. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, K. Sakuma, and H. Hosoya, “Low-loss optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses for three-dimensional photonic devices,” Proc. of SPIE 5339, 524–538 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written waveguide-Bragg gratings in bulk fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2690–2691 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium
(130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: April 30, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 1, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 9, 2010
Published: July 14, 2010

Citation
Jörg Siebenmorgen, Thomas Calmano, Klaus Petermann, and Günter Huber, "Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser," Opt. Express 18, 16035-16041 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-15-16035


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References

  1. . B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-tofemtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53,1749–1761 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. . K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21,1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. . K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329–3331 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. . M. Pospiech,M. Emons, A. Steinmann, G. Palmer, R. Osellame, N. Bellini, G. Cerullo, and U. Morgner, “Double waveguide couplers produced by simultaneous femtosecond writing,” Opt. Express 17,3555–3563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. . S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77,109–111 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. . S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29,2626–2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. . M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 34,247–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. . C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R.-P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253,8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. . J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laserwritten waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,081108 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. . A. H. Nejadmalayeri, P. R. Herman, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Inscription of optical waveguides in crystalline silicon by mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30,964–966 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. . A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr 4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34,3881–3883 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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